Course Catalog
2015-2016

2015-2016 Course Catalog

Period: 2018-20192017-20182016-20172015-20162014-2015

This catalog was created on Sunday, March 24, 2019.


Table of Contents

About Lawrence

The Liberal Arts Education

Structure of the Curriculum

Academic Planning

Degree Requirements

Divisions within the University

Lawrence University organizes its curricular programs and offerings into divisions that are further described in the degree requirements. The divisions are as follows:

  • Humanities: Chinese, Classics, English, French and Francophone Studies, German, History, Japanese, Philosophy, Religious Studies, Russian and Spanish.
  • Natural sciences: Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics and Computer Science and Physics.
  • Social sciences: Anthropology, Economics, Education Studies, Government, and Psychology.
  • Fine arts: Art and Art History, Music and Theatre Arts.

Interdisciplinary programs, such as Biomedical Ethics, East Asian Studies, Environmental Studies, Ethnic Studies, Gender Studies and Linguistics are usually non-divisional. However, such non-divisional courses, as well as education and university courses may be assigned divisional affiliations when appropriate.

Residence Requirements

To qualify for a Lawrence University B.A. or B.Mus. degree, students are required to have a minimum of six terms in residence and earn 108 units (Lawrence foreign study programs, Associated Colleges of the Midwest programs, and other special arrangements under Lawrence sponsorship included). Nine terms in residence and 162 units are required for the five-year B.A. and B.Mus. double-degree program.

Students must be in residence on the Appleton campus until they have completed the Freshman Studies requirement.

The last three terms of work and a minimum of 54 units submitted for the graduation requirements must be done in residence unless a department (or departments, or advisory committee, where appropriate) previously has certified completion of the requirements for a major. This requirement, or one of its parts, may be waived by the admissions office in the case of incoming transfer students or by the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration in any other cases.

Bachelor of Arts Degree

Students seeking the Bachelor of Arts degree will complete approximately one-third of their work in each of three areas: Freshman Studies and General Education, a major, and elective study. The Freshman Studies and General Education Requirements are designed to promote the breadth of study central to a liberal arts education, perspective on issues critical to a diverse America and an interconnected world, and the development of skills essential for success in any discipline or profession. The completion of a major provides focused, in-depth work in a single discipline. Elective study affords students opportunities to develop secondary interests, work in areas complementary to their primary discipline, or explore new fields of study.

Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts Degree

  1. Completion of 216 units. Of the 216 units required for the degree, a student must present:
    1. a minimum of 72 units from courses numbered 200 or above
    2. no more than 162 units from a single division
    3. no more than 90 units from a single department, except that in the art department a student may present no more than 126 units, no more than 90 of which may be in studio art and no more than 90 of which may be in art history.
    4. no more than 42 units in education
    5. no more than 12 units from academic internships
  2. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies
  3. Completion of the General Education Requirements:
    1. Distribution, in order to gain exposure to a range of disciplines, subjects, and perspectives within the liberal arts:
      1. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Humanities. All courses in the Humanities taught in English will count toward this requirement. Humanities courses taught in a foreign language and numbered 300 and above will count toward this requirement, except as noted in the course catalog.
      2. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Fine Arts;
      3. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Social Sciences;
      4. 6 units selected from laboratory courses in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics in the Division of Natural Sciences.
      See Distribution: divisions within the university.
    2. Diversity, in order to prepare students for a more global world and a more diverse America:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States;
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as focusing on dimensions of diversity, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, that are of particular importance in understanding contemporary society in the United States.
    3. Competency, in order to improve and reinforce those fundamental abilities central to a liberal arts education:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive or 6 units selected from courses designated as speaking intensive;
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as emphasizing mathematical reasoning or quantitative analysis;
      3. 6 units in a foreign language taken from courses numbered 200 or above and taught primarily in a language other than English. This requirement may also be satisfied by attaining a score of 4 or 5 on an Advanced Placement examination in a foreign language or by passing a proficiency examination administered by a Lawrence University foreign language department.

    Stipulations Pertaining to the General Education Requirements

    Qualified courses may count toward the requirements in any two of the categories above (distribution, diversity, and competency). Some courses may meet two requirements within a category. No single course can be used to fulfill more than two requirements.
     
    Credits granted pursuant to university policy for examinations (Lawrence Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), or A-levels) may be used as appropriate to fulfill diversity or competency requirements only (see also Evaluation of Credit for Transfer Students).
  4. Completion of a major — departmental, interdisciplinary, or student-designed — including all course and non-course requirements, such as departmental examinations, research projects and presentations, portfolios, etc. Students are required to declare a major by the beginning of the junior year.
  5. Completion of the designated Senior Experience course or activity within the chosen major.
  6. An academic record that meets the following standards:
    1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses.
    2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the college major (all courses taken in the major department and any required courses outside the major department).
  7. Completion of the required terms and units in residence as specified by the university residence requirements.

Bachelor of Music Degree

The Bachelor of Music is a professional degree. Courses in music represent approximately two-thirds of the curriculum, while one-third is devoted to Freshman Studies and General Education Requirements.

In addition to academic policies and regulations, students in the conservatory are subject to policies and procedures detailed in conservatory department guidelines and the Conservatory Student Handbook.

Admission to the Degree

An entrance audition is required of all applicants for admission to the Bachelor of Music degree. Bachelor of Arts students who wish to become Bachelor of Music students must petition the Conservatory Committee on Administration for admission. Bachelor of Music students who wish to become Bachelor of Arts students must petition the University Faculty Subcommittee on Administration for acceptance into the Bachelor of Arts degree program. Such changes are not normally allowed before the end of the freshman year nor later than the beginning of the junior year.

Degree Requirements

  1. Completion of a minimum of 216 units. The following music courses are used in the computation of the degree grade-point average but are excluded from the total of 216 units required for the degree: MURP 201, 202, 203, 301, 302 and MUTH 161, 162, 171, 172.
  2. Of the 216 units required to complete the degree, a student must present:
    1. a minimum of 144 units in music
    2. a minimum of 60 units in courses other than music.
    3. no more than 12 units from academic internships
    The additional 12 units may be selected from any department.
  3. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies.
  4. Completion of the General Education Requirements:
    1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive
    2. International diversity. One of the following:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States
      2. 12 units selected from courses numbered below 200 in a single foreign language. This requirement may also be satisfied by attaining a score of 4 or 5 on an Advanced Placement examination or by passing a proficiency examination administered by a Lawrence University foreign language department.
      3. Participation for one term in a Lawrence or affiliated off-campus study program held outside the United States
    Note: While some music courses may satisfy General Education Requirements, a minimum of 60 units in courses other than music is required for the degree.

    Stipulations Pertaining to the General Education Requirements

    A single course may be used to satisfy both requirement a. and requirement b. above. Credits granted pursuant to university policy for advanced placement or for transfer work may be used to fulfill General Education Requirement (see also Evaluation of Credit for Transfer Students).
  5. Completion of music core requirements:
    1. Music theory
      1. MUTH 151, 161, 171 or MUTH 201, 211, 221
      2. MUTH 152, 162, 172 or MUTH 202, 212, 222
      3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
      4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
      5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
    2. Musicology
      1. MUCO 201 and 202
      2. 12 units selected from courses in musicology numbered 400 or above
    3. Keyboard skills: MURP 201, 202, 203 or MURP 301, 302
    4. Applied music individual instruction as specified under requirements for the major and areas of emphasis
    5. Ensemble study: a minimum of 12 units. Students are required to participate in an ensemble every term in which they are attending classes on the Appleton campus. Requirements for specific types of ensemble study (MUEN) are specified under requirements for majors and areas of emphasis.
  6. Completion of a major in music — performance, music education, theory/composition, or student-designed — including all course and non-course requirements, such as recitals, qualifying examinations, etc.
  7. An academic record that meets the following standards:
    1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses.
    2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the music major (all music courses and non-music courses required for the major) unless otherwise specified under the major requirements.
  8. Completion of required terms and units in residence as specified by the residence requirements.

Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Music Degree

Professional study in music and study in the liberal arts may be combined in a five-year program leading to both Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Arts degrees, the latter with a major other than music. Both degrees are awarded at the conclusion of the five-year program. Interested students should discuss this possibility with their advisors as early as possible.

Approximately half of the curriculum is devoted to the study of music — completion of the music core and requirements for a major in performance, music education, or theory/composition. The other half of the curriculum mirrors that of the Bachelor of Arts program, emphasizing breadth of study central to a liberal arts education, focused study in the college major, and elective study to complement other work or explore other fields of interest.

Certain majors in the Bachelor of Arts degree program (for example, some laboratory sciences) may be difficult to combine with the Bachelor of Music degree program into a five-year double-degree program, especially if the student’s objective is to maintain serious options for graduate or professional work in both areas after graduation. Such combinations may require that course overloads be taken to complete minimum requirements in each major in a timely and satisfactory manner. Early and regular consultation with advisors in both the college and the conservatory is imperative. Further, students who seek certification for purposes of teaching a subject other than music are urged to see the associate dean of the conservatory.

In addition to academic policies and regulations, students in the conservatory are subject to policies and procedures detailed in conservatory department guidelines and the Conservatory Student Handbook.

Requirements for the five-year Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Music Degrees

  1. Completion of a minimum of 15 terms of study and 270 units. Of the 270 units required, a student must present:
    1. a minimum of 144 units in music, exclusive of MURP 201, 202, 203, 301, 302 and MUTH 161, 162, 171, 172
    2. a minimum of 114 units selected from courses other than music
    3. no more than 42 units from courses in education
    4. a minimum of 72 units from courses numbered 200 and above
    5. no more than 90 units from a single department outside of music, except that in the art department a student may present no more than 126 units, no more than 90 of which may be in art and no more than 90 of which may be in art history
    6. no more than 12 units from academic internships
  2. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies.
  3. Completion of the General Education Requirements:
    1. Distribution, in order to gain exposure to a range of disciplines, subjects, and perspectives within the liberal arts:
      1. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Humanities. All courses in the humanities taught in English will count toward this requirement. Humanities courses taught in a foreign language and numbered 300 and above also will count toward this requirement, except as noted in the course catalog.
      2. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Fine Arts;
      3. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Social Sciences;
      4. 6 units selected from laboratory courses in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics in the Division of Natural Sciences
    2. Diversity, in order to prepare students for a more global world and a more diverse America:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States;
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as focusing on dimensions of diversity, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, that are of particular importance in understanding contemporary society in the United States.
    3. Competency, in order to improve and reinforce those fundamental abilities central to a liberal arts education:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive or 6 units selected from courses designated as speaking intensive;
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as emphasizing mathematical reasoning or quantitative analysis;
      3. 6 units in a foreign language taken from courses numbered 200 or above and taught primarily in a language other than English. This requirement may also be satisfied by attaining a score of 4 or 5 on an Advanced Placement examination in a foreign language or by passing a proficiency examination administered by a Lawrence University foreign language department.

    Stipulations pertaining to the General Education Requirements

    Qualified courses may count toward the requirements in any two of the categories above (distribution, diversity, and competency). Some courses may meet two requirements within a category. No single course can be used to fulfill more than two requirements. Credits granted pursuant to university policy for examinations (Lawrence Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), or A-levels) may be used as appropriate to fulfill diversity or competency requirements only.
  4. Completion of a college major — departmental, interdisciplinary, or student-designed — exclusive of music, including all course and non-course requirements, such as departmental examinations, research projects and presentations, portfolios, etc. Students are required to declare a major by the beginning of the junior year.
  5. Completion of music core requirements:
    1. Music Theory
      1. MUTH 151, 161, 171 or MUTH 201, 211, 221
      2. MUTH 152, 162, 172 or MUTH 202, 212, 222
      3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
      4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
      5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
    2. Musicology
      1. MUCO 201 and 202
      2. 12 units selected from courses in musicology numbered 400 or above
    3. Keyboard skills: MURP 201, 202, 203 or MURP 301, 302
    4. Applied music individual instruction as specified under requirements for the major and areas of emphasis
    5. Ensemble study: a minimum of 12 units. Students are required to participate in an ensemble every term in which they are attending classes on the Appleton campus. Requirements for specific types of ensemble study (MUEN) are specified under requirements for majors and areas of emphasis.
    6. Completion of a major in music — performance, music education, theory/composition, or student-designed — including all course and non-course requirements, such as recitals, qualifying examinations, etc.
    7. Completion of a designated Senior Experience course or activity within the chosen majors for each degree.
    8. An academic record that meets the following standards:
      1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses.
      2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the music major (all music courses and non-music courses required for the major) unless otherwise specified under the major requirements.
    9. Completion of required terms and units in residence as specified by the university residence requirements

Cooperative Degree Programs

A liberal arts education provides excellent preparation for careers in a variety of professions. For this reason, several professional schools have contracted with Lawrence for cooperative programs that enable students to build a foundation in the liberal arts and then acquire specific professional skills. These programs lead, in most cases, to the awarding of two degrees.

The Lawrence cooperative programs listed below generally provide for students to study at Lawrence for three years and then transfer to a professional school for two more years. To qualify for a Lawrence degree in these programs, students must earn 162 units and fulfill all other degree requirements that cannot be met in the professional school. Students must undertake careful planning with the professional advisors and with their own faculty advisors to make sure all requirements will be completed satisfactorily.

Engineering

Program advisor: J. Collett
Students wishing to combine a liberal arts program with professional training in engineering or computer science may want to choose the 3-2 program in engineering, which involves three years of study at Lawrence University and two years of study at an engineering school. Lawrence has formal affiliations with Columbia University (New York, New York), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, New York), and Washington University (St. Louis, Missouri), but students may transfer to any accredited engineering school with the agreement of the chosen institution. Upon satisfactory completion of the five-year program, these students will receive the Bachelor of Arts degree from Lawrence as well as a Bachelor of Engineering degree from the professional school they have attended. To prepare for the transfer to an engineering school, students must include among their courses basic mathematics (normally MATH 140, 150, 160, and 210), computer science (CMSC 110 or 150), introductory chemistry (CHEM 115 and 116), introductory physics with calculus (PHYS 141 & 151, or 151 &160), and six courses (36 units) in humanities and social sciences. Many of these courses also will figure in the student’s major at Lawrence. Because specific requirements vary slightly among the engineering schools, students contemplating the 3-2 program should consult early with the program advisor.

Forestry and Environmental Studies

Program advisor: B. De Stasio
The college offers a cooperative program with Duke University in the areas of environmental science and forestry. Upon satisfactory completion of this five-year program, spending three years at Lawrence and two at Duke’s School of the Environment, the student will receive the B.A. degree from Lawrence and the professional degree Master of Forestry or Master of Environmental Management from Duke.

The major emphases at Duke are in forest resource production, resource ecology, resource policy and economics, water and air resources, and ecotoxicology. An undergraduate major in natural sciences, social sciences, or pre-engineering is good preparation for the programs at Duke, but a student with any undergraduate concentration will be considered for admission. The student must complete a total of 48 units at Duke, which generally takes four semesters. The student must complete 162 units at Lawrence and fulfill all other requirements that cannot be completed at Duke. All students contemplating this cooperative program should plan to take work in ecology, economics, and statistics at Lawrence before matriculating at Duke.

Some students may prefer to complete the bachelor’s degree before undertaking graduate study at Duke. The master’s degree requirements for these students are the same as those for students entering after the junior year, but the 48-unit requirements may be reduced for relevant, already completed undergraduate work of satisfactory quality. All credit reductions are determined individually and consider both the student’s educational background and objectives.

Occupational Therapy

Program advisor: G. Metalsky
Lawrence offers a 3-2 program in occupational therapy in conjunction with the School of Medicine of Washington University, St. Louis. Students spend three years of study at Lawrence and then continue for five semesters and two summers in the occupational therapy program at Washington University. After two semesters of successful study at Washington University, Lawrence awards the Bachelor of Arts degree. The student then continues for three more semesters and two summers at Washington University to earn the Master of Science in Occupational Therapy degree. Students who complete this program are prepared to address the prevention and treatment of physical or mental dysfunctions that impair people’s abilities to perform activities of daily life. Occupational therapists focus on the methods that permit individuals to engage in meaningful life activities. They also assist in modifying environments that make it possible for individuals to function at home, at work, and in the community.

Lawrence students apply to the occupational therapy program of the School of Medicine, Washington University during the fall of the junior year and must meet the entrance requirements established by the occupational therapy program. The Washington University School of Medicine is one of the finest in the country, and the occupational therapy program is competitive. A 3.000 Lawrence grade-point average is a minimum requirement but does not guarantee admission. Students who are admitted may apply for financial aid provided by Washington University.

To complete the occupational therapy program, students must complete 162 units at Lawrence, meet General Education Requirements, and fulfill all requirements for a Lawrence major. Students also must fulfill the prerequisite course requirements for occupational therapy, as follows: BIOL 110, 140, and 242; one additional biology course (6 units) numbered 200 or above; one additional science course (6 units) chosen from physics, chemistry, biology, or neuroscience; PSYC 250 and 260; one course (6 units) chosen from among PHIL 100, PHIL 120, PHIL 320, PHIL 440, ECON 290, or GOV 495; two additional courses (12 units) chosen from the social sciences; and MATH 107. Completing Lawrence requirements and the prerequisite requirements will require careful planning, which must begin early in the Lawrence career. Students interested in this program should talk with their faculty advisors not later than the beginning of the sophomore year. Students should coordinate their plans with Students should coordinate their plans with the program advisor as well.

Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humanity in all its cultural, biological, linguistic, and historical diversity. A synthesis of scientific and humanistic concerns and methods, it attempts to distinguish universal human characteristics from those unique to individual social groups, and to understand the reasons for differences between individuals and groups.

The insights of anthropology are essential for a critical understanding of the problems of the contemporary world. Anthropology informs a public confronted with choices to be made with respect to changing value systems; competing social goals; ethnic, religious, class, gender, and race relations; new and emerging technologies; environmental and cultural resources management; changing paradigms of health, wellness, and disease; linguistic diversity; and international relations.

Anthropology offers both unique theoretical perspectives and a particular set of methodological approaches. The faculty considers it essential that we educate our students in both. Students should take away from their studies a substantive knowledge of the commonalities and differences in human experiences and also an understanding of how that knowledge is obtained and evaluated.

The anthropology major thus prepares students for successful entry into any number of professional and graduate programs, as well as careers that require a multicultural approach and perspective. Our mission is to represent anthropology appropriately at Lawrence and in the wider communities within which we live and work, and to educate others wherever and whenever possible with the insights that anthropology has to offer.

The anthropology department at Lawrence includes a range of courses and opportunities for guided independent study from the complementary perspectives of archaeology, biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and ethnology. Faculty members provide expertise in a number of ethnographic areas, including North and West Africa, India, East Asia, the Middle East, and North America. Topical interests include cultural evolution, refugee communities, medical anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and biological anthropology. The department maintains two well-equipped laboratories, as well as collections of archaeological and ethnographic materials from many culture areas. The department also provides equipment for audio and video data collection and transcription to support research in the cultural and linguistic anthropology subfields.

Required for the anthropology major

  1. ANTH 110: Cultural Anthropology
    ANTH 120: World Prehistory
    ANTH 140: Biological Anthropology
  2. ANTH 200: History of Anthropological Ideas
    ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology
    ANTH 210: Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology
    Students are expected to complete these courses during their sophomore year and no later than the end of their junior year.
  3. ANTH 501: Research Questions in Anthropology
    ANTH 601: Research Design in Anthropology
  4. Four six-unit elective courses in anthropology, including at least one upper-division seminar (courses numbered in the 500s). (Anthropology majors are urged to take several of these seminars in their junior and senior years.)

Required for the anthropology major: archaeology track

  1. ANTH 110: Cultural Anthropology
    ANTH 120: World Prehistory
    ANTH 140: Biological Anthropology
  2. ANTH 200: History of Anthropological Ideas
    ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology
    ANTH 220: Research Methods in Archaeology or another approved field experience.
    ANTH 222: Historic Preservation Theory and Practice
  3. Six units of ANTH 422: Archaeological Collections Management
  4. ANTH 501: Research Questions in Anthropology
    ANTH 601: Research Design in Anthropology
  5. Three six-unit elective courses in anthropology, including ANTH 520: Topics in Archaeology.

Required for the anthropology major: biological anthropology track

  1. ANTH 110: Cultural Anthropology
    ANTH 120: World Prehistory
    ANTH 140: Biological Anthropology
    BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms
    BIOL 150: Integrative Biology: Organisms to Ecosystems
  2. ANTH 200: History of Anthropological Ideas
    ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology or BIOL 170: Integrative Biology: Experimental Design and Analysis ANTH 210 is recommended for students pursuing an interest in biocultural anthropology via the biological anthropology track. Students are expected to complete these courses during their sophomore year and no later than the end of their junior year.
  3. ANTH 501: Research Questions in Anthropology
    ANTH 601: Research Design in Anthropology
  4. Three six-unit elective courses in anthropology, including ANTH 540: Topics in Biological Anthropology.
  5. Three six-unit courses in biology, chemistry, geology, mathematics, or physics, at least two of which must be biology courses numbered 200 or above and at least one of which must be a laboratory course.

