Please note: The information displayed here is current as of Tuesday, December 18, 2018, but the official Course Catalog should be used for all official planning.

2017-2018 Course Catalog

Period: 2018-20192017-20182016-20172015-20162014-2015

This catalog was created on Tuesday, December 18, 2018.


Geology

Professors:M. Bjornerud (Walter Schober Professor of Environmental Studies), J. Clark
Associate professor:A. Knudsen (chair)

If “geology” makes you think of dusty collections of rocks, minerals and old bones, visit the Lawrence geology department. You will discover a thriving group of faculty members and students who consider geology to be a way of seeing the Earth, a lens through which the planet’s past and present come simultaneously into focus.

Lawrence geology students have an exceptional range of research experiences, comparable to what students from larger universities would first encounter at graduate school. In a single academic term, you could find yourself sampling ice-age lake sediments with the department’s portable drill rig, mapping the roots of an ancient mountain belt in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, instrumenting a watershed in eastern Wisconsin, examining microscopic rock structures with image-analysis software, and conducting geochemical and crystallographic studies with research equipment shared with the chemistry and physics departments. All geology majors complete a research project as part of their Senior Experience, and many present results of their research at professional meetings.

Field-based studies are at the heart of the Lawrence geology program. Recent destinations for the annual all-department field trip have included Hawaii, the Adirondacks, Wyoming, Ontario, Scotland and Puerto Rico. Shorter trips are integrated into academic-year courses, and there also are opportunities for summer field courses, internships, and research projects. Appleton is within a few hours’ drive of classical geological localities, including iron ore deposits and ancient volcanoes in northern Wisconsin and Michigan, a fossil forest preserved in glacial sediments on the shores of Lake Michigan, and the world-renowned glacial landscape of the Kettle Moraine. Local environmental issues related to surface and groundwater protection also provide the basis for student field projects.

In many ways, geology is the ideal liberal arts degree. It is a discipline that draws not only upon one’s observational and analytical abilities but also upon one’s aesthetic and creative instincts.

Required for the geology major

  1. Required core courses
    1. GEOL 110: Introductory Geology
    2. GEOL 210: History of Earth and Life
    3. GEOL 240: Chemistry of the Earth: Low-Temperature Environments
    4. GEOL 245: Mineralogical Analysis
    5. GEOL 250: Chemistry of the Earth: High-Temperature Environments
    6. GEOL 360: Physics of the Earth: Surface Processes
    7. GEOL 370: Physics of the Earth: Subsurface Processes
    8. GEOL 580: Junior Seminar
    9. GEOL 620: Senior Capstone
  2. An additional twelve units in geology courses numbered 200 or higher
  3. Courses in other sciences and mathematics
    • CHEM 116 (may be waived by placement exam)
    • MATH 107 or 117 or 120 or 140 or 207
    • PHYS 141 or 151

Required for the geology minor

  1. Required core courses
    1. GEOL 110: Introductory Geology
    2. GEOL 210: History of Earth and Life
    3. Any two of the following:
      • GEOL 240: Chemistry of the Earth: Low-Temperature Environments
      • GEOL 250: Chemistry of the Earth: High-Temperature Environments
      • GEOL 360: Physics of the Earth: Surface Processes
      • GEOL 370: Physics of the Earth: Subsurface Processes
  2. An additional twelve units in geology courses numbered 200 or higher
  3. C average in the minor

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in geology and a secondary discipline

  1. GEOL 110 and GEOL 210
  2. PHYS 150 and 160 or, with the permission of the secondary department, PHYS 120 and 130.
  3. Either:
    • BIOL 110 and 120 or BIOL 110 and 140, or
    • CHEM 115 and 116 or equivalent chosen to include the secondary interest
  4. At least 10 additional six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, and physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in geology and at least three in the secondary discipline
  5. GEOL 580 and 620

Teacher certification in geology/earth science or broad-field science

Students can seek teacher certification to teach geology/earth science at the secondary level. Certification requires a major in geology with courses in astronomy and oceanography and other science subjects. Students also have the option of seeking broad-field science certification by completing a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines and at least one course in each of the remaining sciences. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Geology

The Senior Experience in geology comprises two 3-unit courses (GEOL 580 and 620), typically offered in the in spring term of the junior year and the winter term of the senior year respectively.

The junior seminar (GEOL 580) helps students begin to acquire an “insider's view” of the geosciences. In the first part of the course, students explore the philosophical and historical underpinnings of the discipline and develop strategies for finding and reading technical literature. Then, working with at least one member of the geology faculty, each student identifies a substantive research question and designs a plan by which to investigate that question.

In the senior capstone (GEOL 620), students work with faculty mentors to carry out these research plans (sometimes building upon work that they conducted during summer study on campus, in the field, or through programs at other universities as well as Independent Study work). By the end of GEOL 620, each student presents his or her research results and analyses to the department as a whole. Some students opt to continue their capstone research throughout their senior year as senior thesis or honors thesis projects.


