Please note: The course descriptions displayed here are current as of Monday, October 23, 2017, but the official Course Catalog should be used for all official planning.

ENST 115: Energy Technology, Society, and the Environment

Explores energy production, storage, and usage as they are currently practiced. Certain emerging technologies will also be addressed. Environmental and socio-economic impact will be discussed in the context of limitations imposed by the laws of physics.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Physics 112

ENST 127: Environmental Justice and Citizenship

Environmental degradation impacts some individuals and communities more than others: the poor, people of color, and certain nonhuman species and landscapes bear the brunt of our collective actions. This seminar pairs literary texts (novels, short stories and poems) with nonfiction essays on topics ranging from food production to indigenous rights. We will discuss and write about how these texts impact our understanding of fairness, justice, rights and responsibility.
Units: 6.

ENST 150: Environmental Science

Presents principles of biology, chemistry, geology, and physics that relate to such environmental issues as resource limitation, pollution, and environmental degradation. Designed to foster understanding of scientific measures of environmental quality. One laboratory per week.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 150
Prerequisite: Freshman or sophomore standing; consent of instructor required for juniors and seniors

ENST 151: Introduction to Environmental Policy

This course applies principles of economics and political science to environmental issues, including pollution, resource limitation, and environmental degradation. It is designed to foster an understanding of the environmental policy-making and regulatory process in the United States and globally.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Government 151, Economics 151

ENST 191: Directed Study in Environmental Studies

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 195: Internship in Environmental Studies

An opportunity for environmental studies students to gain practical experience in the commercial, government, or nonprofit sectors. The internship is supplemented by readings and discussions with a supervising faculty member. At the conclusion of the internship, the student must submit a summative report that considers the internship experience in the context of the student’s other academic work. The academic component of the internship includes readings related to the substance of the internship, discussions with the faculty supervisor, and a written report appropriate to the discipline. Course grades are based on this academic work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 200: Topics in Environmental Studies

Study of a particular topic of current interest in environmental studies. Topics will vary with each offering of the course, and may include field research, community engagement, or other experiential learning opportunities. Course may be repeated when topic is different.

Topic for Fall 2017: Wilderness in the North American Imagination
Wilderness is a powerfully symbolic landscape in the North American imagination. At once a place, an experience, an idea, and cultural construction, the formation of American culture and identity took root in the wild places and minds, in the work and daily lives, of people connected to and alienated from nature. This course examines the changing role of wilderness in United States culture, aiming to arrive at new understandings of wilderness as an environment, as well as a fluid concept that has transformed over time. An origin story commonly linked to United States history opens with the Western frontier and pivots on the moment when the frontier no longer existed. We apply a transnational approach to explore the way notions of wilderness transcend the nation-state. Across the globe diverse peoples have debated its meaning, fought over its dominion, worked to preserve and restore its beauty. Human attempts to tame the wilderness have always been incomplete, sometimes fraught with violence, uncertainty, and environmental degradation. Control over wild places has been a source of political and economic power and as such these landscapes serve a central role in debates about human rights and the use and allocation of natural resources. Part cultural history, part literary exploration, and an invitation to visually and physically engage with wilderness, this interdisciplinary course incorporates history, art, literature, film, and public policy in its approach. We will read classic work in the nature-writing tradition alongside diverse perspectives that consider the impacts of gender, class, and race on the wilderness experience. Open to all students.
Units: 1 TO 6.

ENST 202: Geology and Health

A course investigating the links between geology and health, considering topics such as asbestos, natural and anthropogenic water contamination, and cycling of trace elements as both contaminants and necessary nutrients. Designed to illuminate the link between the seemingly disparate fields of geology and the health of life on earth.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 213
Prerequisite: GEOL 110

ENST 208: Sustainable China: Environment and Economy

This course integrates environmental and economic topics relevant for understanding sustainability in the Chinese context, including economic development, natural resource management, urban growth, and environmental policy. It is a prerequisite for a December study trip to China.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Government 208, Economics 208
Prerequisite: Limited to students selected for the Sustainable China study trip

ENST 210: Animal Behavior

A lecture and field-study course examining the principles and problems of animal behavior. Subjects include orientation, feeding, locomotion, communication, escape in time and space, biological rhythms, mate choice, and aspects of social behavior, examined from evolutionary, ontogenetic, physiological, ecological, and ethological perspectives. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 200
Prerequisite: BIOL 150