Required for the anthropology minor

  1. Two of the following courses:
    ANTH 110: Cultural Anthropology
    ANTH 120: World Prehistory
    ANTH 140: Biological Anthropology
  2. Three six-unit electives in anthropology, selected from courses numbered 200 and above, except ANTH 501 or 601
  3. One six-unit upper-division seminar (courses numbered in the 500s)
  4. C average in the minor

Senior Experience in Anthropology

The Department of Anthropology's Senior Experience is a two course sequence which marks the culmination of a four-year series of core courses designed to develop the student's abilities to reason and practice as an anthropologist. Students begin their study of anthropology with a three-course introductory sequence, and move on in their sophomore year to a three-course theory and methods sequence. After further exploration of their specific interests within anthropology through elective courses and off-campus study, students continue their development with ANTH 501, which introduces them to the process of formulating research questions. In their senior year students take ANTH 601, which provides students the opportunity to reflect upon and synthesize what they have learned in the anthropology program by designing a focused research project. These projects are presented to the anthropology faculty and student majors during a formal symposium at the end of the Winter Term.

Studio Art

An integral part of a liberal arts curriculum, the courses of the art and art history department encourage aesthetic awareness and appreciation by emphasizing the interdependence of art-making, art history, and other creative and intellectual fields. A major is offered in either studio art or art history, and certification for teaching K-12 is available in conjunction with the studio art major. A student may complete a double major in studio art and art history by fulfilling the requirements for each major. Students planning to major in studio art and/ or art history should take the introductory 100-level courses required for the major in their freshman and sophomore years. Students may take a maximum of 126 units in the art and art history department, provided that no more than 90 are in either studio art or art history.

Required for the studio art major

  1. A minimum of nine studio art courses (54 units) to include:
    • ART 100 and 110
    • One two-dimensional and one three-dimensional course (6 units each) at the 200 level
    • At least four courses (24 units) numbered 300 or above, of which at least one (6 units) must be numbered 500 or above
    • ART 600: Senior Seminar
  2. A grouping of works in the senior exhibition
  3. Two Art History courses (12 units) to include:
    • ARHI 100 or 102
    • One ARHI course (6 units) with an emphasis on 20th century or contemporary art

Required for the studio art minor

  1. A minimum of six studio art courses (36 units) to include:
    • ART 100 and 110
    • One course (6 units) numbered 500 or above
    • Three additional courses (18 units)
  2. A grouping of works in the senior exhibition
  3. C average in the minor

Certification for teaching K-12

Studio art majors may enroll in a program for certification to teach art in grades K-12. Studio art course requirements for certification must be taken in conjunction with or in addition to the studio art major requirements. The required art courses for certification include ART 200, 240, 250, and 585 and ARHI 100 and 102.

It is highly recommended that studio majors planning for certification consider additional courses that expand their knowledge base of media and process. Recommended courses: ART 220, 230, and 270.

Education requirements: EDST 180, 350, 440, and EDUC 430, 650, and 660.

Student teaching is usually done in a 13th term. For other general regulations governing students seeking certification to teach, see the Department of Education.

Students intending to complete the program in art certification should declare their intention to their advisor and the director of teacher education as early as possible, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Studio Art

The studio art Senior Experience consists of two separate yet complementary components: ART 600: Senior Seminar (usually offered Term II) and participation in the Senior Exhibition, held annually in the Wriston Galleries near the end of Term III.

Both aspects of the studio art Senior Experience are intended to be a culmination of the practical and conceptual art-making skills developed through the studio art program. Designed to inform one another, both serve to encourage a more refined awareness and understanding of current issues pertinent to contemporary art along with the applied skills and critical thinking processes necessary for success either in graduate school or as a professional visual artist.

Students pursuing double majors and double degrees are encouraged to consult in advance with the studio art faculty if they are interested in developing a body of work for the senior art exhibition that integrates their interests in both majors.

Art History

An integral part of a liberal arts curriculum, the courses of the art and art history department encourage aesthetic awareness and appreciation by emphasizing the interdependence of art-making, art history, and other creative and intellectual fields. A major is offered in either studio art or art history, and certification for teaching K-12 is available in conjunction with the studio art major. A student may complete a double major in studio art and art history by fulfilling the requirements for each major. Students planning to major in studio art and/ or art history should take the introductory 100-level courses required for the major in their freshman and sophomore years. Students may take a maximum of 126 units in the art and art history department, provided that no more than 90 are in either studio art or art history.

Required for the art history major

  1. A minimum of 10 art history courses (60 units) to include:
    • ARHI 100 and 102
    • One 200- or 300-level course (6 units each) in each of the following periods:
      • Ancient
      • Medieval and Renaissance
      • Modern and Contemporary
    • One 400 level course (6 units)
    • ARHI 660
    • ARHI 680
    • Two Additional Art History courses (12 units)
  2. One course in studio art (6 units)

Required for the art history minor

  1. A minimum of six art history courses (36 units) to include:
    • ARHI 100 and 102
    • Three courses at the 200 or 300 level (6 units each) to be taken from at least two of the following periods:
      • Ancient
      • Medieval and Renaissance
      • Modern and Contemporary
    • One 400-level course (6 units)
  2. C average in the minor

Recommendations

Art history majors are urged to coordinate with their studies participation in one of Lawrence’s international off-campus programs or the program at the Newberry Library in Chicago.

Art history majors, particularly those considering graduate studies, are strongly encouraged to begin the study of German and/or French in the freshman or sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Art History

The art history Senior Experience consists of two 600-level courses: ARHI 660: The Methods of Art History and ARHI 680: Senior Seminar. ARHI 660 may be taken during the junior or senior year and serves as the prerequisite for ARHI 680, taken during the senior year. Students pursuing double majors and double degrees are encouraged to consult in advance with the art history faculty if they are interested in pursuing a research topic in ARHI 680 that integrates their interests in both majors.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of biological phenomena at the molecular level. Specifically, the scientific principles explored in chemistry and physics are related to the biology of organisms or communities of organisms. Although scientists have been fascinated with the molecules that compose living organisms for more than 200 years, biochemistry was finally recognized as a discipline at the beginning of the 20th century, as scientists strove to understand nutrition and metabolism in the context of human disease. Modern biochemistry is a vast subject that has applications to medicine, dentistry, agriculture, forensics, toxicology, pharmacy, anthropology, environmental science, and other fields.

Biochemistry is a dynamic and highly technical field. A degree in biochemistry presents students with many options for careers or advanced study. The biochemistry major will prepare students for graduate study in biochemistry (or allied fields such as bacteriology, genetics, or oncology) as well as for many pre-professional programs of study.

The biochemistry curriculum includes a strong foundation in the basic sciences, core courses central to the field, and electives that enable students to explore aspects of biochemistry in sub-fields of their choice. Most courses include an intensive laboratory experience, supported by equipment in biology, chemistry, and physics. Experimental work becomes progressively more sophisticated and creative in advanced courses as students gain insight to the primary literature and cutting-edge laboratory techniques. Students are strongly encouraged to engage in summer research, either in an academic setting — at Lawrence or another institution — or in industry.

The vision of a biochemistry Senior Experience is best described by a report by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College. A biochemistry major at graduation should be an “intentional learner who can adapt to new environments, integrate knowledge from different sources, and continue learning throughout their life. They should also become empowered learners through the mastery of intellectual and practical skills by learning to effectively communicate orally, and in writing; understand and employ quantitative and qualitative analysis to solve problems; interpret and evaluate information from a variety of sources; understand and work within complex systems; demonstrate intellectual agility and the ability to manage change; transform information into knowledge and knowledge into judgment and action.”

The biochemistry major is highly compatible and complementary with the neuroscience program and a number of minors including Biology, Biomedical Ethics, Chemistry, Environmental Studies, and Computer Science. This flexibility allows a student in the major to consider and prepare for a multitude of career options.

Required for the Biochemistry Major

Required Foundation Courses

  1. CHEM 116: Principles of Chemistry
  2. CHEM 250: Organic Chemistry I
  3. BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Principles
  4. MATH 140: Calculus I or MATH 120 and 130: Applied Calculus I and II
  5. MATH 207: Introduction to Probability and Statistics (calculus based-recommended) or MATH 107: Elementary Statistics or BIOL 170: Experimental Design and Analysis
  6. PHYS 141: Principles of Classical Physics and 151: Principles of Modern Physics
  7. Senior Experience Courses — Please see description in the respective departmental portions of the course catalog
    • CHEM 380 (1 unit S/U)
    • CHEM 480 (2 units S/U)
    • CHEM 680 (3 units S/U)
      -OR-
    • BIOL 650 (5 units and 1 unit))

Required Core Courses

  1. BIOL 354: Molecular Biology
  2. CHEM 340: Biochemistry I (also BIOL 444)
  3. CHEM 440: Biochemistry II
  4. Elective Courses (Students must choose three courses from the list below, including at least one CHEM and one BIOL. One of the three must be a laboratory class)
    • Biology courses:
      • BIOL 226: EMicrobiology
      • BIOL 235: Evolutionary Biology
      • BIOL 241: Cell Physiology
      • BIOL 325: Cell Biology
      • BIOL 340: Topics in Neuroscience (also PSYC 580)
      • BIOL 356: Bioinformatics
      • BIOL 430: Immunology
      • BIOL 453: Developmental Biology
      • BIOL 510: Modern Concepts of Embryogenesis
      • BIOL 520: Cancer Biology
    • Chemistry courses:
      • CHEM 210: Analytical Chemistry
      • CHEM 252: Organic Chemistry II
      • CHEM 320: Inorganic Chemistry
      • CHEM 370: Chemical Dynamics
      • CHEM 410: Instrumental Analysis
      • CHEM 450: Topics in Advanced Organic Chemistry
    • Other:
      • PSYC 350: Psychopharmacology and Behavior
      • PHYS 570: Biological Physics

Biology

Students come to Lawrence with varied interests in the life sciences, thus course offerings in biology span the breadth of this exciting discipline and the biology major is flexible. Though each student may create a unique path to completing a major in biology, we encourage students to sample courses across the breadth of the field, including courses in ecology, organismal biology, and molecular genetics. The flexibility of the major allows students to include off-campus study into the undergraduate experience, whether that be the Lawrence Marine Term or an experience that does not include the study of biology.

The department encourages an open-ended, original, experimental approach to life science. The research-rich approach begins in BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms, in which all department faculty members participate. Students design, conduct, and interpret their own research projects and present their results at a professional-style symposium at the end of the term. The second course, BIOL 150, includes three open-ended research modules in the laboratory portion of the course while the third course has students focused on experimental design and statistical analysis of data.

Experimental work becomes progressively more sophisticated and creative in advanced courses. All courses are designed to develop students’ insights and capacity to synthesize information, and they include discussions, readings, field trips, lab work, and interactive class work in those areas most closely related to the competence of the faculty. Most courses feature intensive laboratory or field instruction in which students use advanced research equipment to explore modern biological concepts.

All biology faculty members conduct active research programs and employ students during the summer as research assistants as well as supervise students undertaking independent study research for credit during the academic year. Motivated students may approach faculty about laboratory or field research after their first or second year of study. Many students culminate their work in biology with significant original research. In recent years, several papers with students and faculty as co-authors have been published in professional journals. Topics have included aquatic food chain energetics, host-parasite and plant/animal interactions, gene expression, and molecular mechanisms of vertebrate development. Recent advances in biological research are presented in a series of talks by faculty and by scientists from other universities. All students complete a project (research, curriculum development, outreach, or a creative project) of their own design as part of our Senior Experience program and they present their work at our annual BioFest celebration of Senior Experience (see below for more details).

Students who have strong secondary interests in chemistry, geology, or physics may construct majors involving biology and one of the other three natural sciences, using the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences or the biochemistry major.

Required for the biology major

  1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170
  2. CHEM 116
  3. At least seven six-unit courses in biology numbered 200 or above (excluding Senior Experience courses), of which at least five must be laboratory courses
  4. Completion of Biology Senior Experience (A student-directed project, 6 units of BIOL 650, 2 units of BIOL 600)
    Note: Only two six-unit courses designated as tutorial, directed study, or independent study can be counted toward the major or minor requirements and only one of those can be counted toward the upper-level laboratory requirement.

Required for the biology minor

  1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170. Students majoring in disciplines requiring a research methods and statistics course may request exemption from the BIOL 170 requirement.
  2. At least four six-unit courses in biology numbered 200 or above, of which at least two must be laboratory courses.
  3. C average in the minor
    Note: Only two six-unit courses designated as tutorial, directed study, or independent study can be counted toward the major or minor requirements and only one of these can be counted toward the upper-level laboratory requirement.

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in biology and physics or geology

  1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170
  2. PHYS 141 and 151 or 151 and 160
  3. GEOL 110 and GEOL 210, if geology is the secondary discipline.
  4. At least 10 six-unit courses in the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, and physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in biology (of which at least three must be laboratory courses), and at least three in the secondary discipline in other departments
  5. Completion of the Biology Senior Experience
  6. Note: The interdisciplinary combinations of biology and chemistry have been replaced by the Biochemistry major.

Wisconsin Teacher Certification

Students who major in biology and who wish to gain certification to teach biology in Wisconsin public schools should choose a broad range of biology courses that includes ecology, plant and animal organismal biology, as well as molecular and cellular biology. Students should gain experience in both field and laboratory research. Beyond the coursework required for the biology major, students will need to take the following additional courses:

  • One 6-unit geology course
  • One 6-unit physics course
  • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
  • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
  • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
  • EDUC 560: Methods in Middle and Secondary Teaching
  • EDUC 430: Educating All Learners
  • EDUC 650: Student Teaching
  • EDUC 660: Student Teaching Seminar
For more detailed information about the certification program refer to the course of study for the Department of Education.

Senior Experience in Biology

Required: A student-designed project, 6 units of BIOL 650, 2 units of BIOL 600.
Purposeful advising in the spring of the sophomore year and attendance at the spring BioFest is meant to inspire sophomore students to think about what they might want to undertake as their culminating project in biology. During the fall of the junior year, students will hear from department faculty, the internship coordinator, and others about opportunities available for senior experience projects at a weekend retreat. Breakout groups allow students to brainstorm project ideas. Project work (research, internship, creation of a curricular module, draft of a grant proposal, draft of a children's book on biology, production of art about biology, or other creative project) generally will be undertaken prior to term 2 of the senior year and may be based on an internship, summer or academic year research, a tutorial, course work, independent study, or other student activities.

Usually in the senior year, students will take two terms of BIOL 600: Recent Advances in Biology Lecture Series (1 unit each), one term of BIOL 650 (5 units) in the winter term and 1 additional unit of BIOL 650 in the spring term for BioFest. The purpose of the BIOL 650 course is to bring to culmination each student’s individual senior experience project and to place that project in an academic context. Each student prepares a paper that places her or his project into a biological context, compares it to our past and current understanding of the topic using primary literature, and summarizes the student’s project or results. Students will begin gathering and organizing academic resources for this paper in the term 1 BIOL 600 course. In BIOL 650, students preparing a thesis for honors will prepare a significant portion of their thesis, while a student creating a visual product or curriculum will describe the biological underpinnings of the work and reflect on the production of the work itself, for example. The senior experience will culminate with a symposium, BioFest, in the spring term, at which all students will present the results of their projects (or the project itself) as a poster, demonstration, or other visual display.

Biomedical Ethics

The minor in biomedical ethics is designed to coordinate a student’s background and interests in biomedical ethics, health care public policy, and the biological sciences with a variety of more specialized approaches to the study and application of relevant principles, insights, and understandings gleaned from those backgrounds and interests. This minor has been designed to appeal to Lawrence students planning further work in medicine, nursing, genetic counseling, public health, and other areas of study in or related to health care.

Required for the minor in biomedical ethics

  1. Completion of the following core courses:
    1. BIET 120/PHIL 120: Applied Ethics: Introduction to Biomedical Ethics
    2. BIOL 110: Principles of Biology, BIOL 103: Biotechnology and Society, or ANTH 140: Biological Anthropology
    3. BIET 290/ECON 290: The Economics of Medical Care or BIET 495/GOV 495: Health Policy
    4. PSYC 245: Health Psychology or ANTH 342: Medical Anthropology
    5. BIET 370/PHIL 370: Advanced Studies in Bioethics, BIET 380/PHIL 380: Ethics of Technology or an approved independent study project on some aspect of biomedical ethics or health policy.
  2. 12 additional units from the courses listed below Independent study projects must be approved by the advisory committee. Possible contexts for projects include a Mielke, Kasel, or Hughes internship (page 65 of the Course Catalog), a tutorial, an independent study course, or a health care-related project in conjunction with an off-campus program.

Courses that fulfill requirement number two

  • ANTH210: Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology
  • ANTH 342: Medical Anthropology
  • BIOL 260: Genetics
  • BIOL 354: Molecular Biology
  • BIOL 453: Developmental Biology
  • ECON 270: Public Sector Economics: Taxation Analysis
  • ECON 275: Public Sector Economics: Expenditure Analysis
  • ECON 290: The Economics of Medical Care
  • ECON 400: Industrial Organization
  • ECON 440: Public Expenditure
  • GEOL 213: Geology and Health
  • GOV 380: Introduction to Public Policy
  • GOV 465: Environmental Politics
  • GOV 495: Health Policy
  • PHIL 320: Ethics
  • PHIL 350: Political Philosophy
  • PHIL 360: Environmental Ethics
  • PHIL 365: Compassion and Other Virtues
  • PHIL 370: Advanced Studies in Bioethics
  • PHIL 380: Ethics of Technology
  • PHIL 430: Philosophy of Law
  • PSYC 245: Health Psychology
  • PSYC 250: Psychopathology
  • PSYC 280 or 281: Research Methods I and II (only one term may count)

Chemistry

Chemists, biochemists, and chemical engineers contribute to the development and utilization of the materials, medicines, foods, and fuels that are the hallmarks of modern life. They also contribute to the understanding and protection of the natural environment. Working in concert with biologists, geologists, physicists, psychologists, and others, chemists work toward the solution of many of society’s most pressing problems -- challenges to physical and mental health, pollution and its effects, resource recovery, and energy production and conservation among them.

The American Chemical Society certified chemistry major at Lawrence prepares students for a broad range of opportunities and careers, including academic or industrial research, engineering, secondary or college teaching, medical or veterinary practice, law, business, or public service.

The Lawrence chemistry department is large enough to ensure that all the major areas of chemistry are well represented, yet small enough that students can build close working relationships with all the faculty members. Our department's faculty are all actively engaged in their own research programs, primarily using Lawrence’s own wide array of instrumentation; these programs create ample independent research opportunities for students, either during the school year or the summer months. We see these research experiences as a critical part of our curriculum, as they provide students with the analytical techniques, problem-solving strategies, and critical thinking skills necessary for success in the physical, medical or life sciences. Our goals are to engage students from diverse backgrounds with the excitement of chemistry; foster in them the habit of informed and critical thinking; involve them in independent learning and research; and prepare them for the successful pursuit of a wide variety of post-baccalaureate and professional opportunities.

The chemistry major

Advanced Placement

Students who have had the equivalent of a college general chemistry course are encouraged to take the Advanced Placement (AP) Examination in Chemistry administered by the Educational Testing Service. Students with sufficiently high AP exam scores will receive six units of college credit for CHEM 115, and will typically be advised to enroll in CHEM 116.

Students that have not taken or passed the AP Chemistry exam may also be placed in CHEM 116, depending on their score on our online placement test; in this case, no course credit for CHEM 115 would be awarded. In any case, instructor approval is required for our general chemistry courses, and students are encouraged to reach out to a chemistry faculty member with any questions about the courses.

Required for the chemistry major

  1. Introductory principles
    • CHEM 115 and 116 or the equivalent
    • MATH 140 and 150, or the equivalent
    • PHYS 141 and 151
  2. Core competencies
    • CHEM 210: Analytical chemistry
    • CHEM 250: Organic chemistry I
    • CHEM 252: Organic chemistry II
    • CHEM 320: Inorganic chemistry
    • CHEM 340: Biochemistry
    • CHEM 370: Physical chemistry I
    • Four additional classes. At least three must be Chemistry classes at or above the 400 level, and at least one of those three must be a class in physical chemistry. One class in another natural science department, if it has significant chemistry content (such as a course in molecular biology), may be counted as one of the four electives with departmental approval.
  3. Six units of credit earned in Chemistry Senior experience courses numbered 380, 480, and 680
  4. C average in the major

Required for the chemistry minor

  1. Introductory principles
    • CHEM 115 and 116 or the equivalent
  2. Core competencies
    • CHEM 210: Analytical chemistry
    • CHEM 250: Organic chemistry I
    • CHEM 320: Inorganic chemistry
    • CHEM 370: Physical Chemistry I
    • Two additional chemistry classes, one of which must be at or above the 400 level.
  3. At least three units of credit earned in Chemistry Seminar courses numbered 380, 480, and 680
  4. C average in the minor

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in chemistry and physics or geology

Chemistry students who have strong secondary interests in physics or geology may construct a major involving chemistry and geology or physics, using the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences. Previous interdisciplinary combinations of biology and chemistry have been replaced by the biochemistry major.
The requirements for the interdisciplinary major with chemistry as the primary discipline are:

  1. Introductory course sequences in chemistry, physics, and geology, chosen to include the discipline of secondary interest. The introductory sequences are:
    • CHEM 115 and 116 or the equivalent
    • GEOL 110 and 210
    • PHYS 141 and 151
  2. Intermediate/Advanced Requirement: At least 10 six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in chemistry and at least three in the secondary discipline.
  3. Six units of credit earned in Chemistry Seminar courses numbered 380, 480, and 680

Senior Experience in Chemistry

The Chemistry Department's capstone sequence consists of a series of 3 seminars:

  • CHEM 380: Seminar - Perspectives on Chemistry (Fall Term, 1 unit) Taken optimally by sophomores or juniors, this is a series of presentations by visiting chemists and Lawrence students, faculty, and staff, featuring current issues in chemistry, important applications of chemistry, and professional development topics appropriate to chemistry majors or minors, intended to introduce students to "life after Lawrence" early enough in college to affect their trajectories through the college curriculum. This course covers the major career destinations for chemistry students, of graduate school, health professions, chemical engineering, K-12 teaching, and the chemical industry.
  • CHEM 480: Seminar: Chemical Literature (Winter Term, 2 units) A seminar course for chemistry majors and minors, taken optimally during the junior year, in which students learn how to educate themselves about the chemical literature in a field of interest to them. In this seminar, they learn the character and organization of the chemical literature and become familiar with search strategies, as each selects a topic and, guided by the instructor, conducts a literature search for key papers on that topic, constructs a bibliography, reads several of the most important of the papers, and prepares an end-of-term presentation highlighting key research findings related to their chosen topic. Students are encouraged to correlate their activities in this seminar with research projects that they undertake at Lawrence or elsewhere, which form the basis of the Senior Seminar.
  • CHEM 680: Senior Seminar (Spring Term, 3 units): The culminating course in our capstone sequence asks each major to present an individual seminar presentation based on research they have done at Lawrence or elsewhere. 3 units.

