Please note: The information displayed here is current as of Saturday, March 24, 2018, but the official Course Catalog should be used for all official planning.

2016-2017 Course Catalog

Period: 2017-20182016-20172015-20162014-20152013-2014

This catalog was created on Saturday, March 24, 2018.

Student-Initiated Courses and Programs


Honors Projects

Honors projects are coherent programs of independent work carried out by students, usually in their senior year, on subjects or problems of more than ordinary difficulty in areas they have studied in considerable depth, usually in their majors or closely related areas. An honors project may also be a work of creative, visual or performing art. Senior Experience projects may be submitted as honors projects if they fulfill all of the requirements for cum laude honors. It is up to each individual department to decide whether an honors project will be accepted as satisfying the Senior Experience requirement for the major.

Successful honors projects receive Latin Honors in Independent Study at graduation in three grades: cum laude (with distinction), magna cum laude (with great distinction) and summa cum laude (with highest distinction). These levels are awarded by vote of the faculty acting on the recommendation of the university Honors Committee. Honors are indicated in the Commencement program and on official transcripts.

Planning for an honors project

Since honors projects frequently complement students’ work in their majors, students should discuss the opportunities for independent study with faculty members in their fields of concentration as early as possible in order to begin laying appropriate foundations in courses, tutorial work and summer reading. In some fields, tutorials or courses in research methods can lead to the formulation of suitable thesis topics and methods of attack, while in other fields topics may stem from unanswered problems in regular courses, from students’ own interests or from teachers’ suggestions. Whatever the field, students ought to keep in mind the possibility of doing an honors project as they plan their programs, especially in the junior year, or earlier if they will be off-campus at that time. If it is agreeable to both the student and advisor, an honors project may be undertaken while a student or advisor is off-campus. Students do not have to take an independent study course in order to submit an honors project.

Projects undertaken jointly may be submitted for Honors in Independent Study. The work involved in such cases, however, must be equitably shared and demonstrate benefits clearly resulting from the merger of the authors’ different skills and knowledge. Students considering joint projects must obtain the consent of their faculty advisor(s) and the Honors Committee well in advance of such endeavors.

The faculty advisor

Students’ project advisors are responsible for providing guidance in regard to format and the conventions of scholarly documentation pertinent to their disciplines. Advisors are also expected to periodically review the progress of their students’ research or creative activity.

All voting members of Lawrence University’s faculty may serve as advisors of honors projects. If the honors project advisor is a non-voting member of the faculty, he or she must enlist a voting member of the faculty to serve as a co-sponsor of the proposed project and periodically consult with the co-sponsor as the project develops. A voting member of the faculty is one with academic rank (instructor, assistant professor, professor, etc.) and does not have to be tenure-track or full-time. Emeriti professors are considered voting members of the faculty during those terms in which they are teaching. Fellows may act as honors project advisors. Visiting faculty may act as honors project advisors at the discretion of the Honors Committee.

Statement of intent

To apply for Honors in Independent Study, a student must send to the Honors Committee a Statement of Intent to submit a thesis in candidacy for honors. This statement includes the student’s contact information, title of the project, department and both the student’s and faculty advisor’s signatures. The final date for receipt of such Statements of Intent is announced at the beginning of each term to all juniors and seniors and is posted on the honors projects website. Statements do not obligate students to submit projects, but no project will be considered for honors unless the committee has received a Statement of Intent.

The honors thesis

The thesis need not be of any special form or length, provided that its form and length are appropriate to the discipline. Nevertheless, since physical copies of all accepted theses are permanently retained in the Lawrence University Archives and digital copies are housed in Lux, Lawrence University’s institutional repository, the form of honors projects is subject to a few standardized regulations suggested by the librarians and endorsed by the Honors Committee. The chair of the committee may be consulted about these regulations.

Upon completion of the project, sufficient copies of the thesis, one for each member of the examining committee and the Honors Committee representative, are to be submitted to the chair of the Honors Committee at a place and by a date and hour designated each term. Students who find themselves unable to meet this deadline may petition the Honors Committee for an extension, but they must do so well in advance of the deadline. The committee usually approves such petitions only when circumstances beyond the candidate’s control have arisen.