ENST 213: Evolutionary Biology

A study of biological evolution, including natural selection, adaptation, the evolution of sex, speciation, extinction, and constraints on evolutionary change. Reading primary literature is emphasized. Two lectures and one discussion per week.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 235
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 or ANTH 140

ENST 220: General Ecology

An introduction to the interactions between organisms and the environment. Explores the role of physical, chemical and biotic processes--including human activities--in determining the structure and function of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics include resource availability, competition, predation, symbiosis and natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as disease, biological invasions, pollution and climate change. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 230

ENST 222: Atmospheric & Environmental Chemistry

This course focuses on the fundamental chemical processes that control Earth's atmosphere, ocean, soil, and climate. The course emphasizes the mechanisms that regulate the flow of energy in different ecosystems, the environmental role of particulate matter and solar radiation, chemistry-climate relationships, and the anthropogenic impact on the environment.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Chemistry 212
Prerequisite: CHEM 116

ENST 229: General Ecology (Lecture Only)

An introduction to the interactions between organisms and the environment. Explores the role of physical, chemical and biotic processes--including human activities--in determining the structure and function of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics include resource availability, competition, predation, symbiosis and natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as disease, biological invasions, pollution and climate change. Lecture only.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 229

ENST 230: History of the Earth and Life

A study of the physical, chemical, and organic evolution of the Earth since its origin 4.5 billion years ago, with emphasis on times of change and crisis. The course also examines the evolution of ideas about Earth’s history, illustrating how science and culture are inherently entangled.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 210
Prerequisite: GEOL 110

ENST 235: Weather, Climate, and Climate Change

A study of basic meteorologic principles and climate patterns. These phenomena will be discussed in relation to evidence of past climate change and implications of global warming on future climate.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 214
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 or 150

ENST 237: Environmental Remote Sensing and GIS Applications

Fundamentals of electromagnetic radiation and the interaction of radiation with matter are introduced as the basis of remote sensing. Interpretation and manipulation of remotely sensed images are used to demonstrate the wealth of information remote sensing provides. Applications and case studies from geology, environmental science, ecology, agronomy, and urban planning will be explored. High school physics recommended. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 220
Prerequisite: GEOL 110; high school physics recommended

ENST 240: Chemistry of the Earth: Low-Temperature Environments

An introduction to the geochemical processes at the Earth¿s surface. Emphasis is placed on how chemical processes such as thermodynamics, phase equilibria, and oxidation-reduction reactions shape the Earth surface and near-surface environments.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 240
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 and CHEM 115; concurrent enrollment in GEOL 245

ENST 245: Conservation Biology

This course explores scientific concepts related to the conservation and restoration of Earth's biological diversity. Topics include patterns of species and ecosystem diversity, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, causes of extinction, assessing extinction risk, behavioral indicators, in-situ and ex-situ management strategies for endangered species, and ecosystem restoration. Lecture only.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 245
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and sophomore standing

ENST 250: Analytical Chemistry

A course in the quantitative description of chemical equilibria in solution (acid-base, complexation, redox, solubility) using classical, separation, electrochemical, and spectrochemical methods of analysis. This course covers methods of quantification, statistics, and data analysis as applied to modern chemistry. Students will have the opportunity to individually design projects. Three lectures and two laboratory periods per week.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Chemistry 210
Prerequisite: CHEM 116, placement exam, or consent of instructor

ENST 252: Sustainable Cities

How can cities be sustainable? The increasing urbanization of the world's population, shift to service-driven economies, and growing diversity of cities make this question pressing and complicated. This course introduces economic, environmental, and social dimensions of the urban sustainability problem and explores responses to it through a two-week December study trip to London and Amsterdam and winter term studies and poster presentations. Program fee is required. Students pay their own airfare.
Units: 3.
Also listed as Government 252, Economics 252
Prerequisite: An introductory course in GOVT, ECON, ENST or GLST, or consent of instructor

ENST 260: Research Methods in Archaeology

Presents the research process in archaeology and offers an overview of essential data-collection and analysis techniques, including site survey and excavation, settlement pattern analysis, lithic analysis, and ceramic analysis. Students will take part in field research.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Anthropology 220
Prerequisite: ANTH 120

ENST 265: Biogeochemistry

This course explores fundamental cycles between earth's major reservoirs of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon and water. Through lecture and group presentations, students will gain a solid understanding of the fundamentls of biogeochemical cycles and the mechanism underlying the biological transformations of those elements. Lecture only.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 265, Biology 265
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 or GEOL 110