Students are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall capstone experience as early as possible.

Chinese and Japanese

The Department of Chinese and Japanese provides students with a coherent study of a cultural region. This region primarily encompasses China, Japan, and Korea — countries that spring from a common historical experience and share many common values and traditions. Though language forms an important part of this study, the focus of the curriculum remains as much cultural as linguistic. Courses are thus taught in English as well as in East Asian languages.

Required for the Chinese language and literature major

  1. Completion of beginning and intermediate Chinese language courses: CHJA 101, 102, 201, 202, 203, 301
  2. Two six-unit courses in Chinese literature, taught in translation, selected from the following:
    • CHJA 260: East Asian Classics in Translation
    • CHJA 350: Modern Chinese Literature and Cinema in Translation
    • CHJA 520: Seminar in Chinese Literature
  3. Three six-unit courses in advanced Chinese, taught in Chinese:
    • CHJA 401: Advanced Communicative Chinese
    • CHJA 402: Advanced Readings in Chinese
    • CHJA 590: Tutorial Studies in Chinese or CHJA 598: Internship in Chinese
  4. One senior-level independent study, CHJA 699 (6 units)

Required for the Chinese language minor

  1. Completion of beginning and intermediate Chinese language courses: CHJA 101, 102, 201, 202, 203, and 301 or the equivalent
  2. One advanced language course
  3. An exit proficiency interview
  4. C average in the minor

Required for the Japanese language minor

  1. Completion of beginning and intermediate Japanese language courses: CHJA 111, 112, 211, 212, 213, and 311
  2. One advanced language course
  3. An exit proficiency interview
  4. C average in the minor

Advanced Placement

Students who have studied Chinese or Japanese in high school and who wish to study Chinese and Japanese beyond the beginning level are required to take a placement examination. They also are advised to consult with the department chair in order to ensure their proper placement in language classes.

International Study

Opportunities exist to study in both Chinese- and Japanese-speaking areas through an ACM program in Tokyo and the Associated Colleges in China Program in Beijing (see Off-Campus Programs).

Senior Experience in Chinese or Chinese and Japanese

CHJA 699: A senior level one-term independent study (6 units) culminating in the completion of a substantial paper or project derived from previous coursework in the discipline or related fields or field experience in consultation with department faculty. Students with sufficiently advanced Chinese language skills are encouraged to use some Chinese language sources in carrying out their research. Students must share the results of their work in a public forum prior to graduation.

Classics

Classics is a quintessentially interdisciplinary field of intellectual inquiry and academic endeavor. The program of the classics department emphasizes both ancient history and the careful reading and critical study of selected Greek and Latin texts, together with formal study of the languages themselves, as a basis for further study of classical literature, art, history, linguistics, mythology, culture, and civilization.

The classics department accordingly offers three related but distinct concentrations. The traditional concentration in classical languages and literatures produces potential scholars well trained in classical philology and Greek and Latin literature, and also prepares students for teaching certification in Latin. The concentration in classical civilization combines a modicum of Greek or Latin with the study of classical culture, ancient history, and Greek and Roman art for students who wish to engage with the classical world as broadly as possible. The concentration in classical linguistics is designed for students of a more scientific bent who wish to acquire a working knowledge of Greek and Latin at the same time as they undertake the formal, rigorous study of language science.

Required for the classics major

Students may elect to fulfill the requirements of their classics major by concentrating in classical languages and literatures (I), classical civilization (II), or classical linguistics (III), depending on their intellectual interests and postgraduate plans.

  1. Classical Languages and Literatures
    CLAS 110 and 225 or their equivalents, plus 42 units from advanced courses, tutorials, or independent studies in Greek and/or Latin. Students who anticipate doing graduate work in classics should choose this concentration.
  2. Classical Civilization
    1. CLAS 110 or 225, or its equivalent
    2. Two courses from each of the following three sets of courses:
      1. CLAS 150, 160, 280, 300, 310, 510
      2. CLAS 250, 260, 275, 315, PHIL 200
      3. CLAS 340, 345, 350, 365, 368, 540
    3. 18 additional units selected from courses listed in section 2 and/or from other courses or tutorials in classics.
  3. Classical Linguistics
    CLAS 110 and 225 or their equivalents, and LING 150, plus 18 units from advanced courses or tutorials in classical languages and literatures and 18 additional units from courses or tutorials in linguistics (LING 330, 340, and 380 are especially recommended).

Required for the Greek and Latin minors

  1. Greek: 30 units from language and literature courses plus a six-unit tutorial in the history of Greek literature
    Latin: 30 units from language and literature courses plus a six- unit tutorial in the history of Latin literature
  2. C average in the minor

International Study

The curriculum at the “Centro” in Rome is considered to be virtually an integral part of the classics department’s program (see Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome). The classics programs at the American University of Rome (ISA Rome) and the College Year in Athens are also affiliated and approved options for study abroad in classics. Consult the department chair for more details.

Foreign language requirement

Students may fulfill the university’s foreign language requirement in Latin by taking CLAS 230: Introduction to Latin Literature or any 400-level Latin literature course (prerequisites: CLAS110 or 230, Intermediate Latin and Introduction to Latin Literature respectively), or in Greek by taking CLAS 225: Intermediate Greek Reading (prerequisite: CLAS 125: Intensive Elementary Greek) or any 400-level Greek literature course.

Humanities requirement

Students may fulfill the university’s humanities requirement by taking any classics course taught in English, CLAS 230, or any 400-level course in Greek or Latin literature.

Senior Experience in Classics

The Senior Experience in the Department of Classics may be fulfilled in a variety of ways, in consultation with the department chair and the student's advisor. Scholarly, pedagogical, creative, and experiential projects are all viable options. Possible experiences include: writing and defending a senior thesis; delivering a scholarly paper at a conference or as part of Classics Week; staging a production of a Greek or Roman play; developing a complete syllabus and teaching a sample class for a course in Latin or Greek at the secondary level; or working at relevant archaeological sites in Europe and the Mediterranean Sea region. For Senior Experiences that take place off-campus, a formal oral presentation will also be required.
Students pursuing double majors, double degrees, and education certification, are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall senior experience as early as possible, especially if they are interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in both majors, or combines their student teaching with a project in their major.

Cognitive Science

Cognitive science is an area of interdisciplinary study that investigates the nature and representation of knowledge, the structure and function of intelligence (natural and artificial), and the relation of mind to brain and machine. In studying cognitive science, students are encouraged to acquaint themselves with insights and methods from a variety of disciplines, including psychology, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology, and neuroscience.

The interdisciplinary minor in cognitive science is particularly relevant for students interested in experimental psychology, computer science, linguistics, or philosophy. Students interested in other disciplines, such as anthropology, economics, political science, neuroscience, or music theory, may also find cognitive science an important perspective from which to consider their work.

Requirements for the minor in cognitive science

  1. The following course:
    PHIL 105: Introduction to Cognitive Science
  2. Six additional courses, five of which must be in departments other than the student's major.
    Courses must be from at least three of the following groups:
    1. Philosophical foundations
      • PHIL 150: Symbolic Logic
      • PHIL 300: Epistemology
      • PHIL 305: Experimental Philosophy
      • PHIL 410: Philosophy of Mind
      • PHIL 420/LING 420: Topics in Logic
    2. Computation
      • CMSC 100: Exploring Computer Science
      • CMSC 470: Artificial Intelligence (prereq: CMSC 270)
      • CMSC 515: Theory of Computation (prereq: MATH 300 and CMSC 150)
    3. Neuroscience
      • PSYC 360: Brain and Behavior I
      • PSYC 530: Brain and Behavior II
      • BIOL 340/PSYC 580: Topics in Neuroscience
    4. Cognitive Processes
      • ECON 225: Decision Theory (prereq: ECON 100 or 120)
      • ECON 410: Advanced Game Theory and Applications (prereq: ECON 300)
      • EDST 180/PSYC 180: Psychology of Learning
      • EDST 345/ANTH 345/PSYC 345: Distributed Cognition
      • PSYC 260/265: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • PSYC 370: Perception
    5. Language
      • ANTH 330/LING 330: Language and Culture
      • ANTH 531/LING 531: Semiotics
      • LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
      • LING 335: Words, Words, Words: Introduction to Lexical Semantics
      • LING 340: Introduction to Syntax
      • LING 350: Introduction to Phonology
      • LING 355: Child Language Acquisition
      • LING 370/PSYC 375: Phonetics
      • LING 450: Topics in the Psychology of Language
      • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
      • LING 545/EDST 545/PSYC 545: Gesture Studies
      • PHIL 400/LING 400: Philosophy of Language
      • PHIL 405/LING 405: How to Do Things With Words

Computer Science

The mathematics department, with other members of the faculty, coordinates computer science. The interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science major offers students an opportunity to combine these two disciplines, enriching both.

Computer science combines an empirical aspect — which involves implementing specific algorithms — with a theoretical aspect — which involves analysis of abstract processes using methods of applied mathematics. Both aspects of the discipline contribute to understanding what problems are amenable to computer solution and what methods are optimal.

Today, computing importantly serves academic research no less than commercial enterprise. Moreover, a disciplined exposure to computer science within the context of studies in liberal arts and sciences fosters in the student the development of clarity and precision in analysis, logic, and expression.

Computing facilities on campus are abundant, offering students the opportunity to work with all major operating systems and programming languages.

Required for the interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science major

  1. The core sequence: MATH 140, 150, 160 and CMSC 150, 250, and 270
  2. MATH 220 and 300
  3. CMSC 460, 510, and 515
  4. 6 additional units in mathematics courses selected from among MATH 310, 420, 525, and 540
  5. 6 additional units in a computer science course numbered 400 or above
  6. 6 additional units in a computer science course numbered 400 or above or selected from among MATH 310, 420, 525, and 540
  7. Completion of an independent study project prior to the Spring Term of the senior year
  8. CMSC 600 in the senior year

Required for the computer science minor

  1. MATH 140, 150, and 160
  2. MATH 210 or 220
  3. CMSC 150 and 270
  4. 18 additional units in computer science courses numbered 250 or above, one of which must be numbered 400 or above
  5. C average in the minor

Tutorials

No tutorials are given for courses routinely offered, and the department does not normally permit a tutorial to satisfy a major or minor requirement for graduation

Placement

Advanced placement and six units of Lawrence credit (for CMSC 150) may be obtained by scoring 4 or 5 on the A or AB computer science exam administered by the College Board. Consult the department for details and proper placement.

Senior Experience in Mathematics-Computer Science

Interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science majors must complete their independent study project in two parts: an independent study in the fall or winter term of the senior year (usually 3 units), followed by a presentation of their results in the winter term Computer Science Senior Seminar (3 units).
The project must be approved and supervised by a faculty member in the mathematics department. Students should consult with departmental members in the spring before their senior year, in order to plan appropriately for their Senior Experience.

East Asian Studies

The Program in East Asian Studies is dedicated to the study of the civilizations, cultures, and contemporary importance of East Asia. The rich cultural heritages and the political and economic significance of the region are covered by courses in anthropology, history, government, literature, and religious studies. To achieve in-depth and critical understanding of East Asia, the East Asian Studies major combines the study of Chinese or Japanese language to the advanced intermediate level with breadth of coursework on East Asia taught in English. Majors typically further strengthen their Chinese or Japanese language skills by studying in China or Japan through an off-campus program. In addition to improving language skills and filling out the student’s program in regionally specific courses, studying abroad in China or Japan enhances the students’ academic program through firsthand cultural experience in East Asia.

Beginning with foundational coursework in traditional and modern East Asian history, students gain an understanding of the basic historical development of East Asian political and cultural traditions. Students then draw from this historical knowledge in their subsequent seminars to analyze in depth how these traditions have evolved with modernization, and to examine contemporary areas of social change. Through a disciplinary focus as well as coursework that situates East Asia in a global context, majors also learn how to relate the relevance of the study of China, Japan, or South Korea to a broader international or academic context.

The major in East Asian Studies thus seeks to prepare students intellectually, linguistically, and personally for further graduate work or professional careers as East Asian specialists.

Required for the major in East Asian Studies

  1. At least one language course CHJA 301/311 or higher
  2. EAST 140: Traditional East Asian Civilization
    EAST 150: Modern East Asian Civilization
  3. Three 6-unit elective courses in EAST, one of which must be a mid-level seminar or higher (300-level or higher). One elective course taken on an off-campus program may, upon approval of an EAST faculty advisor, count for one of these three courses.
  4. One course that situates East Asian culture in a broader academic or international context, such as:
    • GOVT 245: Comparative Politics of Less-Developed Countries
    • GOVT 340: International Politics
    • GOVT 480: International Organizations
    • HIST 295: Nationalism in the Modern World
    Students should consult with the EAST chair to select a course appropriate to their interests.
  5. EAST 620: Senior Seminar in East Asian Studies or, if EAST 620 is not offered, EAST 699: Independent Study in East Asian Studies (6 units), resulting in the completion of a substantial research paper or project.

Overall, at least nine 6-unit courses should be taken at the Lawrence, Appleton campus.

In addition to the requirements listed above, majors are strongly advised to have a disciplinary focus to frame their senior experience. EAST coursework in a discipline of interest such as Anthropology, History, Religious Studies, Government, Linguistics, Economics, or literature, as well as additional coursework in methods and theory in that same discipline should be completed prior to EAST 620.

Majors are also encouraged to further strengthen their Chinese or Japanese language skills by studying in China or Japan (see Off-Campus Programs) and/or in one of several intensive summer language programs offered in the U.S.

Required for the minor in East Asian Studies

  1. Five courses, as follows:
    1. EAST 140: Traditional East Asian Civilization
    2. EAST 150: Modern East Asian Civilization
    3. Three 6-unit elective courses in EAST
  2. One additional advanced course on East Asia that builds on coursework already taken
  3. An independent study in an area of interest
  4. C average in the minor

Senior Experience in East Asian Studies

EAST 620: Senior Seminar in East Asian Studies A senior level workshop culminating in the completion of a substantial paper or project derived from previous coursework in the discipline or related fields or field experience in consultation with department faculty.
Students with sufficiently advanced Chinese or Japanese language skills are encouraged to use some target language sources in carrying out their research. Students must share the results of their work in a public forum prior to graduation.

Economics

Lawrence economics students first acquire a basic knowledge of economic theories, principles, and techniques of analysis. They then apply them to a wide range of problems, from poverty and discrimination to macroeconomic stabilization policy and environmental degradation.

Students learn early on that modern economics is an application of mathematical modeling to the study of human behavior. The interdisciplinary mathematics-economics major provides a strong foundation for graduate work in economics, where mathematical aptitude is at a premium. This route also provides outstanding preparation for technical business careers, such as investment banking, management consulting, and finance.

Required for the economics major

  1. ECON 100
  2. MATH 140 or both MATH 120 and 130; MATH 107 (or equivalent)
  3. Intermediate Theory
    1. ECON 300
    2. ECON 320
    3. ECON 380
    (Majors must take all three courses prior to completion of the junior year. The department must approve any exception.)
  4. Five additional six-unit courses numbered 200 or higher, three of which must be numbered 400-699 not including the Senior Experience requirement.
    (Only six units of tutorial or independent study credit may count as one of these five courses.)
  5. Complete the Senior Experience in Economics requirement by taking ECON 601 or ECON 602 as described below.
  6. The grade-point average for the major will be computed from economics courses and from required mathematics courses. A C average is required.

Required for the interdisciplinary mathematics-economics major

  1. The mathematics component of the major is:
    • MATH 140, 150, 160, 240, 300, and 310
    • Either MATH 435 or 445
    • 6 additional units in a mathematics course numbered 400 or above, with 435, 440, 445, or 560 recommended
  2. The economics component of the major is:
    • ECON 100
    • ECON 300, 320, and 380 (majors must take all three courses prior to completion of the junior year. The Economics department must approve any exception.)
    • Any three six-unit courses numbered between 400 and 580
  3. The interdisciplinary component of the major is:
    • Completion of an independent study project that has been approved by both departments.
    • A major must have an advisor in each department.

Required for the economics minor

  1. ECON 100 or ECON 300
  2. Six additional six-unit courses, at least five of which must be economics courses numbered 200 or above and one that could be a mathematics course.
  3. (Only six units of tutorial or independent study credit may count as one of these six courses.)
  4. C average in the minor

Recommendations

ECON 100 and ECON 225 are excellent either as stand-alone courses or as gateways into the discipline.

For the economics or mathematics-economics major:

  • Speak to a professor in the department about the selection of a coherent set of electives.
  • Take MATH 140 or 120 and 130 as soon as possible. MATH 150 and MATH 210 are also recommended.
  • Take ECON 100, a 200-level economics course, and then ECON 300.
  • If you do not meet pre-requisites for any course, talk with the instructor and explicitly obtain consent.
  • Students preparing for graduate work in economics, public policy, or business or those preparing for an M.B.A. in a quantitative field should plan to take a number of mathematics courses and should consult the economics faculty for advice. The mathematics-economics major is particularly well-suited for these students. Furthermore, students should take ECON 500 and ECON 520 as part of their preparation.
  • Students preparing for a career in secondary-school teaching should check state certification requirements.

Course structure and numbering

ECON 100 is a survey course and is an excellent introduction to the discipline, even for those with high school courses.
The 200-level courses apply basic theory to particular fields of inquiry and should be accessible to students with a sound introductory course.
The 300-level courses are intermediate theory courses geared toward economics majors, while the 400-level courses are advanced applications classes. The 500-level courses are graduate-school preparatory courses.

Senior Experience in Economics

The economics curriculum culminates with a one-term three-unit senior experience course required for all majors. Each year, two sections of the course will be offered. In one section (ECON 601), in which the students read a monograph by a formidable economist or a piece of central interest to economists and engage in active discussion, each student produces a term paper in reaction to the reading. In the paper, each student must relate the reading to theories and applications he or she studied in economics courses. The monograph will be selected by the faculty member teaching the course. This senior experience option is designed to mirror the Freshman Studies experience at the end of the student’s career at Lawrence. In the other section (ECON 602), each student is expected to produce a well-researched paper that stands up to the standards of the profession. To register for this section, students must already have a paper prepared in a 400-level course. Students must submit to the instructor a one-page proposal on how the previous paper will be improved, refined and polished in content and in form so that it stands up to the standards of the profession. The instructor’s approval of this proposal is a prerequisite for registration.
In addition to the two options described above, an entrepreneurial project may also be approved as a senior experience after early and in-depth consultation with the department chair and the student’s advisor. Students pursuing double majors, double degrees, and education certification, are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall senior experience as early as possible, especially if they are interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in both majors, or combines their student teaching with a project in their major.
Interdisciplinary mathematics-economics (economics-mathematics) majors may choose to meet their senior experience requirement by taking one of the above workshop senior experience courses or by satisfying the requirement of the Department of Mathematics for interdisciplinary mathematics-economics majors’ requirement. In either case, they will need to demonstrate the ability to combine topics in both disciplines – bringing appropriate techniques of mathematics or statistics to bear on the study of economics, or learning mathematics or statistics suggested by models in economics. Students who plan to complete this interdisciplinary major must have their senior experience proposal approved by one advisor in the Department of Mathematics and one in the Department of Economics prior to the term in which they plan to complete the experience.

Education

While Lawrence does not offer a college major in education, the education department does prepare students to become licensed teachers in public and private schools. In addition, the department introduces students to the study of education as an academic discipline within the liberal arts. Courses in education studies (EDST) are open to all students and may be counted toward fulfilling the General Education Requirement (GER) in social sciences. The department also offers tutorial and independent-study opportunities for students interested in education policy, history of education, educational anthropology and psychology, and the practical application of education methodology.

Teacher certification for undergraduates

Students who seek certification to teach middle or senior high school (early adolescence through adolescence) may choose from nearly all majors, including the social sciences, history, the natural sciences, mathematics, mathematics-computer science, computer science, theatre arts, English, English as a second language, and environmental science. (Students planning to teach instrumental or vocal music must be admitted to the Conservatory. Please see the Conservatory of Music for more information.)

