Please note: The course descriptions displayed here are current as of Wednesday, April 1, 2015, but the official Course Catalog should be used for all official planning.

BIOL 100
The Biology of Human Reproduction

An introductory course focusing on human reproduction to demonstrate some basic biological principles. The course includes discussion of cellular and organismal processes related to the development of human biological complexity. Current research in reproductive biology and its impact on the individual and society is considered. Lecture and laboratory. Primarily for non-science majors; credit not applicable to the biology major. Units: 6.
Also listed as Gender Studies 180

BIOL 103
Biotechnology and Society

An examination of basic biological principles underlying current biotechnology in the fields of human genetics and genetic engineering. Discussion of methods of basic scientific research, the impact of technology on society, and ethical problems in human and agricultural genetics. Credit not applicable to biology major. Weekly laboratories will introduce basic experimental methodology and procedures. Units: 6.

BIOL 130
Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms

An exploration of fundamental cellular processes in an evolutionary context including homeostasis, cell cycle, gene expression, energy transformation, inheritance, and multi-cellular development. Experimental approaches will be emphasized. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6.

BIOL 150
Integrative Biology: Organisms to Ecosystems

Development, morphology, physiology, and ecology of plants, animals, fungi and unicellular organisms will be compared in evolutionary context. Phylogenic relationships, ecological interactions, and ecosystem processes will be explored. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 110, BIOL 130, or departmental examination

BIOL 170
Integrative Biology: Experimental Design and Statistics

An introduction to experimental and sampling design in the fields of biology and biochemistry, as well as methods of data analysis and interpretation. The connection between statistical analysis and experimental design will be emphasized. Topics include descriptive, exploratory, and confirmatory statistical analyses. Lecture and computer laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or consent of instructor

BIOL 191
Directed Study in Biology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

BIOL 200
Animal Behavior

A lecture and field-study course examining the principles and problems of animal behavior. Subjects include orientation, feeding, locomotion, communication, escape in time and space, biological rhythms, mate choice, and aspects of social behavior, examined from evolutionary, ontogenetic, physiological, ecological, and ethological perspectives. Lecture and laboratory. May be taken separately or as part of the Marine Biology Term. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 140 or BIOL 150
Also listed as Environmental Studies 210

BIOL 210
Biodiversity

The influence of climate on global habitats is considered. Selected terrestrial life zones, including Mediterrenean, montane, desert, and grasslands, are analyzed and stresses produced by climate and habitat evaluated. Adaptive responses at the morphological and physiological levels are investigated and scientific principles are applied to contemporary ethical issues, including restoration and conservation ecology. Lecture only. Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 211

BIOL 211
Plant Life

Laboratories, lectures, and discussion designed to introduce the student to the unique adaptations that make plants environmentally competitive. Special attention will be given to the value and use of those adaptations in human cultures. For students who entered Lawrence in 2011 or earlier: If a student has already taken BIOL 120, BIOL 211 may not be used as an upper-level course in the major. BIOL 211 may be used to fulfill either the introductory requirement (replacing BIOL 120) OR an upper-level lab/field course for the major, but not both. Units: 6.

BIOL 222
Parasitology

Students will examine and compare the complex life cycles of a variety of parasites, including those of medical and veterinary importance. Specific topics covered within the course will include: parasite biochemistry, ecology, parasite evasion of the host immune system, host immune responses, and host behavior. The laboratory component of the course will include both live and preserved specimens. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 140 or BIOL 150

BIOL 226
Microbiology

A study of microbial life with an emphasis on prokaryotes. Microbial physiology is examined in the context of how unique characteristics allow microbes to exploit a vast diversity of environments, including the human body. Laboratory exercises introduce students to techniques used to safely study microorganisms. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 130, and CHEM 115 or CHEM 116

BIOL 230
General Ecology

An introduction to the interactions between organisms and the environment, exploring the role of physical, chemical, and biotic processes, including human activities, in determining the structure and function of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics include resource availability, competition, predation, symbiosis, and natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as disease, biological invasions, pollution, and climate change. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 220

BIOL 231
Physiological Ecology

Biological stresses induced by environmental variables are described. Physiological and molecular adaptations associated with flowering, disease resistance, pollination, germination, and nutrient uptake and partitioning are discussed and investigated, using both field and laboratory experience. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 130
Also listed as Environmental Studies 212

BIOL 235
Evolutionary Biology

A study of biological evolution, including natural selection, adaptation, the evolution of sex, speciation, extinction, and constraints on evolutionary change. Reading primary literature is emphasized. Two lectures and one discussion per week. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 130 or ANTH 140
Also listed as Environmental Studies 213

BIOL 240
Morphogenesis of the Vertebrates

An integrated lecture and laboratory course that undertakes the study of the structure and function of vertebrate organ systems through examination of morphology. Vertebrate ontogeny, phylogeny, and anatomy are addressed. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 140 or BIOL 150