ENST 270: Global Environmental Politics

This course provides an examination of the environment as an issue in world politics. Emphasis will be placed on the role of both state and non-state actors (i.e., the UN, NGOs) in global environmental regimes that are designed to deal with global warming, ozone depletion, and other environmental issues. Particular attention will be paid to the positions taken by both developed and developing countries. As part of the course, students will participate in a simulation of an international negotiation on an environmental issue.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Government 270
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or ENST 150 or GOVT 110

ENST 280: Environmental Economics

The course shows how economists analyze environmental problems and the types of solutions they propose (if any). Topic coverage includes property rights and externalities, cost-benefit analysis, regulatory policy instruments, the interplay between policy and innovation, and basic models of political economy.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Economics 280
Prerequisite: ECON 100 or ENST 151

ENST 300: Symposium on Environmental Topics

The heart of this course is an annual symposium organized around a well-defined topic with both scientific and policy components — e.g., nuclear waste disposal, global warming. Each year, two or three nationally recognized experts on the selected topic are brought to campus. In the weeks before a visit by one of the major speakers, students, together with environmental studies faculty, read and discuss papers suggested by the speaker. The speakers meet with students in the seminar following their public lecture, providing students with an opportunity to interact directly with scientists and policy makers at the forefront of environmental issues.

Topic for Fall 2017: Bicycling and Sustainable Cities--Health, Environment and Policy
Examination of bicycle infrastructure, attitudes, and use in urban environments. We will study cycling’s role in transportation, recreation, environmental quality, and public health via case studies from around the world, but with a particular focus on the Fox Cities Region and the state of Wisconsin. Learning will progress through field trips, guest speakers, readings, and frequent class discussions. Students will complete community-based learning projects in groups, in addition to short writing assignments.

Topic for Winter 2018: Sick Cities
This course will explore some of the environmental challenges of densely populated urban areas, particularly the contamination of soil, air, and water systems. We will investigate how those systems came to be polluted, what the impacts are of that contamination, and ways that they might be remediated. We will be discussing the environmental chemistry, human and environmental health, and environmental justice issues relating to environmental problems facing cities all over the world.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: ENST 150, sophomore standing

ENST 310: Aquatic Ecology

The principles of the ecology of fresh waters, developed through discussions, laboratory, and field investigations of the functional relationships and productivity of biotic communities as they are affected by the dynamics of physical, chemical, and biotic parameters. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 330
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 170 (or concurrent enrollment) or BIOL 230

ENST 311: Field Experience in Development

Students engaged in this course will have the opportunity to do field research in a developing country. Each student will develop and implement a project that concerns economic, political, and/or environmental issues important in Sierra Leone, Jamaica, or another selected country. Students will also have the opportunity to learn from both national and local leaders in political, economic, environmental, and social development issues. Class members will travel to a developing country during a term break. Students must register for this course in the term prior to the planned travel and in the subsequent term, when they will present their research to the wider Lawrence community.

Location for 2016-17: Students will travel to Sierra Leone and/or Morocco during winter break. Admission is by application to Prof. Skran. Students should register for both fall and winter terms.
Units: 3.
Also listed as Government 401, Economics 206
Prerequisite: Completed or concurrent enrollment in ENST 300, ECON 205, or GOVT 500 (Research Methods in Comparative Politics and International Relations); ECON 170 and ECON 211 ENST 300, GOVT 248, GOVT 500 and RLST 240

ENST 330: Advanced Geochemistry

A more detailed investigation of geochemical principles and processes through the investigation of important geochemical issues. Readings come heavily from the primary literature.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 340
Prerequisite: GEOL 240 and CHEM 115, or consent of instructor; CHEM 116 recommended

ENST 335: Physics of the Earth: Surface Environments

This course studies the movement of water, solute, and sediment through the landscape and the resulting properties and distribution of surficial earth materials and landforms. Topics include weathering; soil development; runoff; mass movement; river, glacial, and coastal processes; and deposition in sedimentary environments. One lab per week.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 360
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 and 240 or consent of instructor; PHYS 141 or 151 recommended

ENST 340: Plant Ecology

This course emphasizes core concepts in ecology and evolution from the unique perspective of plants. Students will explore the interactions between plants and their environment over a range of scales; from individuals to populations and communities. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 335
Prerequisite: BIOL 170