Students who want to teach art or foreign language (Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Latin, Russian and Spanish) and music (choral, general or instrumental) receive special-field certification for teaching early childhood through adolescence (K-12).

For certification in social studies and the natural sciences, students elect a single discipline as their major — for example, history or chemistry — and may also pursue an interdisciplinary “broad fields” course of study.

A few academic subjects (e.g., English) permit a “minor” for certification purposes, thereby affording the student both major and minor teaching opportunities in the schools. In all subject areas, certification requires completing a Lawrence major or its equivalent with a minimum GPA of 2.75 in the major and cumulative. Please see “Major Subject Area Requirements,” for specific disciplinary requirements.

Students who wish to qualify for a teaching license should plan their schedule with the chair of the education department as early as possible in their Lawrence career. Students who enter Lawrence knowing that they want to become certified to teach can do so within the four-year undergraduate program. Before student teaching, which must occur in the senior year or in a 13th term, students must be admitted to the teacher education program. Graduation must precede certification for licensure.

Generally, all education courses except EDST 175 and EDST 180 require sophomore standing. EDUC 560 or 563 and ART 585, methods of teaching, must be taken during the Term III that immediately precedes student teaching.

Student teaching assignments for 18-week public or private school semesters are contracted with local Fox Valley schools, in Chicago via the Chicago Center’s Urban Teaching Practicum or the ACM Urban Education Program, or overseas through Lawrence's International Student Teaching Program. Students may also apply to student teach overseas in one of 17 different countries (please see department chair for more information on this option). A 13th term of student teaching, tuition-reduced ($1,204), is available for Lawrence undergraduates who have completed all graduation requirements except the student teaching cluster of courses and wish to be certified. Ask the department chair for details and for information on additional requirements. This term must take place within one year of graduation.

In some majors, students planning to student teach during the senior year may substitute student teaching for, or incorporate it into, their department’s Senior Experience. Interested students should consult with their major advisor as early as possible in the junior year.

Certification for graduates

Students who have graduated from college can be certified for licensure through Lawrence. Typically, the certification program for graduates takes 1 1/2 years, which includes the required 18 weeks of student teaching. (Program length may vary depending on undergraduate major and coursework.) Graduates should consult the department chair for further information about the certification program.

Graduates seeking certification must attain qualifying scores on a standardized academic skills test (Praxis I PPST, Praxis Core, ACT, SAT or GRE) and pass the subject area test (Praxis II or ACTFL) in their certification area before they apply to be admitted to the teacher education program. Other requirements for admittance (e.g., 2.75 GPA) and certification are listed in Lawrence’s Teacher Certification Handbook, which is available from the education department

Tuition for Lawrence graduates participating in this program is set at 50 percent of the current year’s tuition rate, and the student teaching fee is adjusted by 50 percent.

For non-Lawrence graduates, tuition for courses required for certification outside the degree-seeking student program is set at 75 percent of the current year’s tuition rate. A separate fee is charged for the student-teaching portion of the program, for which the student earns 18 units of credit.

General requirements, all students and subject areas

In addition to the required education courses, all students seeking certification must complete a major (or its equivalent) in the subject they plan to teach. To receive a minor endorsement, students must complete a department-approved minor or seven courses in the discipline. Students seeking licensure must also complete the Lawrence University General Education Requirements, including a course in a non-Western history or culture, a course in a physical science, a course in a biological or life science and a mathematics course.

For Wisconsin licensure, social science majors need to take Cooperatives, which is an adjunct to Education 560. Natural science and social studies candidates are required to take an environmental studies course.

Students who want to become licensed must be admitted to Lawrence’s teacher education program. Please see the department chair or the department’s administrative assistant for the application form and list of requirements. Students seeking licensure should also consult Lawrence’s Teacher Certification Handbook, which is available from the education department, for further information and requirements.

A cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required for teacher certification. To be admitted to the teacher education program, candidates must attain qualifying scores on a standardized academic skills test (Praxis I PPST, Praxis Core, ACT, SAT or GRE). Before they may student teach, candidates for certification must pass a subject area test (Praxis II Subject Assessment or ACTFL foreign language oral and writing proficiency tests) for each subject in which they intend to be licensed. Beginning September 1, 2014, all candidates must attain passing scores on the edTPA, a teacher performance assessment completed during student teaching, in order to be certified for licensure.

Students should also be aware that certification requirements are subject to revision. It is the student’s responsibility to confirm requirements with the chair of the education department.

Required education courses for certification in all academic areas at the middle, junior and senior high school levels

(Please see “Major subject area requirements” and “The major in music education” for additional course requirements)

Course Lawrence course credit, in units Certification semester hours
EDST 180: Psychology of Learning 6 4
EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity and Education 6 4
EDUC 430: Educating All Learners (College only) 6 3
EDUC 431: Educating All Learners in Music (Conservatory only) 3 3
EDST 440: Sociology of Education 6 4

The appropriate teaching methods course for your certification area:

Course Lawrence course credit, in units Certification semester hours
EDUC 560: Methods in Middle and Secondary Teaching 6 4
EDUC 563: Elementary and Secondary Foreign Language Methods 6 4
EDUC 565: Methods, Materials and Assessment in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages†† 6 4
EDUC 585: Art in the Elementary and Secondary Schools††† 6 4
EDUC 650 or 655: Student Teaching 18 12
EDUC 660: Advanced Methods in Teaching 3 3

† Required for foreign language certification only
†† Required for ESL certification only
††† Required for art certification only

Major subject area requirements

Art
A major consists of the 11 courses required for a studio art major, plus ART 585. See Certification for Teaching K-12 for further information regarding studio requirements and recommendations for art education certification. ART 585 should be taken in the Term III immediately prior to student teaching (EDUC 650).
English
A major consists of a minimum of 10 courses. In addition to demonstrating a familiarity with contemporary literature of world scope, students must submit evidence of coursework in composition, linguistics or history of the English language, literature for adolescents and literature of minority groups in America. Adolescent literature may be fulfilled by taking three units of tutorial study in education (EDUC 390 or 590) devoted to literature for adolescents. A minor is available.
English as a second language (ESL/ELL)
A major endorsement is available in ESL/ELL and requires completion of the following: the education certification sequence (e.g., EDST 180, EDST 440, EDUC 650, etc.); the four course ESL/ELL sequence of Linguistics 150, Linguistics 360, Linguistics 530 and EDUC 565; and an academic major in any one of the liberal arts and sciences. Students may also add ESL/ELL certification to certification in another area (e.g., English, music education, biology, history, etc.).
Foreign languages
A major in Chinese, Classics, French, German, Japanese, Russian or Spanish consists of 10 courses. Seven courses make up the minor option, except in Russian, in which there is no minor. It is required that students spend a term in a country studying its native language. To be certified, students must pass an oral and writing proficiency test.
Mathematics-computer science; computer science
A major consists of 10 courses.
Mathematics
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
Music
See the major in music education.
Natural sciences
Students are licensed in physical science (chemistry and/or physics), earth and space science (geology), or life and environmental science (biology and/or environmental science). Students must complete a Lawrence major in one science (e.g., biology) and take at least one course from each of the other sciences. A course in astronomy or space science or a course that includes either as a topic is also required. Please see the department chair for further information.
Biology
A major consists of 10 courses, plus courses in other science subjects; a minor is available.
Chemistry
A major consists of 10 courses, plus courses in other science subjects; a minor is available.
Geology/Earth science
A major consists of 10 courses, including astronomy and oceanography, plus courses in other science subjects; a minor is available.
Physics
A major consists of 10 courses, plus courses in other science subjects; a minor is available.
Environmental science
A major consists of 10 courses, plus courses in the other science subjects; a minor is available. Students must take Education/Environmental Studies 400 and should fulfill the science-track requirements of the environmental studies major. (Students are urged to major in one of the other sciences and minor in environmental studies if they plan to teach at the secondary level.)
Broad fields science
A broad-fields science license is available. To be eligible, students must complete the requirements to be certified in one of the science majors (biology, chemistry, environmental science, geology/earth science and physics), a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines and at least one course in each of the remaining sciences.
Social studies
Wisconsin licenses in the social sciences and history are grouped within the broad category of social studies. Students must complete a Lawrence major in any social science or history and take one course in each of the remaining social sciences (including history). An environmental studies course is also required. (Non-history majors are strongly urged to take a minimum of two history courses, one in U.S. history and one in global history.)
Anthropology/Sociology
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available. (Note: Wisconsin does not offer separate licensure in anthropology.)
Economics
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
History
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
Political science
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
Psychology
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
Broad fields social studies
A broad-fields social studies license is available. To be eligible, students must complete the requirements to be certified in one of the social sciences or history (anthropology/ sociology, economics, history, political science and psychology), a minimum of two courses each in two of the other social studies and at least one course in each of the remaining social studies. Instruction in consumer cooperatives and conservation is incorporated into the methodology course Education 560.
Theatre arts
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.

Education Studies

The minor in education studies provides students in the college and conservatory with the opportunity to pursue focused inquiry into the philosophical, cultural, and social foundations of education; the historical and present-day relationship between school and society; the part formal education plays in human development; and/or contemporary issues of education policy and practice. The minor will help prepare students for graduate study or work in education-related fields.

Required for the education studies minor

  1. Three foundational courses:
    • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
    • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity and Education
    • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
  2. One of the following courses:
    • EDST 309: Hollywood Goes to High School
    • EDST 315: Philosophy of Children
    • EDST 345: Distributed Cognition
    • EDST 400: The Environment, Community and Education
    • EDST 450: Topics in Education Studies (can be repeated as topics vary)
    • EDST 545: Gesture Studies
    • PSYC 260/265: Developmental Psychology
    • PSYC 460: Adolescent Psychology
  3. Both of the following with approval from an Education Department faculty member:
    • One additional course in education studies or in another department as preparation for the academic internship or independent study below
    • An academic internship (EDST 395/595) or independent study (EDST 399/599) appropriate to the student’s interest in education studies

Possible settings for internships include but are not limited to: public, private, or charter schools; school district offices; museum or arts organizations; other non-profit or community organizations; social services agencies; governmental bodies; policy or advocacy groups; and other approved sites. Students seeking teacher certification may also complete the Education Studies minor, but student teaching may not be used to fulfill the internship or independent study requirement, nor may the internship substitute for the classroom practicum hours required prior to student teaching.

English

The English Department at Lawrence offers students the opportunity to develop their skill at critical reading, writing, and analysis--skills that can be applied not only to "literary" texts but also to the texts and images produced by the cultures that surround us. Literature courses include analysis of British, American, African American, and postcolonial cultures. In creative writing, the department offers courses in fiction, poetry, and non-fiction.

Required for the English major

  1. ENG 150 or its equivalent
    After ENG 150, students majoring in English are required to complete eight six-unit courses, distributed as follows:

  2. Two courses from the intermediate group: ENG 230, 240, 250, 260, 280, 281
  3. Two courses focusing on periods before 1800: ENG 400, 420, 430, 435, 440, 443, 445, 446, 448, 450, 470, 527, and either 425 or 170 (but not both together)
  4. One course focusing on the nineteenth century: ENG 455, 460, 465, 472, 473, 474, 476
  5. One course focusing on the twentieth or twenty-first centuries: ENG 480, 483, 485, 490, 495, 498, 500, 501, 503, 510, 515, 516, 517, 518, 521
  6. One additional course in English
  7. In completing requirements 2-6, students are required to take course-work representing a range of literary and cultural traditions. Students are required to take at least one course, at any level, from each of the following three categories: 1) British, 2) American, and 3) African American, OR postcolonial. A course in African-American literature may satisfy either categories 2) or 3), but not both simultaneously. See list below for which courses correspond to which group.
  8. Finally majors are also required to complete the English Department’s Senior Experience (see further explanation below).

Cultural traditions categories for the major

Students must take at least one course, at any level, from each of the following three categories:

  1. British: ENG 170 (London Centre course), 230, 240, 281, 400, 420, 425, 430, 435, 440, 445, 446, 448, 450, 455, 460, 465, 480, 515, 527
  2. American: ENG 250, 443, 470, 472, 473, 474, 476, 483, 485, 495, 498, 500, 501, 503, 510, 515
  3. African American: ENG 260, 472, 510 OR postcolonial: ENG 280, 282, 517, 518, 521

Departmental advisors

When students officially declare themselves English majors, they should choose a departmental advisor who will be responsible for guiding them in planning and completing their major course of study. Questions about the advising of English majors should be addressed to the department chair

Senior Experience in English

Students pursuing double majors or double degrees are encouraged to consult with faculty from the English department and the other major department prior to taking Eng 600 if they wish to undertake a research topic that draws upon both of their majors.

Students pursuing double majors or double degrees also have the option of doing an honors project that is interdisciplinary in nature, as long as one of the directors of the project is a professor in the English department.

Required for the English minor

Six six-unit courses in English, distributed as follows:

  1. Two courses from the following introductory and intermediate group: ENG 150, 230, 240, 250, 260, 280, 281
  2. One course focusing on periods before 1800: ENG 170 (London Centre course), 400, 420, 425, 430, 435, 440, 443, 445, 446, 448, 450, 470, 527
  3. One course focusing on the nineteenth century: ENG 455, 460, 465, 472, 473, 474, 476
  4. One course focusing on the twentieth or twenty-first centuries: ENG 480, 483, 485, 490, 495, 498, 500, 501, 503, 510, 515, 516, 517, 518, 521
  5. One additional course in English

Required for the Creative Writing Minor

For students majoring in English, completing the Creative Writing minor requires taking a minimum of three courses in creative writing, including courses in at least two different literary genres. These courses can be at any level. THAR: 427 Playwrighting may also be used to fulfill one of the courses in the minor.

For students with majors outside of English, completing the Creative Writing minor requires taking a minimum of three courses in literary studies at any level in the English department as well as a minimum of three courses in creative writing. These creative writing courses need to include work in at least two different literary genres and can be at any level. Again, THAR: 427 Playwrighting may also be used to fulfill one of the courses in the minor.

Certification for Secondary teaching in English

Students preparing to teach English in secondary schools should bear in mind that they must have from 30 to 40 semester hours of preparation in English for certification. Freshman Studies and Literary Analysis (ENG 150) count toward certification. Requirements for the major satisfy requirements for certification in Wisconsin, except that the student seeking certification must satisfactorily complete at least one course in writing (e.g., ENG 350, 360, or 370); at least one course in linguistics or the English language (e.g., LING 105 or 150); a tutorial in literature for adolescents; and either ENG 260, or 510 or a tutorial in literature by writers of color in America. Please refer to the Department of Education listing for more detailed information on preparation for teacher certification.

Advanced Placement

All students who have earned a 4 or better in the Advanced Placement English Language and Composition Exam will be given credit for one course in English; for majors, this credit will fulfill the requirement of “one additional course in English.” All students who have earned a 4 or better in the Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition Exam will be given credit for one course in English and will receive advanced placement in courses at the intermediate level (ENG 230, 240, 250); for majors, this credit will fulfill the requirement of ENG 150. Questions about exemption and placement should be addressed to the department chair. The application of AP credit towards the general education requirements for either the B.A. or the B.Mus. degrees will be determined by university policy. Please see the following link for more information about university credit for AP Examinations.
AP Examination Information (PDF)

Graduate School

Students considering graduate work in English are advised that they should try to take two or more English department classes with at least two different members of the department. They will likely want to do more English course-work than the minimum that is required for the major. For the master’s degree, most graduate schools require demonstrated proficiency in at least one modern foreign language. For the doctorate, the usual requirement is demonstrated proficiency in two modern foreign languages, and, in some cases, also an ancient language. ENG 525: Contemporary Critical Theory is also an asset when preparing for graduate school. College work leading toward graduate study should be planned with these considerations in mind.

Environmental Studies

The field of environmental studies addresses some of the most critical and complicated issues of our time: those regarding environmental change and the future of humanity. The systems that make up planet Earth are simultaneously comprehensible and complex, predictable and chaotic, robust and fragile. Changes in one part of this system of systems may have far-reaching implications for other parts. As citizens of Earth, we cannot afford to remain ignorant of the global environmental consequences of our daily activities.

A degree in environmental studies prepares students for a wide spectrum of careers, including environmental law, consulting, policy making, technical innovation, wildlife management, teaching, natural resource management, and fundamental research. Students in the major share a common sequence of core courses, beginning with introductions to environmental science and policy through an intermediate level practicum and culminating with the senior capstone. Throughout the curriculum, majors are exposed to different perspectives on and tools for understanding the environment including those from the natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. In addition, all students are required to take advanced courses in one department to provide disciplinary depth. Students have considerable choice in their courses and work with their advisor to select courses that fit individual interests and career goals. The field experience requirement ensures that students get out of the classroom to put their academic work into practice.

The minor in environmental studies is designed to complement a major in any field.

Environmental Studies Major

  1. Required Core Courses (30 Units)
    1. ENST 150: Introduction to Environmental Science with Lab (6 units)
    2. ENST 151: Introduction to Environmental Policy (6 units)
    3. ENST 300: Symposium on Environmental Topics (6 units)
    4. ENST 650: Environmental Studies Senior Seminar (6 units)
    5. MATH 107, 117 or 207; Statistics or BIOL 170: Integrative Biology: Experimental Design and Analysis or ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology (6 units)
  2. Perspectives from Science (18 Units)
    Three additional science courses from at least two different departments, one of which must be lab-based and one of which must be 200 or above.

  3. Perspectives from Policy (12 Units)
    (ECON 280 or ECON 285) and (GOVT 270 or GOVT 380)

  4. Perspectives from History, Society, and Culture
    HIST 355 or EDST 400 or PHIL 360 or ANTH 310

  5. Disciplinary Focus (18 units)
    Eighteen units from courses numbered 200 or above in a single department GOVT, ECON, CHEM, BIOL, GEOL, ANTH,and PHYS, selected in consultation with advisor.

  6. Field Experience (not necessarily for credit; typically about 50 hours of work outside the classroom or participation in an ENST-related internship or off-campus program)

Environmental Studies Minor

  1. Required Core Courses (18 Units)
    1. ENST 150: Introduction to Environmental Science with Lab (6 units)
    2. ENST 151: Introduction to Environmental Policy (6 units)
    3. ENST 300: Symposium on Environmental Topics (6 units)
  2. Courses with significant emphasis on environmental topics (30 units)
    Any five environmental studies cross-listed courses. Environmental studies courses taken through Lawrence-sponsored off-campus programs, such as the Semester in Environmental Science may also fulfill this requirement, with approval of the Environmental Studies Steering Committee. Special note: No more than three courses may be applied simultaneously toward completion of this minor and a student's major.

Senior Experience in Environmental Studies

The Senior Seminar (ENST 650) is the culmination of the Environmental Studies major and serves as the program's Senior Experience. Through discussions of primary literature and guest lectures, students are engaged with cutting-edge scholarship in the natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. Students also complete individual projects, which consist of developing temporal or spatial models of environmentally relevant phenomena. In the course of modeling, students must find and acquire relevant data, determine functional relations between model elements, perform sensitivity analyses, and justify their choices and assumptions. Results and conclusions are presented orally and in a written document. The 6-unit course is offered once a year and has ENST 150, ENST 151 and ENST 300 as prerequisites.

Ethnic Studies

Drawing upon its own inter-disciplinary body of theory, concepts and methodological approaches, Ethnic Studies at Lawrence provides intellectual environments in which students can participate in meaningful dialogue about topics too often shrouded in silence. Ethnic Studies appeals to students who want to explore the evolution of ethno-racial identities in both U.S. domestic and global contexts, and examine current issues pertaining to race and ethnicity. Students take Ethnic Studies courses to enhance their own ability to negotiate multi-ethnic and inter-racial relationships and to thrive in workplace diversity. Students broaden their own worldview when they study concepts of ethnicity and learn what it means to identify with an ethnic group on the basis of national origin, family heritage, shared historical experience, customs and traditions, and/or language. Students think critically about the concept of race when they explore how race is a recent human invention, how race is about culture and politics and not biology, and how race and racism are still embedded in institutions and everyday life.

The Ethnic Studies minor at Lawrence offers two core courses that introduce students to theory, concepts and approaches from the social sciences (ETST 200: Race and Ethnicity in the United States) and the arts and humanities (ETST 210 Expressions of Ethnicity). Students take at least one of the two core courses and four additional elective courses, at least one from each of two categories — domestic and global — to build a minor that reflects individual student interests in certain topics or current debates, specific ethno-racial communities, geographic areas, or historical time periods. In a senior capstone requirement, students may choose from a range of options designed to bring reflection and focus to their Ethnic Studies experience.

Required for the minor in ethnic studies

  1. One of the two core courses:
    1. ETST 200: Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    2. ETST 210: Expressions of Ethnicity
  2. Four additional courses, at least one from each of two categories — domestic and global — and representing course work from at least two different departments. No more than two courses may count toward the student's major. A student may choose to do the second core course as one of the electives.