BIOL 241
Cell Physiology

The structure and organization of the eukaryotic cell are described and employed to understand functional interrelationships at the organelle and molecular levels. Major processes considered include external environmental control mechanisms, developmental events, the regulation of energy exchange, and membrane function. Lecture only. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 130

BIOL 242
Comparative Physiology

A comparative study of the variety of solutions and adaptations diverse animals can make to similar problems — obtaining and transporting oxygen, maintaining water and salt balance, utilizing food, movement, and nervous and hormonal integration. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 140 or BIOL 150

BIOL 245
Conservation Biology

This course explores scientific concepts related to the conservation and restoration of Earth's biological diversity. Topics include patterns of species and ecosystem diversity, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, causes of extinction, assessing extinction risk, behavioral indicators, in-situ and ex-situ management strategies for endangered species, and ecosystem restoration. Lecture only. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 140 or BIOL 150, and sophomore standing
Also listed as Environmental Studies 245

BIOL 250
The Vegetation of Wisconsin

The principles of plant-environment interrelationships are developed through extensive field study of Wisconsin vegetation. Emphasis is placed on the manner in which physical and biological factors influence competition, adaptation, and structure in major local habitats. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 214

BIOL 260
Genetics

A lecture and laboratory study of the principles of inheritance, gene expression, introductory genomics, sex determination, and the concepts of historical and modern eugenics and genetic engineering. Units: 6. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and BIOL 110 or BIOL 170 (or concurrent enrollment) or ANTH 140

BIOL 310
Human Anatomy

A course in human anatomy only intended for students entering the allied health professions (e.g. nursing, PA, PT, athletic training) or forensic anthropology. Students learn detailed anatomy using full-size human models. Students are expected to learn structures of the skeletal, muscular, nervous (sensory included), circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urogenital, and endocrine systems. Emphasis is on the anatomy, particularly in the laboratory component of the course, but basic physiology is also covered. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or ANTH 140

BIOL 325
Cell Biology

Survey of the structure and function of eukaryotic cells, the basic functional unit of life. Correlation of cellular structures including organelles, proteins, and membranes with functions such as cellular communication, division, transport, movement, and secretory pathways will be analyzed. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: One of BIOL 260, BIOL 354, BIOL 444, or concurrent enrollment or consent of instructor

BIOL 330
Aquatic Ecology

The principles of the ecology of fresh waters, developed through discussions, laboratory, and field investigations of the functional relationships and productivity of biotic communities as they are affected by the dynamics of physical, chemical, and biotic parameters. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 140 or BIOL 170 (or concurrent enrollment) or BIOL 230
Also listed as Environmental Studies 310

BIOL 335
Plant Ecology

This course emphasizes core concepts in ecology and evolution from the unique perspective of plants. Students will explore the interactions between plants and their environment over a range of scales; from individuals to populations and communities, to landscapes and global patterns. Lecture and laboratory. For students who entered Lawrence in 2011 or earlier: BIOL 335 may be used to fulfill either the introductory requirement (replacing BIOL 120) OR an upper-level lab/field course for the major, but not both. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 170, BIOL 140, or BIOL 120
Also listed as Environmental Studies 340

BIOL 340
Topics in Neuroscience

A study of the nervous system from the perspectives of psychology and biology. Topics vary year to year and may include glial cells, neural development, and the evolution of nervous systems and neurotransmitter systems. Lecture only. May be repeated when topic is different.

Topic for Fall 2014: Neural Development
How does a complex nervous system form from a single, fertilized egg? This course will use a combination of textbook material and primary research literature to examine key processes in neural development from the initial induction of neural tissue and neural patterning to the formation of neurons and axon growth to synaptogenesis and plasticity. Units: 6. Prerequisite: CHEM 116 and either BIOL 140 or BIOL 150, and one course in psychology; or PSYC 360 and one course in biology; or consent of instructor
Also listed as Psychology 580

BIOL 345
Terrestrial Field Ecology

A hands-on course intended to demonstrate basic ecological principles using local terrestrial ecosystems. Field research projects will introduce students to methods in hypothesis development, experimental design, data collection, statistical analysis, and scientific writing and presentation. Research topics will include estimating population size, community structure, plant-animal interactions, and foraging behavior. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 120 or BIOL 140 or BIOL 170, and sophomore standing
Also listed as Environmental Studies 345

BIOL 354
Molecular Biology

An interdisciplinary examination of regulatory mechanisms leading to differential gene expression. Main topics include transcription, translation, gene and protein structure, and modern genomics. The application of current molecular techniques is emphasized throughout the course. Laboratory work is experimental in approach. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 130, and CHEM 115

BIOL 390
Tutorial Studies in Biology

Individual investigations of problems in biology. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 391
Directed Study in Biology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

BIOL 399
Independent Study in Biology

Individual, in-depth investigation of a specific biological problem. Students contemplating an honors project should register for this course. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 430
Immunology

This course will cover the basic concepts of immunology, including differentiation of immune cells, antibody structure and function, antigen-antibody reactions, the major-histocompatibility complex, the complement system, immune responses to pathogens, allergies and auto-immune diseases, and comparative immunology. The course will also examine recent advances in the field through current peer-reviewed publications. The weekly laboratory will examine the basic questions, experimental subjects, and procedures of the field. Units: 6. Prerequisite: Junior standing or consent of instructor