Even though the Honors Committee permits candidates to correct minor typographical errors or to make such other minor corrections as their examiners may require, it emphasizes that theses must be in final form when they are submitted prior to the oral examination. Candidates must assume responsibility for accurate proofreading and checking of all quotations and references. Frequent misspellings, faulty punctuation or syntax, omitted references or stylistic incoherence will disqualify projects despite the intrinsic merit they may otherwise exhibit. Candidates are therefore encouraged to work with their advisors and/or tutors from the Center for Academic Success to ensure the quality of their work: clear, well-organized writing; consistent bibliographic citations appropriate to the discipline and the absence of grammatical or typographical flaws.

Projects involving testing of hypotheses

One important purpose of honors projects is to provide opportunities to evaluate students’ knowledge of an area, their skill in employing that knowledge in experimentation, and their care and cleverness in approaching the task of testing their hypotheses. Thus, if a project allows these evaluations to be made, it should be considered for honors despite the vicissitudes of fortune that may attend the project. In particular, the failure to obtain significant positive results when testing a hypothesis or a network of hypotheses ought not to disqualify a candidate from achieving honors, provided that those professionally competent in the area agree that this failure was not due to a lack of care, to a lack of skill or knowledge in the field or to a lack of competence in techniques or experimental design. Mere diligence, on the other hand, is not a sufficient ground for the awarding of honors.

Students whose projects have not achieved their expected results should give the best accounts they can of the ways in which they probed for additional operative variables that were uncontrolled in their previous experiments, of the reasons why the failures could not have been anticipated by skillful experimenters in the crucial beginning stages, and of their careful attempts to locate the difficulties.

Projects in the arts

Students interested in submitting an exhibition, performance or work of art, music, theatre or imaginative literature as an honors project must follow the normal procedures for honors work and must be willing to engage in a discussion of their work. A brief essay—as preface, foreword, introduction, afterword, postscript or critical review—must accompany any such creative work. The essay should clarify and illuminate the work in a manner appropriate to genre, form or medium and may include the aims of the project, its formal and stylistic precedents, its techniques and the limitations and potential of the project. In the arts, the project itself clearly remains the most important component to be evaluated by the examining committee. Here is a list of supplementary guidelines for honors projects in the arts:

  • A project in the arts may be undertaken in any discipline (e.g., biology, physics, history, etc.), keeping in mind that Honors in Independent Study are university awards.
  • If a project in the arts consists of a performance, audio-visual documentation in both digital and hard copy (DVD, CD, photographs, etc.) must be included with the final project for archiving, along with a performance program. If the project is an art exhibition, visual documentation and an exhibition catalog in digital and hard copies must also be included. If the project is web based, arrangements must be made to create an archive copy. Materials will be archived in physical form as well as in Lux, the digital repository.
  • The supplementary essay should be six to 10 or more pages in length. A bibliography and appropriate documentation may or may not be necessary, depending on the content of the paper.
  • Criteria for Honors in Independent Study should be used primarily to evaluate the arts project itself, for which the essay provides context, and the subsequent oral examination. The essay, while not primary to the evaluation, must nevertheless be clearly organized, well-written and free of error, and its content must display a high quality of thought and presentation and be accurate, meaningful and appropriate to the project.

The examining committee

The examining committee evaluates the results of each project, conducts an oral examination of the honors candidate and considers what constitutes the appropriate level of honors in view of the strengths and weaknesses of the work and oral defense in relation to the criteria for Honors in Independent Study.

The project advisor, in consultation with the student and with the assent of the Honors Committee, appoints an examining committee consisting of at least three voting faculty members, one of whom must be from outside the project’s department. Faculty within the Conservatory may serve as outside members for examination of honors projects in other Conservatory departments. For example, a faculty member in the voice department may serve as an outside member on an exam in jazz and improvisation. The project advisor, if a voting member of the faculty, acts as one of the three voting members of the committee. If the advisor is a non-voting member of the faculty, the co-sponsor acts as one of the three examining committee members, and the non-voting advisor attends the oral examination and participates in all aspects of the committee’s discussion of the project except voting on whether to award honors and the level of honors to be awarded. Fellows may not act as voting members of examining committees. At the discretion of the advisor, after consultation with the student, an additional Lawrence faculty member or an outside expert who is uniquely qualified to shed insight into the quality of the project may also attend the examination. These individuals may not take part in the decision-making process.