    Domestic: courses that focus on the experience of a major ethnic group in the United States or on relations among ethnic groups in the United States. Examples include but are not limited to:
    1. ETST 222: History of the American West
    2. ETST 240: Sociology of Education
    3. ETST 241: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
    4. ETST 321: Race Relations in the United States, 1865-Present
    5. ETST 330: Indians of North America
    6. ETST 360: Survey of African American Literature
    7. ETST 380/381: "Ideal Immigrants"? The German Experience in America
    8. ETST 420: The American Civil War
    9. ETST 430: American Indians on Film
    10. ETST 561: Literature of the Harlem Renaissance

    Global: courses that focus on the experience of ethnicity and relations among ethnic groups outside the United States or comparative courses that include both the United States and other parts of the world. Examples include but are not limited to:
    1. ETST 121: Traditional East Asian Civilization
    2. ETST 221: Europe in the Age of Nationalism, World War, and Totalitarianism, 1851-1990
    3. ETST 223: Nationalism In Modern History
    4. ETST 230: Ethnography of Sub-Saharan Africa
    5. ETST 251: Immigration and Refugees: Changing the Face of Europe
    6. ETST 320: Empire and Nation in Russian History
    7. ETST 322: Modern Japanese History
    8. ETST 325: Ethnicity in Latin America
    9. ETST 332: Ethnography of the Middle East and North Africa
    10. ETST 334: Race and Ethnicity in East Africa
    11. ETST 382: The Literature and Culture of Ethnic Minorities in Germany
    12. ETST 480: Latin American Civilization and Culture
    13. ETST 481: Spanish Civilization and Culture
    14. ETST 560: Contemporary British and Post-Colonial Fiction
    15. ETST 583: Hispanic Issues
    16. ETST 584: Black Cultural Nationalisms

    Courses cross-listed in ethnic studies will count toward completion of the minor whether students register for them using the program's designation (ETST) or an individual department's designation. A student may choose to do the second core course as one of the electives. No more than two courses used for the minor may count towards the student's major, and no more than two courses may be taken from one department.

  3. C average in the minor

Senior Experience in Ethnic Studies

Students must choose one of the five following options in consultation with the program’s steering board:

  1. ETST 695: Ethnic Studies Field Experience Includes work in the community, such as tutoring on the Oneida Reservation, accompanied by a written reflection on the experience. Must be supervised by an Ethnic Studies faculty member.
  2. Upper-level independent study in Ethnic Studies for at least three units, supervised by an Ethnic Studies faculty member
  3. Participation in the ACM Urban Studies program. Students are required to submit a written reflection on an aspect of the program that directly relates to issues of race and/or ethnicity.
  4. EDUC 565: Methods, Materials, and Assessment in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
  5. Student teaching in an ethnically diverse K-12 classroom or program. Students are requested to submit a written reflection on an aspect of the experience that directly relates to issues of race and/or ethnicity.

Film Studies

Film Studies involves the study of visual culture in all its formats and platforms as culturally vital art forms and artifacts. Film Studies students will be involved in the theory, praxis, and history of film and video. Students are also involved in the production of video, film, and animation in the Hurvis Film Studies Center, a new state-of-the-art production facility. Film and video has its own identifiable properties and conventions, consequently Film Studies courses expose students to the theory and criticism of moving images in order to explore the technical, stylistic, and rhetorical devices that films employ to create and convey meaning. The courses listed below pay particular attention to the history, analysis, and interpretation of film and video as key forms of contemporary culture. Film Studies invites interdisciplinary approaches. Film Studies course offerings at Lawrence University are drawn from various language departments: Chinese, English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish; there are also film courses in the departments of Anthropology, Art and Art History, History, and Theatre Arts and in the Conservatory of Music. Students taking courses in film studies have access to a wide range of interpretive methodologies, national cinemas, film styles, and genres and may combine their interest in film with the majority of disciplines in the liberal arts.

Required for the interdisciplinary area in film studies

  1. Completion of five courses selected from the film studies course list in which film comprises at least 25 percent of the course material and grading. FIST 100: Introduction to Film Studies, or its equivalent (FREN 302, GER 277, SPAN 330), is required.
  2. Students who wish to complete the IA during the current academic year should notify a faculty advisor by the first Friday of Term III. Students will then be expected to present a coherent statement of how the courses selected fit together.

French

Goals of the beginning and intermediate sequences in French are comprehension of both the oral and written language beyond an elementary level, development of the capacity to express reasonably complicated thought both orally and in writing, and an introduction to French and Francophone literatures and cultures.

At the advanced level, the student is expected to reach competence in use and knowledge of the French language and to become conversant with French and Francophone literatures and cultures. Students will not only familiarize themselves but also engage critically with important intellectual ideas from the French-speaking world as they have evolved across time and space.

From the beginning, French is used extensively, if not totally, in the classroom. Except where specified, all class discussion, essays, and examinations are conducted in French.

Required for the French major

Students complete a French major by taking a minimum of 60 units beyond FREN 202, including 12 to 18 units at the 300 level, at least 12 units at the 400 level, and at least 12 units at the 500 level, plus the Senior Seminar. At least 18 of the 400- or 500-level units must be taken on the Lawrence campus.

French majors will be required to attend at least one Björklunden French language immersion weekend in either their junior or senior year. Participation in the immersion experience will allow department members to evaluate majors’ levels of proficiency in listening and speaking in a free and unstructured linguistic environment. Students who major in French are also required to attend at least six meetings of the French Table; for one of the Tables they will serve as discussion leader.

Finally, all French majors will be required to assemble a portfolio of a selection of their work in the French program. The portfolio is designed to keep a record of progress over the course of a French major’s career in terms of linguistic proficiency, mastery of specific literary and cultural content, and sophistication of ideas.

Portfolios must be submitted by the second week of Term III of the student’s senior or super-senior year. The French and Francophone Studies department will receive and approve only completed portfolios, and the portfolio submissions must be in PDF format.

The French portfolio must include:

  1. A list of all courses taken for the major
  2. A list of works included in the portfolio
    1. A two to three page essay in French that captures the concept of “la francophonie” through discussion of one aspect of cultural production (cinema, literature, media, music, etc.) that distinguishes and yet relates French and Francophone identity
  3. Samples of students' work will be drawn from each of the following categories:
    1. One sample essay from each of the following levels: French 300, French 400, and French 500. At least one of the essays should discuss a Francophone topic.
    2. The student's senior capstone project.

A student may request permission to submit a video recording of an oral presentation in place of one essay.

Required for the French minor

Students complete a French minor by taking a minimum of 36 units beyond FREN 202, which will include 12 units at the 300 level and at least 6 units at the 400 level and 6 units at the 500 level. A C or above average in the minor also is required.

French minors will be required to attend at least one Björklunden immersion weekend in either their junior or senior year. Participation in the immersion experience will allow department members to evaluate minors’ levels of proficiency in listening and speaking in a free and unstructured linguistic environment. Students who minor in French are also required to attend at least six meetings of the French Table and complete a short project based on work pre-approved by the department. There will be an oral presentation of the project before at least two members of the department.

Finally, students must declare their intent to minor in French in writing to the department chair in their junior year.

Concerning study abroad

The department urges students to take advantage of the international study programs in France, Senegal, or Quebec.

Placement Examination

The placement examination for students taking French at Lawrence for the first time is available online at the department’s home page. To take the exam, go to http://www.lawrence.edu/academics/study/french_francophone_studies/placement_exams and follow the instructions. The exam may be taken on or off campus. Students wishing to place out of the language requirement by proficiency examination should sign up through the department chair for an oral proficiency interview and writing exam in addition to the placement test.

At the beginning and intermediate levels, courses are numbered to indicate relative difficulty, the lowest numbers identifying those that require the least proficiency in French. At the level of FREN 400 and above, however, students should consult a French instructor.

At whatever level students place, they should plan to begin their study of French in the freshman or sophomore year.

Senior Experience in French and Francophone Studies

French and Francophone Studies requires a Senior Experience that consists of a one-term senior seminar (winter) in which possible research topics are defined and outlined, culminating in a written thesis and an oral, in-class presentation of the student's work. Other types of research projects and interdisciplinary capstones in French may meet the requirement; the possibility of an alternative project must be discussed with the department chair and the student's advisor.

Students pursuing double majors, double degrees, and education certification, are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall Senior Experience as early as possible. It is imperative that students interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in both majors consult with the department chair by fall of the senior or super-senior year.

Freshman Studies

Freshman Studies has been the cornerstone of the Lawrence curriculum for over 60 years. Designed by Nathan Pusey, who left Lawrence for the presidency at Harvard, it was first taught in 1945 and is still best understood as an introduction to liberal learning.

Students take Freshman Studies in their first two terms on campus. Each section of the course includes about fifteen students, allowing for close relationships between students and teachers. Because each section uses the same reading list, Freshman Studies also helps students to join in the life of a larger intellectual community, one that now includes generations of Lawrentians.

In keeping with such goals, Freshman Studies is expansive and inclusive. Instead of endorsing a single point of view, the course embraces works from many different traditions. Every division of the curriculum is represented on the syllabus, and recent versions of the course have included works by Plato and Shakespeare, Bishop and Einstein, Borges and Kandinsky, Zhuangzi, Stravinsky, and Milgram.

Through their encounters with such works, students gain an appreciation of different approaches to knowledge. They also join each other in exploring a host of important questions: What is the best sort of life for human beings? Are there limits to human knowledge? How should we respond to injustice and suffering? In addition to raising these questions, Freshman Studies serves more immediate and practical goals. The course encourages lively discussion and introduces students to the conventions of academic writing. In the first term, for example, students learn that a paper must serve the needs of an intelligent, curious reader. They also learn that a good paper should be organized around a central claim or thesis and supported with evidence from the text.

In the second term, students build on these foundations, moving on to more complex forms of argument. Students may be asked to assess the interpretations of earlier scholars or to contrast the treatment of a crucial theme in two very different texts. Through their work in Freshman Studies, then, students begin to master the skills needed for success in more advanced courses.

Gender Studies

Gender is a fundamental aspect of personal and social identity and a biological, psychological, and cultural category of paramount importance for people everywhere. In addition, gender is often a criterion for social stratification and different political treatment, as well as a favored symbol for expressing values and beliefs. Gender Studies offers students an opportunity for focused study of such varied issues, in both contemporary and past societies, as human reproduction, gender roles in the family and society, the psychology of identity, sexual orientation, and representations of women and men in literature, music, and art.

Required for the major in gender studies

  1. Two core courses (interdisciplinary in nature):
    • GEST 100: Introduction to Gender Studies
    • GEST 200: Introduction to Feminist Theory and Practice
  2. Two additional cross-listed six-unit courses, cross-listed and offered within various disciplines that focus primarily on gender. These courses must be distributed as follows:
    • One must be either GEST 110 or GEST 350.
    • One must be either GEST 180 or GEST 270.
  3. At least six additional six-unit courses in either Gender Studies or cross-listed, and some may be gender-component courses, as described below. The six courses must be distributed as follows:
    1. At least two courses must be at the level of 200 or above.
    2. At least one course must be at the level of 400 or above.
    3. Up to 6 units of independent study in Gender Studies may be substituted for one course.
    4. One of the six courses must be a Senior Experience of at least six units.

    Courses cross-listed in Gender Studies will count toward completion of the major whether students register for them using the program's designation (GEST) or an individual department's designation.

Required for the minor in gender studies

  1. Two core courses:
    • GEST 100: Introduction to Gender Studies
    • GEST 200: Introduction to Feminist Theory and Practice
  2. Four additional six-unit courses that focus primarily on gender. The four courses must be distributed as follows:
    1. Three must be cross-listed in Gender Studies; the one remaining course may be a gender-component course. If these are gender-component course, students must complete a form (to be signed by the instructor and their Gender Studies advisor) that outlines which course requirements will be fulfilled with work applicable to Gender Studies. This form must be completed and submitted to the Gender Studies advisor by the end of the second week of the term. Forms may be downloaded from the Gender Studies Web page.
    2. At least two courses must be at the level of 200 or above.
    3. Completion of an independent study in Gender Studies can be substituted for one course.

Courses cross-listed in Gender Studies will count toward completion of the minor whether students register for them using the program's designation (GEST) or an individual department's designation.

Senior Experience in Gender Studies

Senior Experience in Gender Studies
Students majoring in Gender Studies will enroll in a Senior Experience that is approved by the Gender Studies Advisory Board and mentored by a Gender Studies faculty member.
The Senior Experience will be at least one term, but may be more depending on the route the student pursues. The experience may be an independent study, an internship/practicum accompanied by an independent study, or an approved project in an advanced course. The Senior Experience will culminate in a senior thesis about the project, and an oral presentation of the student's work. A variety of artistic or research projects, interdisciplinary projects, and projects based on social service or activist initiatives may be appropriate Senior Experiences, but must be approved in consultation with the student's advisor and the Advisory Board.
Students interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in Gender Studies with another major or student teaching, are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall Senior Experience as early as possible.

Geology

If “geology” makes you think of dusty collections of rocks, minerals, and old bones, visit the Lawrence geology department. You will discover a thriving group of faculty members and students who consider geology to be a way of seeing the Earth, a lens through which the planet’s past and present come simultaneously into focus.

Lawrence geology students have an exceptional range of research experiences, comparable to what students from larger universities would first encounter at graduate school. In a single academic term, you could find yourself sampling ice-age lake sediments with the department’s portable drill rig, mapping the roots of an ancient mountain belt in Michigan’s upper peninsula, instrumenting a watershed in eastern Wisconsin, examining microscopic rock structures with image-analysis software, and conducting geochemical and crystallographic studies with research equipment shared with the chemistry and physics departments. All geology majors complete a research project as part of their Senior Experience, and many present results of their research at professional meetings.

Field-based studies are at the heart of the Lawrence geology program. Recent destinations for the annual all-department field trip have included Hawaii, the Adirondacks, Wyoming, Ontario, Scotland, and Puerto Rico. Shorter trips are integrated into academic-year courses, and there also are opportunities for summer field courses, internships, and research projects. Appleton is within a few hours’ drive of classical geological localities, including iron ore deposits and ancient volcanoes in northern Wisconsin and Michigan, a fossil forest preserved in glacial sediments on the shores of Lake Michigan, and the world-renowned glacial landscape of the Kettle Moraine. Local environmental issues related to surface and groundwater protection also provide the basis for student field projects.

In many ways, geology is the ideal liberal arts degree. It is a discipline that draws not only upon one’s observational and analytical abilities but also upon one’s aesthetic and creative instincts.

Required for the geology major

  1. Required core courses
    • GEOL 110: Introductory Geology
    • GEOL 210: History of Earth and Life
    • GEOL 240: Chemistry of the Earth: Low-Temperature Environments
    • GEOL 245: Mineralogical Analysis
    • GEOL 250: Chemistry of the Earth: High-Temperature Environments
    • GEOL 360: Physics of the Earth: Surface Processes
    • GEOL 370: Physics of the Earth: Subsurface Processes
    • GEOL 580: Junior Seminar
    • GEOL 620: Senior Capstone
  2. Additional courses in geology
    Two additional six-unit courses in geology, including two courses numbered 200 or higher
  3. Courses in other sciences and mathematics
    • CHEM 116 (may be waived by placement exam)
    • MATH 107 or 117 or 120 or 140 or 207
    • PHYS 141 or 151

Required for the geology minor

  1. Required core courses
    • GEOL 110: Introductory Geology
    • GEOL 210: History of Earth and Life
    • Any two of the following:
      • GEOL 240: Chemistry of the Earth: Low-Temperature Environments
      • GEOL 250: Chemistry of the Earth: High-Temperature Environments
      • GEOL 360: Physics of the Earth: Surface Processes
      • GEOL 370: Physics of the Earth: Subsurface Processes
  2. Additional courses in geology
    Two additional six-unit courses in geology numbered 200 or higher
  3. C average in the minor

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in geology and a secondary discipline

  1. GEOL 110 and geol 210
  2. PHYS 150 and 160 or, with the permission of the secondary department, PHYS 120 and 130.
  3. Either:
    1. BIOL 110 and 120 or BIOL 110 and 140, or
    2. CHEM 115 and 116 or equivalent chosen to include the secondary interest
  4. At least 10 six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, and physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in geology and at least three in the secondary discipline
  5. GEOL 580 and 620

Broad Field Science

Students who complete a major, a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines, and at least one course in each of the remaining three disciplines (including space science) will be eligible for Broad Field certification.
Please refer to the Department of Education for more detailed information on teacher certification.

Senior Experience in Geology

The Senior Experience in Geology comprises two 3-unit courses (GEOL 580 and 620), the first taken in spring term of the junior year and the second in fall term of the senior year.
The junior seminar helps students begin to acquire an “insider's view” of the geosciences. In the first part of the course, students explore the philosophical and historical underpinnings of the discipline and develop strategies for finding and reading technical literature. Then, working with at least one member of the geology faculty, each student identifies a substantive research question and designs a plan by which to investigate that question.
In the senior capstone, students work with faculty mentors to carry out these research plans (sometimes building upon work that they conducted during summer study on campus, in the field, or through programs at other universities). By the end of the term, each student presents his or her research results and analyses to the department as a whole. Some students opt to continue their capstone research throughout their senior year as senior thesis or honors thesis projects.

German

German has long been a key language of culture, the arts, philosophy, and the social and natural sciences. For better and for worse, Germany has played a significant role in European and world history, while united Germany is one of the driving forces behind European integration and economic development. As a result, German is an important language — not just in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland — but also as a second language throughout the continent. Germany itself is changing in ways that shatter old prejudices and make German an exciting culture to explore. Not only has Döner Kebab become Germans favorite fast food, but with at least 20% of Germans having migrant backgrounds, it is no wonder that some of the most interesting literature and film has been produced by people who do not fit the stereotypical image of Germans.

The German Department at Lawrence University assists students not just in learning the German language, but also becoming familiar with Germany’s literature, history, and culture, including popular culture — film, television and popular literature. German courses also encourage students to develop analytical and interpretive skills. This mix of analysis, information and skills helps them understand an increasingly dynamic, diverse and interdependent international community, a global community in which Germany is an ever more important player. The knowledge and abilities that German students acquire can help them in a wide variety of careers and give them a lifetime of cultural pleasure.

The study of German begins with the language, but the Lawrence German program insists that language is always part of a cultural nexus. Lawrence’s German program is designed to help students develop proficiency in all four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Since it only makes sense to learn German in courses with significant cultural content, beginning and intermediate instruction always integrates pertinent cultural material and provides an opportunity for comparisons between German and American experiences. Most classes, even at the elementary level, are conducted in German, and the program insists that every course, at all levels, is both a language and cultural course. Knowledge of a second language in its cultural context makes students aware of their own language and culture; they are less likely to take things for granted. Of course, the best way to experience difference is to live in another culture, and the German department strongly encourages students to take advantage of opportunities for study in the German-speaking world through our affiliated programs in Berlin, Freiburg, and Vienna. On campus they can maintain a connection to things German through the department’s lunch and dinner tables and the German brunch, which are all facilitated by our Language Assistants.

Once the cultural and linguistic foundations have been laid, students embark on a deeper exploration of German culture, history, and society. The German Department at Lawrence embraces the notion of German studies. Although works of great literature offer unparalleled access to German culture, students will also be exposed to a wider variety of cultural artifacts — film, television, nonfiction texts, popular narratives, etc. — than might be the case in more traditional German programs.

Required for the German major

  1. Sixty units beyond GER 202, including GER 285 and 312. At least half of these units must be taken at Lawrence. Only 12 units taught in English may count toward the major, but tutorials taken in conjunction with English courses may count as German credit.
  2. 2. Students usually complete a capstone project in the senior seminar or in conjunction with a departmental course taken during the senior year.
  3. 3. Students who expect to graduate will present a portfolio by the second week of their final term. The student's advisor will review a portfolio consisting of the following materials submitted electronically:
    • a brief statement in which students evaluate their development as German majors
    • a list of courses taken for the major
    • sample pages of Lesejournale from all German courses numbered 300 and above taken at Lawrence
    • four papers from upper-level courses, two of which may be from courses taken abroad
    • a copy of the capstone paper

Required for the German minor

Thirty-six units beyond GER 202, including GER 285 and 312. At least half of these units must be taken at Lawrence. Only six units taught in English may count toward the minor, but tutorials taken in conjunction with English courses may count as German credits.
A C average in the minor is also required.

Teaching Certification in German

Teaching certification in German The German department offers a course of study that prepares its majors to teach German at the elementary and secondary levels. Students interested in teaching German, K-12, should plan to complete the major and should consult with the education department, about certification requirements.

Senior Experience in German

The German Department's revised Senior Experience consists of a longer, research paper to be completed either through an Independent Study or the Senior Seminar. Students should develop individual paper topics by the end of fall term. The capstone project may be completed during winter term, or it may spill over into an independent study during spring term.
In either case, the senior seminar allows students to help each other develop their ideas and arguments; they will also present their findings to the entire senior cohort.
Students who are pursuing a double major or teaching certification should work with all concerned departments to assess the feasibility of an interdisciplinary capstone.

Government

Instruction in the government department responds to an intensely political age and its intellectual challenges. Our main objective is to help students learn how to explain, interpret, and evaluate political institutions, policies, behaviors, and beliefs. Majors learn how to employ a variety of methods to analyze political phenomena, as well as how to defend their analyses with rigorous, evidence-based arguments.

The introductory course (GOVT 110) provides an introduction to the analysis of the contemporary political system primarily through an examination of the theory and practice of American government. Students proceeding further are introduced to the major problems of political analysis and to the interplay of theory and data before going on to advanced courses in American politics and policy, comparative politics, constitutional law, international politics, and political theory.