BIOL 434
Ecological Energetics

Field and laboratory experimental investigations of the transfer and transformation of energy or energy-containing materials between and within organisms and populations of aquatic ecosystems. Part of the Marine Biology Term. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 330, concurrent enrollment in BIOL 505 and 226 and consent of instructor
Also listed as Environmental Studies 410

BIOL 435
Environmental Microbiology

An investigation of how microbial organisms use and influence their environment. Experiments in the field and laboratory will explore the roles of microbes in ecosystems with a particular focus on the transfer of energy within and between organisms. Part of the Marine Biology Term. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 330, concurrent enrollment in BIOL 505 and BIOL 200, and consent of instructor
Also listed as Environmental Studies 440

BIOL 444
Biochemistry I

An introduction to the study of biological processes at the molecular level with emphases on protein struction and function, enzyme mechanism and kinetics, fundamentals of physical biochemistry, and the chemistry of biological molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Units: 6. Prerequisite: CHEM 250 or concurrent enrollment, or consent of instructor
Also listed as Chemistry 340

BIOL 450
Special Topics in Biology

A course designed to offer students an opportunity to study important issues in biology not covered in other regularly offered classes. Activities may include reading and analysis of material from primary literature, consideration of interdisciplinary connections, and field and laboratory activities.


Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 130, and either BIOL 140 or BIOL 150 or consent of instructor

BIOL 451
Introduction to Primate Behavior and Ecology

This course provides an introduction to the Order Primates. In addition to exploring the behavior and ecology of prosimians, monkeys, and apes, the course will cover techniques in primate behavioral observation. Further, biological and social adaptations will be examined in an evolutionary context. Units: 6. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and one of the following: ANTH 140, BIOL 140, BIOL 150, consent of instructor
Also listed as Anthropology 348

BIOL 453
Developmental Biology

An experimental approach to animal development with laboratory and lecture emphasis on molecular and cellular processes of embryogenesis. Includes discussions of pattern formation, differentiation, cell interactions, gametogenesis and fertilization. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 140 or BIOL 150; and one of the following (or concurrent enrollment): BIOL 241, BIOL 444/CHEM 340, BIOL 260, or BIOL 325

BIOL 455
Biochemistry II

A continuation of Biochemistry I. A study of biological processes at the molecular level with an emphasis on metabolic pathways, recent advances in biochemical medicine, and biochemical aspects of gene replication, protein synthesis, molecular motors, and sensing. The course is divided between lecture and discussion and will rely heavily on current biochemical literature. Units: 6. Prerequisite: CHEM 340 or consent of instructor
Also listed as Chemistry 440

BIOL 505
Coral Reef Environments

Examines the ecology of coral reef environments. Lecture, laboratory, and field components. Part of the Marine Biology Term. Lecture and laboratory. Units: 6. Prerequisite: BIOL 330 and concurrent enrollment in BIOL 226 and BIOL 434
Also listed as Environmental Studies 505

BIOL 570
Biological Physics

Develops and explores the physical principles underlying biological systems, with a particular emphasis on building quantitative models. Applies fundamental topics including thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity, and electrostatics to model molecular and cellular phenomena such as gene expression, virus assembly, DNA bending and stretching, and nerve impulses. Units: 6. Prerequisite: PHYS 151, and one of PHYS 230, CHEM 252, CHEM 340, or BIOL 354
Also listed as Physics 570

BIOL 590
Tutorial Studies in Biology

Individual investigations of problems in biology. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 591
Directed Study in Biology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

BIOL 599
Independent Study in Biology

Individual, in-depth investigation of a specific biological problem. Students contemplating an honors project should register for this course. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 600
Recent Advances in Biology Seminar

A multidisciplinary lecture series on modern biological theory and research. Students attend seminars and prepare short summaries or “reaction papers” on topics covered. Biology faculty members and visiting scientists in biological and allied fields present seminars relating their research to the broader aspects of their disciplines. Topics discussed within any academic year provide a comprehensive exposure to the current frontiers of biological research. May be repeated for a maximum of three units. Units: 1. Prerequisite: Senior standing and declared major in biology, or consent of instructor

BIOL 650
Biology Senior Capstone

Senior capstone in which students will benefit from direct input and feedback on their scientific writing and oral presentation skills as they complete senior experience projects and papers. Successful completion of BIOL 650 includes participation in BioFest, a symposium of biology senior experience projects during spring term. Units: 1 OR 5. Prerequisite: Major in biology or biochemistry, or in neuroscience with departmental approval; and senior class standing or departmental approval

BIOL 690
Tutorial Studies in Biology

Individual investigations of problems in biology. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 691
Directed Study in Biology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

BIOL 699
Independent Study in Biology

Individual, in-depth investigation of a specific biological problem. Students contemplating an honors project should register for this course. Units: 1 TO 98. Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

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