The Honors Committee assigns its own representative to act as the non-voting moderator during the oral examination. Sitting members of the Honors Committee and other members of the Lawrence University community may be asked to serve as Honors Committee representatives. The Honors Committee representative reports the results of the examination to the Honors Committee prior to its last meeting. The Honors Committee reviews the recommendations of each examining committee and submits its recommendations for Honors in Independent Study to the faculty for final approval.

The examining committee recommends honors on the basis of the criteria below, not on the criteria a professional journal would use to determine whether to publish a thesis in a given area of research based on the review of professionals in that field. In other words, Honors in Independent Study is not limited to students whose work would compete successfully with that of their professors for publication in professional journals.

Criteria for honors in independent study

The following criteria are used in evaluating all Honors in Independent Study projects:

Cum Laude—honors with distinction

To achieve honors, the project must fulfill all of the following criteria:

  1. Theoretical understanding: The work demonstrates a substantial knowledge of, and facility with, previous work, underlying principles and central concepts or theories in areas relevant to the project.
  2. Originality: The work clearly shows that the student has established an original thesis or hypothesis, an original interpretation or analysis, a substantial and original synthesis or innovative pedagogical exposition of a sophisticated body of established work or has created a new work of art. In other words, the student must demonstrate that the project does not merely replicate, review, paraphrase or compile previous work by others.
  3. Quality: The work itself is of very high quality and is clear, well-organized and stylistically sound. The paper appropriately frames the original material in the project within the context of established work or relevant traditions in the discipline.
  4. Format: The work provides documentation (e.g., bibliographic citations, tables and figures, illustrations) appropriate to the discipline and contains few and relatively minor grammatical or typographical flaws.
  5. Research/Creative Process: The project has been carried out competently, diligently, independently and in a manner that fulfills the basic standards of the discipline.
  6. Oral Exam: The oral examination reaffirms the student’s facility with relevant principles, concepts and background material; the originality of the contribution and the high quality of the work.

Magna Cum Laude—honors with great distinction

In addition to fulfilling the criteria described above, the project must fulfill all of the following criteria:

  1. Theoretical Understanding: The work demonstrates a level of mastery of, and facility with, relevant previous work, underlying principles and central concepts or theories of which few undergraduates are capable, as well as a solid grasp of related but peripheral material.
  2. Originality: The thesis, interpretation, analysis, synthesis, pedagogical exposition or creative endeavor encompassed by the project demonstrates unusual and substantial creativity, conceptual innovation or theoretical sophistication (i.e., an unusual degree of independence of thought) on the part of the student.
  3. Quality: The work itself is of outstanding quality and is particularly well-written, lucid and compelling. The framing of the original material in the project within the context of established work or relevant traditions is remarkably sophisticated, revealing a sensitive and advanced understanding of the relationship between the student’s contribution and established traditions or theories.
  4. Format: The paper contains almost no grammatical or typographical flaws.
  5. Research/Creative Process: The project has been carried out with a degree of technical competence, diligence and independence of which few undergraduates are capable.
  6. Oral Exam: The oral examination reaffirms the outstanding quality of the work. The student is able to give complete, clear, well-organized and satisfying responses to the examiners’ questions without the need for much guidance or prompting from the examiners.

Summa Cum Laude—honors with highest distinction

This level of honors is rarely achieved and is reserved for those instances in which all components of the project demonstrate a superlative level of excellence. In addition to fulfilling the criteria described above, the project must fulfill all of the following criteria:

  1. Theoretical Understanding: The work not only demonstrates an exceptional level of mastery of, and facility with, relevant previous work, underlying principles and central concepts or theories but also a sophisticated and original critical perspective on this material (i.e., the student possesses informed opinions about the strengths and weaknesses of previous work, theories and traditions in the area). The student not only intimately understands relevant background material but also has the ability to view this material critically in a wider intellectual context.
  2. Originality: The thesis, interpretation, analysis, synthesis, pedagogical exposition or creative endeavor encompassed by the project demonstrates a superlative level of creativity, conceptual innovation or theoretical sophistication on the part of the student.
  3. Quality: The work itself exceeds all expectations and is exceedingly well-written, compelling and engaging. The framing of the original material in the project within the context of established work or relevant traditions is elegant and subtle, revealing a rare and exceedingly advanced understanding of how the student’s project represents a significant contribution to established traditions or theories
  4. Format: The paper is technically flawless.
  5. Research/Creative Process: The project has been carried out with a superlative level of technical competence, sophistication, diligence and independence.
  6. Oral Exam: The oral examination reaffirms that the work is a rare achievement that makes an original and sophisticated contribution. The student is able to give extraordinarily complete and persuasive responses to the examiners’ questions without the need for guidance or prompting from the examiners.