A major in government prepares students for success in a wide variety of careers including politics, law, business, teaching, or non-profit work. Those who pursued advanced degrees have done so in political science, business, law, international relations, public policy, history, medicine, education, urban planning, development studies, and many other fields.

Required for the government major

Government majors must complete either of the following two tracks:

Required for the general track

  1. GOVT 110: Introduction to Political Science
  2. GOVT 271: Research Methods in Political Science
  3. One of the following courses in American politics:
    • GOVT 211: Flexibility and Freedom: American Federalism in Transition
    • GOVT 220: American Elections, Candidates, and Political Parties
    • GOVT 360: The American Presidency
    • GOVT 370: Congressional Politics
    • GOVT 375: American Political Development
    • GOVT 380: Introduction to Public Policy
  4. One of the following courses in comparative politics:
    • GOVT 215: Democracy in Comparative Perspective
    • GOVT 245: Comparative Politics of Developing Countries
  5. One of the following courses in international politics:
    • GOVT 140: Introduction to International Relations
    • GOVT 340: International Politics
  6. One of the following courses in political theory:
    • GOVT 200: Politics and Human Nature
    • GOVT 235: American Political Thought
    • GOVT 315: Founding the Just Regime
    • GOVT 405: Individuality and Community in Modern Politics
  7. One six-unit course numbered 400 or above
  8. Senior experience: one six-unit course numbered 500 or above. Students may satisfy this requirement by completing a 500 or higher-level seminar, independent study, tutorial, directed study, or internship.
  9. At least eleven six-unit courses total
  10. C average in the major
  11. At most two 100-level courses may count toward the major.
  12. Students may count one cross-listed course in economics toward the major.

Required for the international relations track

  1. GOVT 110: Introduction to Political Science
  2. GOVT 140: Introduction to International Relations
  3. GOVT 340: International Politics
  4. GOVT 271: Research Methods in Political Science
  5. One of the following courses in comparative politics:
    • GOVT 215: Democracy in Comparative Perspective
    • GOVT 245: Comparative Politics of Developing Countries
  6. One of the following courses in political theory:
    • GOVT 200: Politics and Human Nature
    • GOVT 315: Founding the Just Regime
    • GOVT 405: Individuality and Community in Modern Politics
  7. One six-unit course numbered 400 or above in international or comparative politics
  8. Senior experience: one six-unit course numbered 500 or above, with an international or comparative focus. Students may satisfy this requirement by completing a 500 or higher-level seminar, independent study, tutorial, directed study, or internship.
  9. Three additional six-unit elective courses
  10. At least eleven six-unit courses total
  11. C average in the major
  12. At most three 100-level courses may count toward the major.
  13. One of the electives must be a course with a comparative or international focus offered by a department outside of government. Students must clear their choices with their advisors in advance. Foreign language courses may only satisfy this requirement if they exceed the level required for the B.A. degree.
  14. Students may count one cross-listed course in economics, in addition to the above course, toward the major.
  15. Students may count Government 211, 220, 360, 370, 375, or 380 instead of Government 110 if they secure permission from the relevant course instructor or if they have received credit for AP Government.

Required for the government minor

  1. GOV 110: Introduction to Political Science
  2. One six-unit course in American politics
  3. One six-unit course in political theory
  4. Two six-unit courses from the fields of comparative politics and international relations
  5. One six-unit course at the advanced level numbered 400 or above, excluding tutorials and independent studies
  6. A total of at least six six-unit courses, four of which must be numbered 200 or above
  7. C average in the minor

Off-campus study

Senior Experience in Government

The Senior Experience in Government will allow seniors to pursue a capstsone research project, an academic internship in government or politics, or other culminating work chosen in consultation with faculty advisors. Capstone research projects may be pursued through a senior seminar, in approved upper-level courses or independent studies, or through work toward an honors thesis.

History

Consciously or not, all of us operate as historians. We make judgments and decisions based on our knowledge, however inadequate, of what has gone before. Furthermore, we make sense of our own position in the present by composing and telling stories about where we have been in the past. The formal study of history — the critical examination of human accomplishments and failures — does likewise, and it greatly enhances our ability to judge and decide about both private matters and public issues. Although historical awareness does not offer immediate solutions to contemporary problems, it does lead to a better understanding of them. Studying what was remote in time and space provides important perspectives on politics, society, and culture.

Required for the history major

  1. The minimal requirement for the major is 10 six unit courses.
  2. Students must complete a sequence of three courses specifically designed to promote the skills and method of disciplined historical inquiry and to culminate in the production of an original and substantial piece of historical research. These courses must be taken in order and at specified times, so students must take special care when planning their advancement through the major.
    1. Students are required to take HIST 101: Introduction to Historical Methods, during their freshman or sophomore year.
    2. Students are required to take HIST 620: Historiography, during their junior year.
    3. Students are required to take HIST 650: The Practice of History, during their senior year. Exceptions may be granted, however, for majors who petition to complete a piece of advanced and original historical research in suitable off-campus programs.
  3. Students must complete seven additional courses that will serve both to broaden and to deepen their historical knowledge. One of the seven courses must be a seminar or independent study in which students will begin a research project to be completed in HIST 650.
    1. Students are required to take at least one six-unit course from each of the following three categories: North America (NA), Europe (E), and Global and Comparative (G&C).
    2. Students are required to take at least one course that covers materials up to the year 1750.
    3. Students are required to take at least one course designated as a seminar (numbered between 400 and 599) or one designated as an independent study (numbered between 400 and 599), during their junior year or during the Fall Term of their senior year.
    4. Students are encouraged to take as many additional courses focusing on their own areas of interest as they and their advisors deem appropriate for the completion of the major.
  4. Students must have a C average in the major.

Required for the history minor

  1. The minimal requirement for the minor is 6 six-unit courses.
  2. Students must take at least one introductory course (numbered between 100 and 199).
  3. Students must take at least five additional courses.
    1. No more than one may be an introductory course.
    2. At least one must be a seminar or independent study (numbered between 400 and 599).
  4. Students must have a C average in the minor.

Off-campus Study

The history department encourages majors, whenever possible, to participate in one of the off-campus programs offered either by Lawrence or under the auspices of the Associated Colleges of the Midwest or other consortial arrangements. The Lawrence London Centre and the ACM Newberry Library Program have proven to be of particular interest to history majors, though majors have benefited from participation in numerous others — especially those that match up with students’ area interests (see Off-Campus Programs).

Graduate School

Students who are considering graduate studies in history should know that most doctoral programs require one or more (usually two) foreign languages and should work closely with their advisors to plan their schedules accordingly.

Advanced Placement

Students who have earned a 4 or better in the Advanced Placement Examinations in American History, European History, or World History will receive six units of credit in history and may use that credit in partial fulfillment of the major. (History majors should consult with their advisors to determine which departmental introductory course their AP credit might replace.) These same students are strongly encouraged to consult with any member of the department about appropriate placement in courses above the introductory level.

Senior Experience in History

The Senior Experience in the History Department consists of a collaborative one-term seminar, The Practice of History, culminating in an original and substantial piece of historical research. Students will be introduced to the standards of research and writing common to the historical profession and will be guided through their own individual projects. The Practice of History represents the culmination of a course sequence that includes Introduction to Historical Methods and Historiography. It is open to history majors who have completed an advanced seminar, tutorial, or independent study and have outlined a research topic that they are prepared to pursue intensively.

Innovation & Entrepreneurship

Program Description

The mission of the Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E) interdisciplinary area is to enable students to further pursue their passion through innovative and entrepreneurial ventures in courses and co-curricular activities. It is important to note that we use the word “innovative” in a particular sense, referring to creative, original thinking that leads to new ideas, products, or services that create value for society. Similarly, we use “entrepreneurial” in a specific way, referring to taking initiative and creating positive change in the world. Finally, our use of the word “venture” includes both for-profit and non-profit ventures, and more broadly any initiative to deliver a product or service in a sustainable way.

Innovation and entrepreneurship, understood in this sense, fit naturally into a liberal education. The cultivation of innovative, entrepreneurial thought and action requires one to approach problems from multiple perspectives, to think creatively beyond the status quo, to create and deliver coherent, persuasive arguments. These are essential skills that a liberal education aims to impart to its recipients. The I&E program is one place among many where Lawrence’s curriculum attempts to develop the ability to create what did not exist before. I&E courses attempt to enhance the ability to generate new ideas or processes. Certainly other courses do this in other ways. Graduates who embrace innovative and entrepreneurial attitudes will be better equipped to create fulfilling lives for themselves — lives that extend their liberal arts experience.

Required for the I&E interdisciplinary area

  1. Three core courses:
    • In Pursuit of Innovation (I-E 100)
    • Financial Literacy (I-E 110)
    • Entrepreneurial Ventures (I-E 300)
  2. At least one elective from:
    • The Entrepreneurial Musician (MUEP 280);
    • Social Entrepreneurship (GOVT 248);
    • Economics of Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ECON 405);
    • Industrial Organization (ECON 400);
    • Topics of Finance (I-E 410);
    • Other courses in which aspects of innovation or entrepreneurship are central, such as Topics in Education Studies (EDST 450 - Educating for Creativity); Systems Analysis and Design (CMSC 410)
  3. A second course from 2. above, or an additional course that is directly relevant to innovation and entrepreneurship. At this time these include: Studio Art Senior Seminar (ART 600); Apple, Google, Facebook (RLST 245); Contemporary American Poetry (ENG 503); Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology (ANTH 210); Interarts: New Media Projects (FIST 245); Intermediate or Advanced Printmaking (ART 320 or 520), Optics (PHYS 340).
  4. Practicum: A 3-unit course or internship such as Start-Up Theatre, Rabbit Gallery, KidsGive, or Lawrence Baroque Ensemble; Internship in Studio Art (ART 395, 595, or 695), or others, including the option of a 400-level IS to continue a project started in a course. Alternatively, participation in the ACM Chicago Program with a focus on Entrepreneurship.

International Studies

The interdisciplinary area in international studies encourages students to discover the relationships among different societies. It is also intended to heighten their sensitivity to the degree to which cultural-linguistic factors affect perception of the world. The program offers students an opportunity to use skills and perspectives gained from study of modern languages and civilizations to enhance their understanding of international events and developments encountered in their studies in the social sciences and humanities.

Just as interdisciplinary areas (IAs) are intended to provoke students to examine the boundaries between their major fields and closely related fields of study, the interdisciplinary area in international studies is a vehicle through which students may discover and explore the international dimensions of their majors. It is also a means through which a student may demonstrate a commitment to enhanced understanding of those dimensions.

The interdisciplinary area in international studies has an informal, but natural, relationship with the social organization called Lawrence International. Students who participate in the interdisciplinary area should consider seriously membership in Lawrence International and should attend the meetings and functions of the organization. Lawrence International extends a warm welcome to all students and especially to those who evince interest in international matters.

Required for the interdisciplinary area in international studies

  1. One six-unit course in a foreign language beyond the level required for completion of Lawrence's foreign language requirement.
  2. GOV 140 or GOV 150. Students should fulfill this requirement in the freshman or sophomore year. Juniors are discouraged from taking GOV 140, and the course is closed to seniors without the consent of instructor.
  3. At least four six-unit courses, from at least three different departments, that embody international and/or cross-cultural context and that can be shown by the student to conform to a coherent design, either regional or thematic in nature. The student must present a clear articulation of the design either during a culminating conversation between the student and the Interdisciplinary Area Advisory Committee or in some other suitable context — e.g., an advanced-level seminar in international studies, when such an offering is available.
  4. Notification of the faculty advisor by the first Friday of Term III of intention to complete the IA in the current academic year.

Latin American Studies

Latin America is the product of one of the most dramatic intersections of human societies in world history. Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans began a process that has created a politically, socially, and economically complex region. Latin America and its peoples have played a vital role in the development of the modern world, and that role is only increasing at the start the 21st century. The minor in Latin American Studies provides students an opportunity to study this field from a variety of disciplinary angles. By employing the tools of various disciplines, including anthropology, Spanish, economics, government, history, and others, students can begin the process of understanding this vast mosaic of peoples and nations.

Required for the minor in Latin American studies

Students must take six courses (at least 36 units), including:

  1. Core requirements: 2 courses (normally 12 units), from the following list:
    • HIST 178: Colonial Latin American History
    • HIST 179: Modern Latin American History 1821-Present
    • HIST 371: The Rise and Fall of American Empires
    • HIST 374 =/SPAN 570: Visions of the Conquest
    • HIST 378/ETST 325: Ethnicity in Latin America
    • HIST 422: Revolt and Revolution in Latin America
    • SPAN 320: Introduction to Literary Texts
    • SPAN 425,426/ARHI 270, 271: Latin American Visual Art
    • SPAN 430: Introduction to Film
    • SPAN 466: Latin@ Studies
    • SPAN 521: Latin American Literature
    • SPAN 577: Space as Text
    • SPAN 580: Dis(re)membering the Nation: Contemporary Film & Fiction of Spain and Latin America
    • SPAN 585: Buenos Aires

Electives: 4 courses (normally 24 units)
Elective courses from other disciplines must allow students to focus their individual work on Latin America, and such work must count for at least 25 percent of the final grade for the course. Course content can change from term to term; therefore, when choosing electives, it is the responsibility of the student to speak to the professor to confirm that 25 percent of the graded work can be based on Latin American themes. Courses not included on this list may be used as electives provided they meet the above requirements.

      • Conservatory courses with consent of the instructor and of one of the Program co-chairs
    • Up to one internship
  1. Limitations
    • Only up to six units can be from an independent study or tutorial (550 level).
    • Only up to a maximum of 18 units can be from any single discipline (including cross-listed courses).
    • Only up to a maximum of 18 units can be from the student's major/minor.
    • Only up to two courses can be from under the 200 level.
    • A C average in the minor is required.
    • At least 60 percent of the units must be taken on the Appleton campus.

Linguistics

The goal of linguistics is the enrichment of knowledge about the nature, grammar, and history of human language. Linguistics is a theoretical and applied discipline, akin to philosophy, anthropology, and cognitive psychology.

The core areas of linguistic theory are phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. A grammar is a system of rules that characterize the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of a natural language. The properties of grammars are the central focus of linguistic theory.

Because language is central to all humanistic disciplines, as well as to several social science areas, it is studied from many points of view. Linguistics itself cannot be said to recognize a single optimal approach to the subject; hence the courses provide a variety of approaches that reflect the diversity of the field.

Required for the linguistics major

  1. LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
  2. Two of the following courses:
    • LING 340: Introduction to Syntax
    • LING 350: Introduction to Phonology
    • LING 380: Introduction to Morphology
  3. Two of the following courses:
    • LING 400: Philosophy of Language
    • LING 405: How to Do Things With Words
    • LING 420: Topics in Logic
    • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
  4. Four elective courses chosen from either #2 and #3 above, or from the following list:
    • CMSC 150: Introduction to Computer Science
    • LING 120: Language and Discrimination
    • LING 210: Language and the Law
    • LING 265: Introduction to Japanese Language and Culture
    • LING 310: Introduction to East Asian Linguistics
    • LING 320: Historical Linguistics
    • LING 330: Language and Culture
    • LING 360: Second Language Acquisition
    • LING 370: Phonetics
    • LING 374: Advanced Grammar Studies (Spanish)
    • LING 375/376: Spanish Phonetics
    • LING 377: Linguistics of the Spanish Language
    • LING 440: Comparative Syntax
    • LING 450: Psycholinguistics
    • LING 530: The English Language
    • LING 545: Gesture Studies
    • LING 190, 390, 590, 690: Tutorial Studies in Linguistics
    • PHIL 150: Symbolic Logic
  5. One of the following:
    1. Study of two foreign languages, each for three terms (e.g., first-year level)
    2. Completion of the fifth term of one foreign language (e.g., second-year level)
    3. Study of one foreign language for four terms and the completion of an off-campus language program
  6. LING 650: Senior Seminar

Required for the linguistics minor

  1. LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
  2. Two of the following core courses:
    • LING 340: Introduction to Syntax
    • LING 350: Introduction to Phonology
    • LING 380: Introduction to Morphology
    • LING 400: Philosophy of Language
    • LING 405: How to Do Things With Words
    • LING 420: Topics in Logic
    • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
  3. Two courses selected from the list of electives, or from the list of core courses (#2 and #3 above).
  4. C average in the minor
  • Required for the minor in teaching ESL
    1. Three courses in Linguistics:
      • LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
      • LING 360: Second Language Acquisition
      • LING 530: The English Language or a 3-unit Independent Study (LING 399) on the structure of English
    2. Two courses in Education:
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDUC 565: Methods, Materials, and Assessment in ESL
    3. C average in the minor
  • Senior Experience in Linguistics

    The Senior Experience in the Linguistics Program consists of LING 650 and an Independent Study that may be carried out over one, two, or three terms. Students choose an area of interest and work with a faculty member who does work in that field, or closely related to that field. The Independent Study culminates in a research paper and an oral presentation to faculty and students in the Linguistics Program. Possible venues for presentation include the annual Linguistics Björklunden weekend, the Linguistics Tea, or the Richard A. Harrison Symposium.
    Students pursuing double majors are encouraged to find a topic that combines their interests in both fields.

    Mathematics

    Pattern and form surround us — from the branching angles of our blood vessels and the complexity of computer algorithms to inventory scheduling and the four-dimensional geometry of our universe. As the pure expression of pattern and form, mathematics provides the language for science. In the past 75 years, many disciplines have been virtually transformed by the infusion of mathematics, so that alongside the traditional field of mathematical physics, one now finds new disciplines such as mathematical biology, mathematical ecology, mathematical economics, mathematical linguistics and mathematical psychology.

    But mathematics is so much more than its applications. As the study of formal structures, mathematics offers a supreme beauty, an abstract forest of pattern and form, at once deep, intricate, logical, and surprising, a forest holding wonders both known and unknown. The search for these wonders is no game, for mathematics bears on eternal truth: Primes — such as 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, ... — cannot be written as the product of two smaller integers. How many primes are there? Infinitely many. This is a well-known wonder proved by Euclid. Twin primes — such as 3 and 5, 5 and 7, 11 and 13, 17 and 19, ... — are “consecutive” primes. How many twin primes are there? No one knows. Mathematicians have unleashed their most sophisticated weapons on this problem, but the question remains unanswered. It is an unknown wonder. Will you be the first to find the answer? Whatever the answer, it is an eternal and universal truth: true for all time, in all places, to every intellect.

    To reflect the diversity of modern mathematics and its applications, the department, alone or in conjunction with the economics department, offers three separate majors:

    • Mathematics
    • Mathematics-computer science
    • Mathematics-economics

    Our core sophomore sequence provides majors with a firm foundation in the two pillars of mathematics (Abstract Algebra and Real Analysis), paving the way for exploration of diverse elective offerings at the junior and senior level. We offer courses in many areas of pure and applied mathematics, elementary and advanced statistics, and computer science. Majors engage in a 1-term independent study during their senior year, working on a topic of their choice under the guidance of a faculty member. This transforming experience demonstrates a student’s ability to learn mathematics with little supervision and to clearly and cogently express this knowledge both verbally and in writing.

    For non-majors, the department offers a number of elementary- and intermediate-level courses designed to meet the needs of students who require mathematics for further work in their discipline or who wish to satisfy a general education requirement.

    Lawrentians majoring in mathematics and/or computer science prepare themselves for a wide variety of interesting careers, but wherever life takes them, they have one thing in common — the logical and precise, yet intuitive and creative, habits of mind instilled by the serious study of abstract mathematics.

    For a full description of Lawrence’s computer facilities and for descriptions of the computer science courses visit the Computer Science Website.

    Required for the mathematics major

    1. Complete or place out of the calculus sequence: MATH 140, 150, and 160
    2. One of MATH 210, 220, 240
    3. One computer science course numbered 110 or above (excluding 170)
    4. MATH 300 and 310
    5. 24 additional units in mathematics courses numbered 400 or above
    6. Completion of an independent study project in at least one term of the senior year.
    7. In choosing courses beyond the core sequence, students should note that certain advanced courses may be particularly relevant to majors with specific interests or career goals:
      • Pure mathematics: 410, 525, 530, 535, 540, 545, 550, 560, 565, and 600
      • Computer science: 420, 435, 525, 540, and 565
      • Operations research: 410, 420, 435, 440, 445, 525, and 550
      • Applied mathematics: 410, 420, 435, 440, 445, 535, and 550
      • Statistics and actuarial science: 410, 420, 435, 440, 445, and 550
      • Engineering: 410, 420, 435, 440, 535, and 550
      • Secondary teaching: 410, 495, 525, 530, 535, 545, 550, and 600

    Required for the mathematics minor

    1. Calculus through MATH 160
    2. One of MATH 210, 220, 240
    3. MATH 300 and MATH 310
    4. 6 units in any one upper-level mathematics course numbered from 400 to 600, except MATH 495
    5. C average in the minor

    Required for the interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science major

    1. The core sequence: MATH 140, 150, 160 and CMSC 150, 250, and 270
    2. MATH 220 and 300
    3. CMSC 460, 510, and 515
    4. 6 additional units in mathematics courses selected from among MATH 310, 420, 525, and 540
    5. 6 additional units in a computer science course numbered 400 or above
    6. 6 additional units in a computer science course numbered 400 or above or selected from among MATH 310, 420, 525, and 540
    7. Completion of an independent study project prior to the Spring Term of the senior year
    8. CMSC 600 in the senior year

    Required for the interdisciplinary mathematics-economics major

    1. The mathematics component of the major is:
      • MATH 140, 150, 160, 240, 300, and 310
      • Either MATH 435 or 445
      • 6 additional units in a mathematics course numbered 400 or above, with 435, 440, 445, or 560 recommended
    2. The economics component of the major is:
      • ECON 100
      • ECON 300, 320, and 380 (majors must take all three courses prior to completion of the junior year. The Economics department must approve any exception.)
      • Any three six-unit courses numbered between 400 and 580
    3. The interdisciplinary component of the major is:
      • Completion of an independent study project that has been approved by both departments.
      • A major must have an advisor in each department.