Courses - Geology

GEOL 110: Introductory Geology

An introduction to the study of the Earth, examining the interdependent global systems (atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, tectosphere) that set Earth apart from its planetary neighbors. Emphasis is also placed on human participation in and perturbation of these systems. One lab per week. This course may not be taken on a Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory basis.
Units: 6.

GEOL 150: Environmental Science

Presents principles of biology, chemistry, geology, and physics that relate to such environmental issues as resource limitation, pollution, and environmental degradation. Designed to foster understanding of scientific measures of environmental quality. One laboratory per week.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 150
Prerequisite: Freshman or sophomore standing; consent of instructor required for juniors and seniors

GEOL 191: Directed Study in Geology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 195: Internship in Geology

An opportunity for students to gain work experience in industry, government, or the non-profit sector. The academic component, supervised by a Lawrence instructor, includes readings, discussion with the instructor, and a formal presentation and written report, which can be used to satisfy the geology department’s senior seminar requirement. (Grades are based on this academic work.) Intended to be used for research that is later developed into an honors project. Applications for an internship must be submitted by the fifth week of the term preceding the proposed internship.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 210: History of the Earth and Life

A study of the physical, chemical, and organic evolution of the Earth since its origin 4.5 billion years ago, with emphasis on times of change and crisis. The course also examines the evolution of ideas about Earth’s history, illustrating how science and culture are inherently entangled.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 230
Prerequisite: GEOL 110

GEOL 213: Geology and Health

A course investigating the links between geology and health, with a particular focus on environmental issues in urban areas and ties to the field of environmental justice. The course considers issues such as human lead exposure from soil and water, and the links between air pollution and asthma. This course includes a lab component in which students will be collecting and analyzing soil, air, and water samples.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 202
Prerequisite: GEOL 110, ENST 150, or CHEM 116

GEOL 214: Weather, Climate, and Climate Change

A study of basic meteorologic principles and climate patterns. These phenomena will be discussed in relation to evidence of past climate change and implications of global warming on future climate.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 235
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 or 150

GEOL 220: Environmental Remote Sensing and GIS Applications

Fundamentals of electromagnetic radiation and the interaction of radiation with matter are introduced as the basis of remote sensing. Interpretation and manipulation of remotely sensed images are used to demonstrate the wealth of information remote sensing provides. Applications and case studies from geology, environmental science, ecology, agronomy, and urban planning will be explored. High school physics recommended. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 237
Prerequisite: GEOL 110; high school physics recommended

GEOL 240: Chemistry of the Earth: Low-Temperature Environments

An introduction to the geochemical processes at the Earth¿s surface. Emphasis is placed on how chemical processes such as thermodynamics, phase equilibria, and oxidation-reduction reactions shape the Earth surface and near-surface environments.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 240
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 and CHEM 115; concurrent enrollment in GEOL 245

GEOL 245: Mineralogical Analysis

This course serves as an introduction to mineralogical analyses. Students will utilize a variety of analytical techniques including Polarized Light Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Scanning Electron Microscopy to study crystallography and mineral chemistry. Students will use these tools to analyze a variety of geological samples including rocks, soils, and sediments. Intended to be taken simultaneously with GEOL 240.
Units: 3.
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in GEOL 240/ENST 240

GEOL 250: Chemistry of the Earth: High-Temperature Environments

Introduction to the chemical processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks, with emphasis on how mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic clues can be used to gather information about Earth’s early history and its inaccessible interior. One lab per week.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 and CHEM 116; GEOL 240 and GEOL 245

GEOL 260: Introduction to Paleobiology

An organismal and systems approach to the study of the marine and terrestrial fossil record. The course will focus on diversification and extinction of biotas in the context of the environmental history of Earth. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 or BIOL 110

GEOL 265: Biogeochemistry

This course explores fundamental cycles between earth's major reservoirs of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon and water. Through lecture and group presentations, students will gain a solid understanding of the fundamentals of biogeochemical cycles and the mechanism underlying the biological transformations of those elements. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Biology 265, Environmental Studies 265
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 or GEOL 110

GEOL 340: Advanced Geochemistry

A more detailed investigation of geochemical principles and processes through the investigation of important geochemical issues. Readings come heavily from the primary literature.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 330
Prerequisite: GEOL 240 and CHEM 115, or consent of instructor; CHEM 116 recommended

GEOL 360: Physics of the Earth: Surface Environments

This course studies the movement of water, solute, and sediment through the landscape and the resulting properties and distribution of surficial earth materials and landforms. Topics include weathering; soil development; runoff; mass movement; river, glacial, and coastal processes; and deposition in sedimentary environments. One lab per week.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 335
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 and 240 or consent of instructor; PHYS 141 or 151 recommended