Special instructions for projects in the arts

The above criteria are used in evaluating all Honors in Independent Study projects with the exception of the brief paper written for a project in the arts. While the paper for a project in the arts must be clearly organized and well-written, contain appropriate documentation when needed and display a high quality of thought and presentation, it is considered to be supplementary to the work itself. In the arts, the criteria listed above should be used primarily to evaluate the project itself and the subsequent oral examination.

Individualized Learning

Individualized Learning Opportunities

Students may customize their learning through individualized course options and student-designed majors as described below.

Individualized course options

Students have the opportunity for individual or small group learning through directed study, tutorials, independent study or academic internships, as well as private music lessons. The university also offers a writing-for-credit option for other courses.

Directed study

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work. Students may meet frequently with the faculty supervisor or work more independently, completing assignments according to a schedule agreed upon in advance. Typically several assignments and/or exams are used to evaluate student learning. Directed Study courses may be numbered 191, 391, 591 or 691.

Directed study may be used to deliver content from an existing course (whether because there are too few students enrolled or because the course is not currently being offered), to develop a possible new course offering or to direct a student in a defined course of study beyond the existing curriculum.


A tutorial is a primarily student-driven course of study undertaken by an individual student or small group of students in collaboration with one or more faculty members. The primary goal of a tutorial is expansion, refinement, and synthesis of knowledge and abilities through in-depth exploration of a specific topic. Tutorials supplement regular course offerings, especially in the junior and senior years, by extending the curriculum in depth or breadth according to the intersecting interests of students and faculty members. Pedagogical approaches vary, but tutorials typically feature significant reading plus integrative writing, speaking or performance assignments, problem solving and discussion. Regular conferences (typically once or twice a week) with the supervising faculty member or members focus on presentation and critique of student work. Tutorials are numbered 390, 590, or 690.

A tutorial may be undertaken to satisfy personal academic interest, to prepare for advanced or graduate study, or to lay the groundwork for an independent study, Senior Experience or honors project.

To illustrate the variety and scope of tutorial studies, many academic departments have listed a number of recent tutorial topics at the end of their departmental listings in the “Courses of Study” section of this catalog. Because tutorials develop out of student interest, these topics should not be construed as offerings but as samples of the topics students have recently elected to pursue.

Independent study

Independent study carries the student beyond the established curriculum into largely student-directed work that in most disciplines is expected to result in the generation of new scholarship or the creation of a new work or performance. Scholarship may take the form of generating new information through research or a new conceptual formulation based on existing knowledge. Creative activity may result in a new composition or other work of art, or a new performance of an existing work. The nature of the faculty-student interaction, methodology and final work or performance may vary according to the goal of the project and the needs and preparation of the student. Through independent study, the student refines and applies abilities acquired in previous coursework while producing new work typical of the discipline. Independent studies are numbered 399, 599 or 699.

At the outset of independent study, the student and supervising faculty member should define and agree upon clear goals, plans for communicating and assessing progress, and criteria for evaluating the student’s work. For independent study lasting more than one term, the student and faculty member should discuss and assess progress at the end of each term. If either party concludes that it would not be beneficial for the student to continue, the student may be assigned a grade for completed or additionally assigned work and not be required to enroll for the next term. Students who continue into the next term may be assigned a temporary grade of In Progress (IP), which will be replaced by the final grade assigned at the end of the independent study period.

Where appropriate, two students may engage in collaborative independent study, and an interdisciplinary independent study may involve more than one faculty mentor. Independent study may be undertaken to pursue a project of personal academic interest, to prepare for graduate study, to meet the requirements for a Senior Experience or to complete work for an honors project.

Academic internships

Lawrence recognizes that a student’s education can be enhanced by the combination of academic and experience-based learning. Academic internships provide students an opportunity to apply what they have learned in the classroom and to bring back to the classroom an enriched perspective on their learning.

Where academic departments find that the interaction of academic pursuits and work experience is both appropriate to their relevant disciplines and feasible in terms of available work experiences, they normally offer academic internships. These internship courses are listed in this catalog under departmental offerings, and they are offered at differing levels of the curriculum. Where no departmental internship exists, student-designed internships may be proposed to the Instruction Committee. Proposals must be submitted to the Instruction Committee by the end of the fifth week of the term before the start of the internship.