ENST 345: Terrestrial Field Ecology

A hands-on course intended to demonstrate basic ecological principles using local terrestrial ecosystems. Field research projects will introduce students to methods in hypothesis development, experimental design, data collection, statistical analysis, and scientific writing and presentation. Research topics will include estimating population size, community structure, plant-animal interactions, and foraging behavior. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 345
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 170, and sophomore standing

ENST 355: History of the American Environment

North Americans have transformed the environment while being shaped by nature in turn. This course surveys the changing relationships between Americans and their physical environment in historical context from the 17th century to the present. Topics include the “Columbian exchange,” agriculture, urbanization, conservation, and the emergence of contemporary environmentalism.
Units: 6.
Also listed as History 355
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing

ENST 360: Environmental Ethics

An examination of some ethical assumptions that might figure in discussions of environmental policy by economists, legal experts, philosophers, and policy scientists.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Philosophy 360
Prerequisite: One course in economics or environmental studies or government or philosophy; or junior standing

ENST 365: Ecological Anthropology

A study of relationships between human communities and their natural environments (i.e., humans studied as members of ecosystems). Topics include the interactions between environment, human biology, and social organization and anthropological perspectives on global environmental problems.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Anthropology 310
Prerequisite: One anthropology course or consent of instructor

ENST 370: Religion and the Biosphere

A look at how humans have made sense of existing in the biosphere. We will examine views on the nature of life in religious traditions like ancient Egypt and Jainism as well as early philosophical accounts. The second half will involve a close reading of Charles Darwin and reflection on resources offered by religious traditions to respond to the "sixth extinction." Lecture/discussion with written assignments and journaling on the coming of spring.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Religious Studies 205
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing

ENST 378: East Asian Environmental History

This course will explore traditional East Asian ideas about the relationship between humans and their natural environments, as well the premodern and modern history of that interaction. We will also consider the relationship between these philosophies and practice, both for the societies we study and for our own.
Units: 6.
Also listed as East Asian Studies 378
Prerequisite: Some background in East Asian Studies or Environmental Studies is recommended.

ENST 387: Let Us Arise: Ireland's Deep Time

Taking a dramaturgical and geographical approach to explore a deep sense of place, we will use the lens of culture (drama, poetry, fiction, music, film, history and visual arts) to investigate the variegated quality of Ireland's land and its people.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Theatre Arts 387
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and ENST 150, ENST 151, or THAR 327

ENST 390: Tutorial in Environmental Studies

Advanced study and analysis of a particular topic or case related to environmental issues, viewed from the perspective of more than one academic discipline.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 391: Directed Study in Environmental Studies

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 395: Internship in Environmental Studies

An opportunity for environmental studies students to gain practical experience in the commercial, government, or nonprofit sectors. The internship is supplemented by readings and discussions with a supervising faculty member. At the conclusion of the internship, the student must submit a summative report that considers the internship experience in the context of the student’s other academic work. The academic component of the internship includes readings related to the substance of the internship, discussions with the faculty supervisor, and a written report appropriate to the discipline. Course grades are based on this academic work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 399: Independent Study in Environmental Studies

Advanced independent research, under the guidance of a faculty mentor or mentors, on a particular topic related to the environment. The student is required to produce a formal paper or equivalent (e.g., poster session, Web page, presentation at a professional meeting) as a tangible record of the work carried out.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 410: Ecological Energetics

Field and laboratory experimental investigations of the transfer and transformation of energy or energy-containing materials between and within organisms and populations of aquatic ecosystems. Part of the Marine Biology Term. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 434
Prerequisite: BIOL 330, concurrent enrollment in BIOL 505 and 226 and consent of instructor

ENST 420: The Geography of Life: Biodiversity in a Changing Planet

Earth is a dynamic and changing planet, comprised of tightly linked ecosystems and organisms. In this course we explore relationships between the biotic and abiotic drivers that influence the distribution of global diversity. We use large-scale datasets to develop practical skills for monitoring the responses of biodiversity to environmental change.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 420
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and BIOL 170; preferred but not required: BIOL 230 and BIOL 235

ENST 430: Watershed Hydrology

An introduction to the basic components of the hydrologic cycle, focusing on surface water and groundwater systems. Measurement and analysis of hydrologic data are emphasized. Application to contemporary issues such as flooding, watershed development, and groundwater contamination will be discussed.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Geology 430
Prerequisite: GEOL 110; PHYS 141 or 151 recommended