GEOL 370: Physics of the Earth: Sub-Surface Processes

Introduction to the study of the mechanics of Earth’s crust and mantle, including mountain-building processes, seismicity and faulting, mantle convection, interpretation of deformed rocks. Four-day field trip late in term. One lab per week.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: GEOL 240 or consent of instructor

GEOL 390: Tutorial Studies in Geology

Advanced work, arranged and carried out in consultation with an instructor.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 391: Directed Study in Geology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 395: Internship in Geology

An opportunity for students to gain work experience in industry, government, or the non-profit sector. The academic component, supervised by a Lawrence instructor, includes readings, discussion with the instructor, and a formal presentation and written report, which can be used to satisfy the geology department’s senior seminar requirement. (Grades are based on this academic work.) Intended to be used for research that is later developed into an honors project. Applications for an internship must be submitted by the fifth week of the term preceding the proposed internship.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 399: Independent Study in Geology

Advanced research, arranged in consultation with the department. Students considering an honors project should register for this course, for one or more terms.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 430: Watershed Hydrology

An introduction to the basic components of the hydrologic cycle, focusing on surface water and groundwater systems. Measurement and analysis of hydrologic data are emphasized. Application to contemporary issues such as flooding, watershed development, and groundwater contamination will be discussed.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 430
Prerequisite: GEOL 110; PHYS 141 or 151 recommended

GEOL 520: Seminar in Selected Topics in Geology

An opportunity for students to read and analyze primary literature on significant topics in geology.

Topic for Spring 2019: The Art of Geology
An exploration of the intersections between the geosciences and visual arts, including the evolving aesthetic conventions for illustrations in geologic textbooks and professional journals; new approaches to the graphical depiction of large and complex datasets; and the capacity for artworks to communicate scientific ideas to the public. Each student will design and create a two- or three-dimensional work that embodies geologic information or conveys a geologic concept, to be displayed in a collective exhibit at the end of the term.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Open to students with a declared major in the natural sciences

GEOL 550: Seminar in Field Geology

During spring break, winter break, or prior to Term I, students conduct field investigations at an area of geological complexity, such as the Grand Canyon, Death Valley, Wyoming, Hawaii, the Florida Keys, southern Colorado, or Puerto Rico. May be repeated for credit when topic is different.
Units: 3.
Prerequisite: GEOL 110 and consent of instructor

GEOL 580: Junior Seminar in Geology

The goal of the Junior Seminar is to engage geology majors in the scientific process. The course begins with consideration of the history of geology as a discipline. We discuss modes of thinking that are shared with other scientific disciplines as well as those unique to the geosciences, and we read seminal papers that shaped the development of the field. With the guidance of a faculty member, each student identifies a topic to investigate in depth. Students lead discussions, prepare literature reviews and give final presentations on their topics. The topic a student explores in the junior seminar may be (but is not required to be) the same as the one studied intensively in the Senior Capstone course (GEOL 620). For some students, the junior seminar topic may also be linked to a research project to be continued over the summer and/or through the student's senior year as an independent study or honors project.
Units: 3.
Prerequisite: Declared geology major or minor and junior standing, or consent of instructor.

GEOL 590: Tutorial Studies in Geology

Advanced work, arranged and carried out in consultation with an instructor.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 591: Directed Study in Geology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 595: Internship in Geology

An opportunity for students to gain work experience in industry, government, or the non-profit sector. The academic component, supervised by a Lawrence instructor, includes readings, discussion with the instructor, and a formal presentation and written report, which can be used to satisfy the geology department’s senior seminar requirement. (Grades are based on this academic work.) Intended to be used for research that is later developed into an honors project. Applications for an internship must be submitted by the fifth week of the term preceding the proposed internship.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 599: Independent Study in Geology

Advanced research, arranged in consultation with the department. Students considering an honors project should register for this course, for one or more terms.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 620: Senior Capstone in Geology

The goal of this course is to assist geology majors in becoming scientific practitioners. The course places emphasis on framing testable hypotheses, collecting and analyzing meaningful datasets, and developing models of geologic phenomena. Each student applies these skills to a particular project or problem in the earth sciences.
Units: 3.
Prerequisite: GEOL 580, declared geology major or minor and senior standing, or consent of instructor.

GEOL 690: Tutorial Studies in Geology

Advanced work, arranged and carried out in consultation with an instructor.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 691: Directed Study in Geology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 695: Internship in Geology

An opportunity for students to gain work experience in industry, government, or the non-profit sector. The academic component, supervised by a Lawrence instructor, includes readings, discussion with the instructor, and a formal presentation and written report, which can be used to satisfy the geology department’s senior seminar requirement. (Grades are based on this academic work.) Intended to be used for research that is later developed into an honors project. Applications for an internship must be submitted by the fifth week of the term preceding the proposed internship.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

GEOL 699: Independent Study in Geology

Advanced research, arranged in consultation with the department. Students considering an honors project should register for this course, for one or more terms.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

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