Students may take a maximum of 12 units of academic internship in fulfillment of their major, minor or graduation requirements. Academic internships require prior approval by the relevant academic department (in cases where a departmental internship is available) or by a faculty supervisor/academic department and the Instruction Committee (in cases where a departmental internship is not available). Academic internships may be paid or unpaid.

Students enrolled in academic internships engage in work or service experiences with intentional learning objectives that promote reflection throughout the experience and that relate to their academic interests. Site and faculty supervisors work closely with the students and provide evaluations of the students’ activities at the end of the internship.

The academic component of the internship includes readings related to the substance of the internship, discussions with the faculty supervisor and a written report appropriate to the discipline. Course grades are based on this academic work.

Application forms for student-designed academic internships may be obtained from the Registrar’s Office, the Center for Academic Success, Career Services and the Main Hall, Briggs Hall, Conservatory and Wriston Art Center offices.

Music lessons

Private instruction for non-music majors is available by permission of the instructor based on audition or interview and faculty schedules. The fees for private lessons and the use of practice facilities are $300 per term for a half-hour lesson each week and $600 per term for a 1-hour lesson each week. Group piano lesson are also available. Information is available in the Conservatory of Music office.

Writing for credit

Students may write for credit (with permission of the instructor) in any course in the curriculum other than directed study, tutorials, independent study, academic internships or Freshman Studies. They should consult the instructor for permission to write for credit; the instructor will then specify a program and schedule of reading, examinations and papers.

To register, a student must supply the registrar with a memorandum containing the name of the course and the signatures of the student’s advisor and the instructor of the course. The work must be completed in one year. Courses do not become part of a student’s record until the instructor reports that the required work has been satisfactorily completed. The letter grade will be recorded for the term in which the grade is reported.

Students who have opted for billing by the course under the incremental fee plan will be charged for the credit earned by writing for credit and reported that term.

Student-designed majors

Student-designed majors provide an opportunity for students to develop areas of concentration outside established programs for interdisciplinary or departmental majors. Like all majors, those that are student-designed should meet the following objectives: greater knowledge of the field under study; increased methodological sophistication; and the integration of sometimes disparate but related areas of study that fall within the proposed major. Student-designed majors must be based on areas of faculty expertise and regularly offered courses. The major should not be heavily reliant on tutorials, independent studies or a single faculty member.

The procedure for establishing a student-designed major is relatively simple:

  1. The student elects a general topical area and identifies a member of the faculty who is willing to act as advisor.
  2. With the advisor, the student develops a statement on the planned major. The statement indicates (a) how the major will serve the objectives of an area of concentration; (b) what educational or other objectives the student seeks to meet; and (c) the courses that have been taken or will be taken that would fit into the major and the proposed Senior Experience. In the statement, the student and the advisor have the responsibility to show that the proposed objectives can best be satisfied outside established programs of study. (d) Proposed coursework should include a reasonable distribution across the introductory, intermediate and advanced levels. As a guideline, regular majors for the Bachelor of Arts degree typically require 9 to 12 courses and a Senior Experience. (e) Self-designed majors should not be proposed in areas that are better served by existing majors and minors.
  3. The advisor and the student invite two other members of the faculty who are supportive of the proposed major to serve as the student’s advisory panel for the major. The panel is responsible for overseeing the program and for reviewing minor changes — e.g., in course selections, topics for an honors paper, etc. One member of the panel should be designated as an alternate advisor in case the principal advisor goes on leave or teaches at an overseas campus that the student does not attend. It is the student's responsibility to check with the department chairs whether proposed courses in the major will be offered in the terms indicated. If the Senior Experience will be done as an independent study, the student also needs the signed commitment of a faculty member for that independent study.
  4. The student submits the statement of the proposed major, endorsed by the faculty advisor and members of the panel, and a transcript to the Instruction Committee (for the Bachelor of Arts degree) or the Conservatory Committee on Administration (for the Bachelor of Music degree) before the end of Term I of the student’s junior year. Students wishing an extension to this deadline should contact the chair of the relevant committee. Faculty members who endorse the statement accept responsibility for supervising the major if it receives committee approval.
  5. The Instruction Committee takes action on the proposed major and communicates its action to the registrar, the student, the faculty advisor and members of the panel.

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