    Tutorials

    The department views tutorials as opportunities to enhance its usual course offerings, not duplicate them. In order to reserve tutorials for this purpose, no tutorials are given for courses routinely offered, and the department does not normally permit a tutorial to be used to satisfy any requirement for the major.

    First-year courses

    The department offers two calculus sequences: MATH 140, 150, 160 (Calculus I, II, III) and MATH 120, 130 (Applied Calculus I, II). Students intending to major in mathematics, mathematics-computer science, mathematics-economics, physics, or chemistry, or any student intending to take advanced mathematics courses, must complete the Calculus I, II, III sequence. Properly prepared students should enter this calculus sequence their freshman year. Proper preparation means strong high school mathematics, including a pre-calculus or elementary functions course, and strong SAT or ACT scores. Students who lack this preparation yet need the three-course sequence should consult their advisor and the mathematics department as soon as possible.
    The Applied Calculus I, II sequence does not prepare students for more advanced courses in mathematics but does help prepare students for advanced work in the social and life sciences. This sequence demands less technical proficiency than does the Calculus I, II, III sequence. Good performance in high school mathematics through the junior year should be adequate preparation.

    Advanced Placement

    Advanced placement in the Calculus I, II, III sequence and up to 12 Lawrence units may be obtained by presenting a score of 4 or 5 on the AB or BC calculus exams administered by the College Board or by performing well on an exemption-credit exam given by the department during Welcome Week. Consult the department for details. Students intending to enter Calculus I should not take the department's exemption-credit exam. Advanced placement and six Lawrence units (for CMSC 150) may be obtained by scoring 4 or 5 on the A or AB College Board computer science exam. Consult the department for proper placement.
    Six Lawrence units (for MATH 107) may be obtained by scoring 4 or 5 on the College Board statistics exam. Consult the department for proper placement.

    Off-campus and cooperative programs

    Students wishing to combine a liberal arts degree with engineering should consider the 3-2 program in engineering.
    The department encourages students to apply to the many Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs funded by the National Science Foundation; in these summer programs, students are paid to participate in research teams at various campuses throughout the country. Students may also be interested in the Budapest Semester in Mathematics or in one of several other off-campus study options. Department faculty members can provide details.

    Course numbering

    Typically course numbered below 400 are offered each year, while courses numbered 400 or higher are offered every other year.

    Senior Experience in Mathematics

    The mathematics department's Senior Experience consists of a 6-unit (typically one-term) independent study project completed in the senior year. The project must demonstrate the capacity to learn mathematics (or statistics) independently or to utilize mathematics or mathematical technique as an innovative or substantive part of a larger project.
    Interdisciplinary mathematics-economics majors must demonstrate the ability to combine topics in both disciplines — bringing appropriate techniques of mathematics or statistics to bear on the study of economics, or learning mathematics or statistics suggested by economic models
    Interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science majors must complete their independent study project in two parts: an independent study in the fall or winter term of the senior year (usually 3 units), followed by a presentation of their results in the winter term Computer Science Senior Seminar (3 units).
    For mathematics and mathematics-computer science majors, the project must be approved and supervised by a faculty member in the mathematics department. For mathematics-economics majors, the project must be approved by a faculty member of each department and supervised by a member of one of the departments. Students should consult with departmental members in the spring before their senior year, in order to plan appropriately for their Senior Experience.

    Museum Studies

    As centers of research and education, and as repositories for cultural heritage, museums play an important role in our society. The Museum Studies IA will provide students with a structure through which to learn about museums as a complement to both their major and the liberal arts as a whole. In addition, museums and related institutions provide career opportunities that take full advantage of a liberal arts degree. Museum professionals must be able to gain expertise in diverse areas, they must enjoy both independent research and interaction with the public, they must be both creative and analytical, and they must be able to operate within (and even to run) complex and often under-funded organizations.

    The Museum Studies Interdisciplinary Area is designed to introduce students to the historical and theoretical foundations of museums and other preservation and research institutions, as well as to provide them with the practical skills and knowledge needed to work in such institutions. It is intended to be a supplement to a major in any area. This IA will have a clear use for students in such fields as anthropology, art, art history, natural sciences, and history, but students across the divisions will find the interdisciplinary area useful if they have an interest in pursuing a career in the museum field.

    Required for the interdisciplinary area in museum studies

    1. Two core courses:
      1. ANTH 222: Historic Preservation Theory and Practice
      2. ARHI 315: Introduction to the Art Museum
    2. Three additional six-unit courses with significant museum studies content, selected in consultation with Museum Studies faculty. See the following list for suggested courses that would fulfill this requirement. Students are strongly encouraged to take at least one course that emphasizes visual analysis.
    3. At least one from:
      1. Six units of ANTH 422: Archaeological Collections Management;
      2. Six units of independent study working in the Wriston Art Gallery or the University Archives;
      3. A six-unit internship at a museum, historic site, or similar institution, from an appropriate academic department.

    Music

    Students in the Bachelor of Arts degree program may major or minor in music (see below). The Conservatory of Music section of this catalog lists courses for all programs in music. Opportunities for the study of music and for participation in Lawrence University ensembles are available to qualified university students regardless of major.

    Required for the music major

    90 units in music, to include:

    1. Music theory: 30 units: MUTH 151, 161, and 171 or 201, 211, and 221; 152, 162, and 172 or 202, 212, and 222; 251, 261, and 271; 252, 262, and 272; 301, 311, and 321
    2. Musicology: 18 units: MUCO 201, 202 (12 units); 6 units in courses numbered 400 or above.
    3. Performance:
      1. 18 units minimum of applied individual instruction. 6 consecutive terms of study are required.
      2. 5 units: MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 for students whose primary instrument is voice
      3. Students must complete a qualifying examination.
      4. Students must participate in either individual or ensemble performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.
    4. Ensemble: 6 units minimum of ensemble performance study. A maximum of 9 units of ensemble performance study may apply to the major.
    5. Keyboard skills: 3 units MURP 201, 202, 203 or 2 units MURP 301, 302 or demonstrated proficiency.
    6. Additional electives in music to total 90 units
    7. An approved lecture, lecture/recital, or senior project must be presented during the last three terms of study at Lawrence.

    Please refer to the Conservatory Handbook and departmental handbooks for other regulations and information on the major in music. In addition to the 90 units in music, students must complete 126 units in disciplines other than music, including all requirements for the B.A. degree (see "Degree and General Education Requirements").

    Required for the music minor

    1. Music theory: 18 units: MUTH 151, 161, and 171 or 201, 211, and 221; 152, 162, and 172 or 202, 212, and 222; 251, 261, and 271
    2. Musicology: 12 units: MUCO 201, 202
    3. Performance: MUIN (Applied Individual Instruction) 9 units and 3 terms of study
    4. Ensemble: MUEN (Ensemble Performance Study): 3 units and 3 terms participation
    5. Keyboard skills: 3 units: MURP 201, 202, 203 or 2 units: MURP 301, 302 or demonstrated proficiency
    6. C average or higher in the minor

    Senior Experience in Music

    Candidates for the Bachelor of Arts with a major in music are required to present a lecture, lecture/recital, recital, or senior project during the last three terms at Lawrence. Students in this program are encouraged to consult their advisers early in the junior year. If a recital is performed, it is subject to the regulations administered by individual applied areas as described above. For other projects, a proposal must be submitted and approved by the B.A. in Music Committee.

    The following are guidelines to apply to the other projects that must be approved by the B.A. in Music Committee.

    1. The proposal for the project should be submitted in writing
    2. The initial proposal should be submitted no later than week 8 of the term prior to the one during which the project will be completed
    3. The project proposal should state in specific detail exactly what the project entails and exactly what the student will do to complete it. The proposal should also briefly indicate how such a project builds on the student’s prior experiences at Lawrence, and why it may be a logical conclusion to his or her music major
    4. In general, this project should not simply comprise work the student has done for any course, but instead it should involve some work done beyond and outside of the prescribed curriculum for the music major. In some instances, work done for an elective independent study (e.g., not one used to satisfy a curricular requirement) may be acceptable
    5. Final approval of the proposal should be obtained by the end of the term prior to the one during which the project will be completed
    6. All projects must include some formally written component. This may, in some instances, simply serve as a relatively brief context for projects that do not essentially comprise written work (e.g., recordings, radio or television broadcasts, films or videos, multi-media installations, manufacture of musical instruments, etc.)
    7. Though interdisciplinary projects are encouraged, the theory, history, or practice of music still should be a major focus of all acceptable proposals. For example, “the effects of performance anxiety on the human digestive system” would be a biology project, and would not be acceptable; on the other hand, “effective strategies for coping with performance anxiety” could be perfectly acceptable (even if it deals largely with discussions of what one should or should not ingest prior to a performance)
    8. Once the project has been completed, a Lawrence Conservatory faculty member should certify that the project has met a minimum satisfactory standard of quality

    Other opportunities

    All courses in music may be elected by any qualified Lawrence student. Ensembles are open to university students by audition. Private instruction (Applied Music Individual Instruction) is available by permission of the instructor, based on audition or interview and faculty schedules. A fee for private lessons and the use of practice facilities is charged to non-music majors as follows:

    • 1/2 hour per week: $300 per term
    • 1 hour per week: $600 per term
    A student may drop private instruction prior to the end of the second week of the term. A refund may be obtained for the remainder of the term, provided the registrar and the conservatory office are officially notified of the change in registration. Refunds are not provided after the second week of the term.

    Natural Sciences (Interdisciplinary Major)

    The interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences enables students to construct science majors around subject areas that bridge two or more disciplines in the natural sciences, leading to graduate work and/or careers in many of the rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields developing along interfaces between the traditional natural sciences.

    The interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences requires a primary concentration in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics and a secondary concentration in another of these sciences. Students interested in this major should seek advice from the department of primary interest in order to design a major consistent with both their interests and the requirements of the major. Previous interdisciplinary combinations of biology and chemistry have been replaced by the Biochemistry major.

    Requirements for the Interdisciplinary Major in the Natural Sciences in a Primary Discipline and a Secondary Discipline

    1. Introductory Requirement: An introductory sequence in physics and two additional introductory sequences chosen from those in biology, chemistry, and geology so that sequences in both the primary and the secondary disciplines are included. The introductory sequences are:
      • Biology: BIOL 130, 150, and 170
      • Chemistry: CHEM 115 and 116 or equivalent
      • Geology: GEOL 110 (any section) and Geology 210
      • Physics: PHYS 151 and 160 or, with the permission of both the primary and the secondary departments, PHYS 141 and 151
    2. Intermediate/Advanced Requirement: At least ten six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in the primary discipline and at least three in the secondary discipline. More specific course and/or laboratory requirements may apply in specific departments.
    3. Participation in a Senior Experience as defined by the department of the primary discipline.

    Neuroscience

    Neuroscience

    The field of neuroscience uses an interdisciplinary approach to study the brain and nervous system. Humans and animals rely on the nervous system in order to process environmental stimuli, integrate this information, and produce an adaptive response (motor, hormonal, behavioral). A response may be as straightforward as a knee reflex or as complicated as understanding Plato.

    The fields of biology, chemistry, and psychology provide much of the core knowledge needed to pursue study in neuroscience and the major will prepare students for graduate study in neuroscience or allied health areas. However, knowledge from neuroscience may inform creative and scholarly endeavors in many areas including literature, music, and art. Therefore, it is an advantage for a neuroscience major to be in a liberal arts setting that can provide exposure to a wide spectrum of interests.

    Required for the neuroscience major

    1. The following core courses:
      • Biology 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms
      • Biology 150: Integrative Biology: Organisms to Ecosystems
      • Biology 242: Comparative Physiology
      • Biology 340/Psychology 580: Topics in Neuroscience
      • Chemistry 116: Principles of Chemistry
      • Psychology 350: Psychopharmacology and Behavior
      • Psychology 360: Brain and Behavior I
      • Psychology 420: Clinical and Affective Neuroscience
    2. Two courses from the following group:
      • Biology 325: Cell Biology
      • Biology 354: Molecular Biology
      • Biology 444 or Chemistry 340: Biochemistry
      • Biology 453: Developmental Biology
    3. Two courses from the following group:
      • Biology 200: Animal Behavior
      • Biology 240: Morphogenesis of the Vertebrates
      • Psychology 290: Developmental Psychopathology
      • Psychology 370: Perception
      • Psychology 380: Learning and Conditioning
    4. A statistics-based class from one of the following:
      • Biology 170: Experimental Design and Analysis
      • Mathematics 107 or 117: Elementary Statistics
      • Mathematics 207: Introduction to Probability and Statistics
    5. Senior experience:
      Students majoring in Neuroscience will work closely with neuroscience program faculty to develop a senior experience. Students may develop a senior experience from the Psychology senior capstone, Biology senior capstone, or a Neuroscience independent study. Departmental and instructor approval are required to take a senior capstone.

    Required for the neuroscience minor

    1. The following core courses:
      • Biology 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms
      • Biology 150: Integrative Biology: Organisms to Ecosystems
      • Biology 242: Comparative Physiology
      • *Biology 340/Psychology 580: Topics in Neuroscience
      • Chemistry 116: Principles of Chemistry
      • Psychology 360: Brain and Behavior I
      • Psychology 420: Clinical and Affective Neuroscience
    2. A statistics-based class from one of the following:
      • Biology 170: Experimental Design and Analysis
      • Mathematics 107 or 117: Elementary Statistics
      • Mathematics 207: Introduction to Probability and Statistics

    *Pre-requisite for BIOL 340/PSYC 580 will be either

    • BIOL 242 and one PSYC course
    • PSYC 360 and one BIOL course
      or
    • consent of the instructor

    Philosophy

    Opportunities for non-majors

    Courses in philosophy develop skills for reading and thinking analytically and critically, and for arguing cogently. In addition, they provide students with invaluable insights into many of the intellectual issues confronting Western civilization.

    Students tend to find that taking two or three philosophy courses significantly enhances the quality of their work in their own fields. We urge students to discuss the relationship between philosophy and other disciplines with any member of the philosophy department and with their own major advisors.

    Philosophy department faculty members will gladly discuss with majors and potential majors the specific ways in which their work can best prepare them for careers in academe, business, government, law, and medicine, among others.

    Note that, with the consent of the instructor, students may take an intermediate course in philosophy without having taken an introductory course. (Intermediate courses are numbered 200 through 440. Courses numbered above 440 are advanced courses.)

    The philosophy major

    Students are introduced to philosophy through a study of logic or through a course in which substantive problems are raised by an examination of selected writings of important philosophers. Students may continue their study through a variety of courses in the history of philosophy, in the systematic study of traditional problem areas within philosophy, and in the philosophical examination of other disciplines.

    The historical courses enable students to become familiar with the thinking of the most influential philosophers in our tradition and with the historical contexts in which they worked. The systematic courses encourage students to confront contemporary statements of central philosophical questions and to investigate some of the more promising answers to them. The courses engaged in the philosophical examination of other areas encourage students to bring methods of philosophical analysis to bear on the methods and presuppositions of other areas of inquiry.

    Required for the philosophy major

    A student majoring in philosophy is required to take a minimum of nine six-unit philosophy courses. Those nine courses will include:

    1. A minimum of eight courses numbered above 149
    2. PHIL 150 or 420 (Majors are strongly encouraged to satisfy this requirement early in their careers.)
    3. At least three courses from PHIL 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 275, 280 (including at least two from PHIL 200, 210, 220)
    4. At least one course from PHIL 300, 305, 310, 330, 400, 405, 410
    5. At least one course from PHIL 320, 325, 350, 360, 385, 430, 440
    6. PHIL 600

    Advanced students of philosophy are invited to do tutorial and honors work independent of the course requirements.

    Required for the philosophy minor

    • Five six-unit courses in philosophy, at least two of which must be in the history of philosophy (PHIL 200, 210, 220, 230, 240) and at least two of which must be from among courses numbered 200 or above but not among PHIL 200-240.
    • Students pursuing a minor in philosophy are encouraged to choose a member of the philosophy department as an informal advisor.
    • A C average in the minor is required.

    Senior Experience in Philosophy

    The Department of Philosophy's Senior Experience is PHIL 600: Studies in Philosophy. This is an advanced seminar (the topic for which varies from year to year) in which students critically analyze each other's original research.

    Physics

    Physics represents an inquiry, both theoretical and experimental, into the nature of the physical universe. The theoretical approach involves constructing and exploring abstract models of nature, while the experimental approach involves investigations of physical systems that provide avenues for evaluating theories and for suggesting new theories. Taken together, theory and experiment aim at the construction of a single, compact, and far-reaching conceptual framework that accounts for all properties of the physical universe.

    The physics curriculum at Lawrence is structured to help the student develop a firm grasp of the important theories and a secure competence in contemporary experimental techniques. Requirements for the major reflect this structure. On the theoretical side, the major moves from a general survey to more detailed intermediate courses to advanced electives, culminating in a theoretical Senior Experience project. On the experimental side, the major moves from a study of standard techniques of data analysis to an intermediate laboratory in electronics to a project-oriented advanced laboratory, possibly culminating in an experimental Senior Experience project. Throughout the curriculum, contemporary computational approaches to problems in physics play a significant role alongside the traditional approaches.

    Prospective engineers will find that a major in physics automatically fulfills nearly all of the requirements for Lawrence’s 3-2 engineering program.

    Students who have strong secondary interests in biology, chemistry, or geology may construct majors involving physics and one of the other three natural sciences, using the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences.

    In addition, a minor in physics offers an opportunity for those who wish to supplement a major in another discipline with a significant exposure to physics.

    Required for the physics major

    PHYS 220, 225, 230, 310, 320, 330, and two additional six-unit courses chosen from PHYS 340 and above, excluding directed study, tutorial, and independent study courses taken as part of the Senior Experience or for other reasons. Physics majors without advanced placement should start with PHYS 141, 151 and 160. Majors who do not intend to pursue graduate study in physics may petition the department to substitute appropriate upper-level offerings in other departments for up to two of the required physics electives. The following program is typical:

    • Freshman: PHYS 151, 160; MATH 140, 150, 160
    • Sophomore: PHYS 220, 225, 230; MATH 210
    • Junior: PHYS 310, 320, 330; physics electives
    • Senior: PHYS 599 or 699, Senior Experience; physics electives

    Additional courses in mathematics, chemistry, computer science biology, and geology are often elected. The prospective major should consult early and regularly with the faculty in the department.

    Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in physics and a secondary discipline

    1. PHYS 151 and 160
    2. Any two of
      1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170
      2. CHEM 115 and 116 or equivalent
      3. GEOL 110 (any section) and GEOL 210
      chosen to include the secondary discipline.
    3. At least 10 six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in physics and at least three in the secondary discipline. The five courses in physics must include PHYS 225, 230, 310, and 330.

    Required for the physics minor

    1. PHYS 151 and 160
    2. PHYS 225
    3. Three additional six-unit courses in physics, at least two of which must be chosen from physics courses numbered 220 and above, excluding independent studies and capstone courses, and no more than one of which can be chosen from PHYS 103-115 and PHYS 205.
    4. C average in the minor

    A student pursuing a minor in physics must consult with a member of the department early and often to plan and monitor progress in the minor.

    Opportunities for non-majors

    The physics curriculum offers non-majors the opportunity to take one or more terms of physics as part of their liberal education. Although every course is open to all suitably prepared students, PHYS 103, 107, 110, 112, 115, 141, 151, 160, and 220 have traditionally attracted non-majors.

    The laboratory science General Education Requirement

    The following courses in the physics department satisfy the university‘s degree requirement of one laboratory course in natural science: PHYS 103, 107, 110, 141, 151, 160, 220, 330.

    Graduate School

    Majors preparing for graduate school in physics will probably take more courses in physics than the required minimum. PHYS 430, 440, and 460 are recommended for all such students. Other departmental offerings (PHYS 340, 410, 500-570) are appropriate for students with particular interests in the topics of those courses. All students contemplating graduate studies in physics should undertake at least one term of independent study/ research in the senior year and/or seek opportunities at Lawrence or elsewhere for full-time research during the summer after the junior year. Students contemplating graduate studies in physics should discuss their plans early and often with members of the department.

    Certification for secondary teaching in physics

    Majors seeking certification to teach physics at the secondary level should read the section of this catalog on teacher certification and consult early and often with members of the Department of Education. Physics majors who plan to teach physics at the secondary level may petition the department to substitute physics courses numbered below 199 for the two required physics electives.

    Recommended courses outside the department

    Courses in mathematics, chemistry, and computer science are frequently elected to support a major in physics, but courses in geology, biology, economics, philosophy, anthropology, and other areas have occasionally been chosen by physics majors whose post-graduation objectives have an interdisciplinary dimension. With departmental approval, up to two upper-level courses in other departments may be substituted for required physics electives.