ENST 460: The Environment, Community, and Education

The course will examine the relationship between community-mindedness and the development of ecological literacy. Cultural assumptions about the natural world and our place in it that are implicit within the K-12 and college curriculum, and the manner in which modern forms of education shape our understanding of what it means to “live well in a place we know well” will be explored. Examples of how schools can contribute to environmental and social sustainability (and justice) via community- and place-based education will be presented.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Education Studies 400
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or consent of instructor

ENST 470: Environmental Politics

An examination of selected aspects of environmental policy in the United States. Topics include the historical development of US environmental policy, environmental justice, urban environmental issues, connections between food systems and the environment, and the application of economic reasoning to environmental policy making.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Government 465
Prerequisite: ENST 151 and junior standing, or consent of instructor

ENST 478: Topics in Environmental History

An in-depth examination of a particular topic in environmental history, suitable for majors in history and environmental studies. Students from other majors should consult the instructor before registering. May be repeated for credit when topic is different.


Units: 6.
Also listed as History 478
Prerequisite: HIST 355

ENST 494: Music and the Environment

In many societies around the world, people use music to connect with nature, specific places, and surrounding environments. This course will explore music performance practices and repertoire that expresses or enacts these connections. Case studies will include songlines and Australian Aboriginal land claims, North American protest songs, and the intimate relationships between music and nature of the BaAka people in central Africa and among the Kakuli people in Papua, among others.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Musicology 494
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or consent of instructor

ENST 505: Coral Reef Environments

Examines the ecology of coral reef environments. Lecture, laboratory, and field components. Part of the Marine Biology Term. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 505
Prerequisite: BIOL 330 and concurrent enrollment in BIOL 226 and BIOL 434

ENST 522: Literature and the Environment

An interdisciplinary investigation of the ways that literature shapes environmental values and practices as well as responds to environmental concerns. We will study novels, films, and essays on topics such as organic food and farming, air and water pollution, and environmental justice movements.
Units: 6.
Also listed as English 522
Prerequisite: Junior standing

ENST 590: Tutorial in Environmental Studies

Advanced study and analysis of a particular topic or case related to environmental issues, viewed from the perspective of more than one academic discipline.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 591: Directed Study in Environmental Studies

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 595: Internship in Environmental Studies

An opportunity for environmental studies students to gain practical experience in the commercial, government, or nonprofit sectors. The internship is supplemented by readings and discussions with a supervising faculty member. At the conclusion of the internship, the student must submit a summative report that considers the internship experience in the context of the student’s other academic work. The academic component of the internship includes readings related to the substance of the internship, discussions with the faculty supervisor, and a written report appropriate to the discipline. Course grades are based on this academic work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 599: Independent Study in Environmental Studies

Advanced independent research, under the guidance of a faculty mentor or mentors, on a particular topic related to the environment. The student is required to produce a formal paper or equivalent (e.g., poster session, Web page, presentation at a professional meeting) as a tangible record of the work carried out.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 650: Environmental Studies Senior Seminar

A seminar on issues and methods of environmental studies and a focal point of the environmental studies major. Topics include scientific measures of environmental quality, natural resource management, pollution, prices, and public policy and ethical considerations. Students employ data and models to address a chosen environmental problem. Faculty members from contributing disciplines participate.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: ENST 150, ENST 300, and senior standing; or consent of the instructor

ENST 690: Tutorial in Environmental Studies

Advanced study and analysis of a particular topic or case related to environmental issues, viewed from the perspective of more than one academic discipline.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 691: Directed Study in Environmental Studies

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 695: Internship in Environmental Studies

An opportunity for environmental studies students to gain practical experience in the commercial, government, or nonprofit sectors. The internship is supplemented by readings and discussions with a supervising faculty member. At the conclusion of the internship, the student must submit a summative report that considers the internship experience in the context of the student’s other academic work. The academic component of the internship includes readings related to the substance of the internship, discussions with the faculty supervisor, and a written report appropriate to the discipline. Course grades are based on this academic work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

ENST 699: Independent Study in Environmental Studies

Advanced independent research, under the guidance of a faculty mentor or mentors, on a particular topic related to the environment. The student is required to produce a formal paper or equivalent (e.g., poster session, Web page, presentation at a professional meeting) as a tangible record of the work carried out.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

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