    Advanced Placement

    Students with strong backgrounds should seek advanced placement and credit, normally by submitting scores on the Physics Advanced Placement Examination of the Educational Testing Service. Advanced placement without credit is awarded to students who submit satisfactory evidence that they both understand most of PHYS 141 or 151 and are able to remedy weaknesses on their own initiative.

    International and off-campus study

    International and off-campus study The Associated Colleges of the Midwest program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is available to majors in physics. Further, with careful advance planning, physics majors at Lawrence can arrange to be off campus for a term — typically the Winter or Spring Term of the junior year — without jeopardizing progress in the major. Thus, physics majors can participate in off-campus programs, even if those programs contain no scientific components. The Lawrence London Centre, among others, has been a popular destination for physics majors.

    Course Numbering

    Courses of general interest requiring minimal or no prerequisite are numbered 103-115. The introductory courses, 141, 151, and 160, require elementary calculus. PHYS 141 introduces ideas in calculus together with concepts in physics. The calculus introduced in PHYS 141 will not replace any mathematics prerequisites in courses numbered 160 and higher. Intermediate courses are numbered between 200 and 300 and typically list calculus and differential equations as prerequisites. Advanced courses, many of which list one or more intermediate courses as prerequisites, are intended for juniors and seniors and are numbered above 300. Tutorial studies in physics and independent study in physics also are offered.

    Senior Experience in Physics

    The Senior Experience in the Department of Physics consists of an independent investigation tailored to the individual student’s goals in physics. The process consists of a formal project proposal to the Department followed by one or two six-unit independent study courses under faculty supervision and culminating in a capstone thesis paper.
    All seniors will participate in a two-unit senior seminar in which they present their work orally. Students with double majors or degrees may propose initiatives that span multiple departments but both departments must approve such proposals before the project goes forward.

    Psychology

    Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. The psychology curriculum is well balanced to represent the breadth of the core areas of psychology (clinical, cognitive, developmental, health, neuroscience, personality, and social psychology) and provide opportunity for the in-depth study of specific topics (e.g., psychopharmacology, music, language, psychopathology, adolescent development, prejudice, emotion). Research, through which psychological theories are developed and tested, is emphasized throughout the curriculum.

    Required for the psychology major

    1. PSYC 100, 280, 281, and MATH 107 or 207†
    2. Two courses from Group I and two courses from Group II:
      1. Group I: PSYC 240, 250 or 290, 260 or 265, 245 or 270
      2. Group II: PSYC 340 or 380, 350 or 360, 370
    3. One of the following advanced courses in Psychology requiring a literature review, which should be taken before PSYC 610: PSYC 335, 420, 460, 480, 530, 540, 560, 570, 575, or 580.
    4. Senior Capstone: PSYC 610
    5. Another six units in psychology (Any six units, which may be accrued over more than one term)
    6. One of the courses must have a lab (viz., PSYC 265, 335, 340, 355, 380, 530).
    7. C average in the major

    †For students also majoring in Anthropology, ANTH 207 can fulfill the MATH 107 or 207 requirement; for students also majoring in Biology or Neuroscience, BIOL 170 can fulfill the MATH 107 or 207 requirement.

    Structure and Goals of the Major Curriculum

    Requirements for the psychology major are structured so that students gain a broad knowledge of psychology while also completing a core course sequence that systematically develops skills relevant to understanding and producing psychological advances.
    The core courses begin with Principles of Psychology (PSYC 100), typically taken in the freshman year, a broad introduction to psychological science that provides a framework (of key theories, terminology, methods, and findings in the core areas of psychology) on which all later courses build. Majors are encouraged to take Statistics (MATH 107) and the two-term Research Methods in Psychology (PSYC 280 & 281) sequence (preferably in the sophomore year and certainly no later than the junior year). The Methods sequence teaches students to think like research psychologists, from “what constitutes a worthwhile and testable hypothesis?,” to designing, running, analyzing, and reporting an original empirical project. In the junior year, students select an advanced course in which they not only explore a topic in greater depth, but also learn how to write a synthetic, integrative, and critical review of a research area. The skills developed throughout the core courses are brought together in Senior Capstone (PSYC 610), in which each student chooses his or her own topic to explore, culminating in a project that is presented both in a senior thesis and a public oral presentation. The project may involve a critical review of past theory and research, a proposal for an original empirical study, an original empirical study report, a theory development paper, or a paper that integrates a student’s applied work with its wider scholarly context.
    Together, the core courses are aimed at systematically developing core skills related to general learning outcomes, including the abilities to: think critically (e.g., construct a thesis, supported by appropriate arguments and evidence), write and communicate effectively, synthesize current knowledge, and test novel hypotheses.
    To ensure that majors are also exposed to the breadth of psychological science, they must also complete two courses in the cognitive/experimental/biological areas of psychology as well as two courses in the developmental/health/social/clinical areas of psychology.
    Majors should complete Research Methods before taking laboratory courses numbered 335 or above or courses numbered 380 or above. Concurrent enrollment in MATH 107 with PSYC 280: Research Methods I is preferred. Alternatively, MATH 107 or 207 may be taken prior to Research Methods I.

    Research Opportunities

    Majors complete empirical research projects in Research Methods, but are also encouraged to do so in laboratory and topics courses, and in close collaboration with faculty members in independent study. Students have access to the department’s extensive laboratory facilities for research in neuroscience, acoustical analysis, child development, animal and human learning, social, personality, and clinical psychology. We highly recommend that students who wish to pursue honors projects or empirical projects for PSYC 610 begin them in their junior year.

    Applied Opportunities

    Several opportunities to receive course credit for work within applied settings (e.g., working in a clinical setting in the community) are regularly available - see PSYC 451. Other practica that similarly combine academic and applied components may be arranged. This includes various opportunities for placement at non-profit human services programs in the local community. For information on such practica, contact the Career Center (920-832-6561), Beth Haines (920-832-6708), Lori Hilt (920-832-7050), or Jerry Metalsky (920-832-6705).

    Required for the psychology minor

    1. PSYC 100 and MATH 107 or 207†
    2. One course from Group I and one course from Group II:
      1. Group I: PSYC 240, 245, 250, 260, 265, 270, 290
      2. Group II: PSYC 340, 350, 360, 370, 380
    3. An additional 12 units in psychology, including 6 units from a course numbered 300 or higher (not including 610).
    4. One course must have a lab (viz., PSYC 265, 280/281††, 335, 340, 355, 380, 530).
    5. C average in the minor

    † For students also majoring in Anthropology, ANTH 207 can fulfill the MATH 107 or 207 requirement; for students also majoring in Biology or Neuroscience, BIOL 170 can fulfill the MATH 107 or 207 requirement.

    ††Must complete both terms of PSYC 280-281 to meet this lab requirement.

    Preparations for graduate school

    The major program prepares students well for graduate study in psychology or related fields. Students interested in graduate study should consider conducting research with a faculty member, consider taking PSYC 480, and fully utilize the Career Center and alumni who have gone to graduate school. Names and contact information for alumni can be obtained through the Alumni Relations office. For those who pursue other careers, the research skills learned by majors are widely applicable. Students who are interested in the major program or curious about what kind of career opportunities exist in the field of psychology are urged to visit the Career Center for more information. Students interested in mental health careers should pay particular attention to the department’s clinical psychology sequence: PSYC 250 or 290, PSYC 335 or 355, and PSYC 451. Students are encouraged, but not required, to take PSYC 335 or 355 and PSYC 451 (Field Experience in Clinical Psychology) in consecutive terms. PSYC 451 allows students to gain supervised practical experience at a local mental health facility. Students interested in graduate study should speak to their advisors and take a topics course related to their area of interest.

    Off–campus study

    See Urban Studies

    Advanced Placement

    Students who score 4 or better on the Psychology Advanced Placement Examination of the College Entrance Examination Board are given credit for PSYC 100 (which fulfills one of the major requirements). Students who plan to major in psychology and place out of PSYC 100 are advised to take one or two courses in Group I during their freshman year. A score of 4 or better in AP Statistics can substitute for the MATH 107 requirement.

    Senior Experience in Psychology

    In the Psychology Department’s senior capstone (PSYC 610), small groups of students meet in independent seminar sections supervised by a faculty mentor. Sections meet to discuss common readings, provide constructive criticism of each other’s work, and to allow students to present work in progress. Discussions, papers, and presentations enhance students’ abilities to conceptualize important questions within the context of the discipline, formulate ways to answer those questions, and present ideas clearly and cogently in both written and oral form. Students pursue their project over the academic term, culminating in a senior thesis and a public senior oral presentation.
    The centerpiece of the capstone experience is an original senior project, allowing students to pursue their own interests in depth, encouraging autonomy and creativity. In consultation with the faculty mentor, students will choose one of the following types of papers: a critical review of past theory and research, an original empirical study report, a theory development paper, or a paper that integrates a student’s applied work (e.g., in an internship) with its wider scholarly context. Students pursuing double degrees, double majors, and education certification are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall senior experience as early as possible, especially if they are interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in both majors, or combines their student teaching with a project in their major.

    Religious Studies

    Courses in Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam form the core offerings in the department. Students examine cultural and social expressions of those religions (sacred texts, rituals, instances of ecstasy and enthusiasm, reflective writings, institutions) at a particular period, over time, and in relation to broader historical, philosophical, and ethical issues. In addition, a number of elective courses are offered that focus on a particular theme, issue, or tradition not covered in the core offerings. Such courses include Gandhi, Rationality and Religious Beliefs and Hebrew Prophets and Religion of Ancient Egypt.

    Required for the religious studies major

    The major in RLST comprises the following courses:

    • RLST 100, Intro to Religious Studies
    • Three 200 level courses on religious traditions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Ancient Egypt)
    • Two 300-level theory courses (Rationality and Religious Belief, Cities of Faith and Power, Nietzsche/Freud, and Religion and Global Systems)
    • One 500-level seminar course
    • RLST 610, Senior Projects
    • Two electives

    Independent studies/tutorials can be used to fulfill only the elective requirements.

    For graduation majors must complete a senior capstone project, which includes taking the Senior Projects course and presenting at the RLST symposium at the end of spring term of their senior year.

    Required for the religious studies minor

    The minor in religious studies is intended to enable students in related fields to concentrate on the religious tradition connected to their area of interest. Requiring both the introductory course and at least one course outside that tradition ensures that religious studies minors will also develop some expertise in the overall study of religion. The minor requires a minimum of five courses (30 units), to include:

    1. RLST 100: Introduction to Religious Studies
    2. Two courses (12 units) in one of the following areas: Buddhism, Islam, Christianity
    3. A seminar-level course (6 units)
    4. One additional six-unit course outside the chosen area
    5. A C average in the minor is also required.

    Graduate School

    Students considering graduate work in religious studies should note that completion of a graduate degree typically requires demonstrated proficiency in at least one modern foreign language (normally French or German) as well as one or more additional languages (depending on the area of concentration). College work leading toward graduate study should be planned with these requirements in mind.

    Senior Experience in Religious Studies

    The Department of Religious Studies’ Senior Experience is a one-term senior seminar (usually taught in the spring term) that examines approaches to the study of religion selected from a school of thought or a more eclectic group of authors. Additionally, students are required to participate in an informal departmental colloquium, in which student work is presented and discussed by majors, minors, and faculty. Students pursuing double majors, double degrees, and education certification are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant departments to plan and negotiate their overall Senior Experience as early as possible, especially if they are interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in both majors, or combines their student teaching with a project in their major.

    Russian

    Lawrence offers a major in Russian studies, a major in Russian language and literature, and a minor in Russian. Requirements for each program are outlined below.

    Russian is one of the world’s most important and widely spoken languages. Knowledge of the Russian language helps broaden students’ career opportunities and options in a variety of fields, including business and government service. Students who achieve a high level of language proficiency may wish to pursue internship opportunities available as a result of Lawrence’s connections with Appleton’s sister city in Russia.

    In addition, Russian culture, music, art, and literature are extraordinarily rich. While the culture may be best appreciated by those who know the language, those who have no knowledge of Russian can also find much of value and interest in the study of Russian culture.

    Students taking Russian at the beginning and intermediate levels concentrate on acquiring skills in speaking, listening comprehension, reading, and writing. Majors are strongly encouraged to spend a term studying in Russia. Back on campus, upper-level courses and tutorials enable students to improve their critical and analytical skills, learn more about Russia’s rich literary and cultural traditions, and gain additional speaking practice. At all levels, students have the opportunity to work with tutors who are native speakers and to take advantage of extracurricular activities, such as weekly Russian Table, film showings, and immersion weekends.

    Culture and literature courses taught in translation are designed not only for those studying Russian but for all students. These courses have no prerequisites, and they fulfill a number of general education requirements.

    Required for the Russian studies major

    1. First-year: RUSS 101, 102, 201 (or the equivalent)
    2. Second-year: RUSS 211, 212, 250
    3. Two courses in literature and culture, 300-level or above.
    4. Two courses in history.
    5. One course that allows students to understand Russia in a larger context, either by studying the literature or history of a neighboring country or countries or by placing Russia in a broader political and economic context as an important participant in international affairs.
      Consult faculty for approval of specific courses.
    6. A senior-level independent study that results in the completion of a substantial research paper. Students with sufficiently advanced Russian language skills are encouraged to use some Russian language sources in conducting their research. Topics for this capstone experience are to be derived from work done in one of the following courses: RUSS 300, 305, 330, 335; HIST 315, 320, 325; GOVT 330. Other topics could be approved through consultation with program faculty.

    In addition to the requirements listed above, majors are encouraged to further strengthen their Russian-language skills either by taking RUSS 280, 281 and 287 or by studying in Russia and/or in an intensive summer language program offered in the U.S.
     
    Students with prior background in Russian who place out of the first-year sequence are required to complete additional language study for the major.

    Required for the Russian language and literature major

    1. First-year: RUSS 101, 102, 201 (or the equivalent)
    2. Second-year: RUSS 211, 212, 250
    3. Two courses in Russian literature taught in translation, level 300 or above.
    4. Two courses in Russian literature, taught in the original, level 300 or above.
    5. A senior-level independent study that results in the completion of a substantial research paper. Students would be required to analyze some work or works of Russian literature, to be read in the original.

    In addition to the requirements listed above, majors are strongly encouraged to further strengthen their Russian language skills by studying in Russia and/or in an intensive summer language program offered in the U.S.
     
    Students with prior background in Russian who place out of the first-year sequence are required to complete additional language study for the major.



    Required for the Russian minor

    1. First-year: RUSS 101, 102, 201 (or the equivalent)
    2. Second-year: RUSS 211, 212, 250
    3. Two courses in Russian literature, culture, or history, 300-level or above.
    4. C average in the minor

    International and off-campus study

    After two years of language study on campus, majors are strongly encouraged to spend a term studying in Russia. Study abroad provides an unparalleled opportunity to make gains in language proficiency and to become familiar with Russian life and culture.

    Most Russian majors and minors who choose to study abroad do so through the Lawrence affiliated Bardy-Smolny exchange. This Bard College program partners with Smolny College in St. Petersburg to offer students a comprehensive Russian as a Second Language program in combination with Russian-taught elective courses. The elective courses are integrative and taken with Russian students who are regular degree-seeking students at Smolny.

    Students are also encouraged to participate in intensive summer language programs offered in the United States, especially immediately prior to spending a fall term in Russia.

    Senior Experience in Russian

    The Russian Department’s Senior Experience consists of a senior-level independent study that further develops work done in another course.

    The independent study is intended to help students prepare their capstone project, normally a research paper that makes use of some Russian-language source material. In addition, students will submit a portfolio in the second week of their final term. The portfolio consists of a list of courses and brief statement in which students evaluate their development as Russian majors.

    In addition to a copy of the capstone project and the Russian language portfolio, the senior portfolio should contain four course papers, including at least one from a history course and one from a literature course. The complete portfolio will be reviewed and approved or returned for revisions before the end of the term.

    Students who are pursuing a double major or teaching certification should work with all concerned departments to assess the feasibility of an interdisciplinary capstone.

    Spanish

    Offerings in the Spanish department include a wide range of courses in the Spanish language, as well as in the cultures and literatures of Spain and Latin America. All readings, audiovisual materials, class discussions, and written work are in Spanish, unless specified otherwise in course descriptions. At the advanced level (SPAN 300, 400, 500), students examine significant linguistic and cultural issues through a content-based curriculum. This requires rigorous academic work that involves intensive reading, writing, listening, and speaking in Spanish. The program prepares students for successful careers in foreign language teaching, bilingual education, government, business, advertising, communications, and a variety of positions in the global marketplace. Some of our alumni pursue graduate study in languages and literature, law, medicine, international relations, public policy, and social work, among other fields. Spanish is already the second language of business in the United States. The advanced level of competence and knowledge gained by Spanish majors (often complemented by another area of specialization) not only prepares graduates for fruitful careers in various professional fields, but also develops their awareness as global citizens.

    Goals

    Students who graduate with a major in Spanish acquire the following skills and knowledge:

    • an appropriately high ability to communicate in Spanish;
    • knowledge of different Spanish-speaking cultures through their literatures, visual arts, films, and other cultural artifacts;
    • the capability to establish connections with additional bodies of knowledge, cultures, and peoples;
    • the ability to make comparisons between Spanish and their native language, as well as between various Spanish-speaking cultures and their own;
    • in short, the capacity to communicate and to participate critically in multilingual communities.

    These goals represent what are known as the 5c’s in national standards, which Spanish majors attain through the study of Latin American and Peninsular literatures and cultures (both textual and audiovisual). This program of study requires an appropriately high competency in the Spanish language. To this end, all class discussions, assignments, and examinations are conducted in Spanish, except where specified.

    Placement

    Students interested in taking Spanish for the first time at Lawrence are required to take a placement examination. Students will be placed in courses according to their grade in the placement test. At the course level of 300 and above, students should be mindful of the prerequisites to take a particular course and need to consult with a Spanish instructor before registering for the course. At whatever level students place, they should plan to begin their study of Spanish in the freshman or sophomore year.

    Foreign Language Competency GER

    As part of its General Education Requirements, Lawrence requires all students to attain a foreign language competency at the minimum level equivalent to three college terms of study (i.e. equivalent to successful completion of SPAN 201). Students can satisfy this requirement with one of the following options:

    • Successfully completing all, or appropriate sections of, the SPAN 101-102-201 sequence, depending on the results of the Lawrence placement examination in Spanish.
    • For students taking Spanish for the first time at Lawrence, placing above the level of SPAN 201 on the Lawrence placement examination in Spanish; and providing additional proof of competence (contact departmental chairperson for details). NOTE: this option satisfies the language requirement, but carries no additional academic credit.
    • obtaining the score equivalent to the level of second year on the CLEP examination in Spanish. NOTE: the CLEP satisfies the language requirement, but carries no additional academic credit. Placing below the second year level will require taking the Lawrence placement test before being allowed to enroll in Spanish courses; CLEP at the level equivalent to one year's college work is sufficient for Music Conservatory majors.
    • obtaining a score of 630 or higher on the SAT II Spanish or Spanish with Listening exam; NOTE: this option satisfies the language requirement, but carries no additional academic credit; placing below 630 level will require taking the Lawrence placement test before being allowed to enroll in Spanish courses
    • obtaining a score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) examination in Spanish Language or Spanish Literature. This option satisfies the requirement and carries credit equivalent to one 6unit course. The AP Literature examination with a score of 4 or 5 will be transferred as part of the Spanish major / Minor as equivalent to Spanish 320 Introduction to Literary texts. The AP Language and Culture examination with a score of 4 or 5 will be transferred as part of the Spanish major / Minor as equivalent to a Spanish 300-level course.
    • obtaining a score of 6 or higher on the Spanish International Baccalaureate Examination at the advanced level; this option satisfies the requirement and carries credit equivalent to one 6 unit course.

    Note: Lawrence University does not conduct the CLEP, SAT, AP, or IBO examinations. They can be taken at numerous authorized centers on a fee basis.

    Required for the Spanish major

    • Ten standard courses (or a minimum of 60 units) above SPAN 202, including one 300-level course, one 400-level course, four 500-level courses, and four electives. These can include one 300-level course. The remaining electives must be taken at the 400-level and above. They may include up to six units of internship and up to six units from approved courses outside the department, chosen from the following offerings:
      • ARHI 230: Baroque Art
      • ARHI 270/271: Latin American Visual Art
      • EDUC 563: Foreign Language Methods
      • HIST 155: Gender in Latin American History 1490-1800
      • HIST 178: Colonial Latin American History
      • HIST 179: Modern Latin American History
      • HIST 260: Culture and Power in Renaissance Europe
      • HIST 261: Rebellion and Discipline in Reformation Europe
      • HIST 371: The Rise and Fall of American Empires
      • HIST 374: Visions of the Conquest
      • HIST 378: Ethnicity in Latin America
      • HIST 422: Revolt and Revolution in Latin America
      • LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
      • ENG 150: Literary Analysis
    • Approval of the completed Senior Experience: Spanish Multimedia Portfolio.
    • A grade average of C is required for the major. At least four of the advanced Spanish courses must be taken on the Appleton campus.

    Required for the Spanish minor

    Six standard courses (or a minimum of 36 units) above SPAN 202, including one 300-level course, one 400-level course, two 500-level courses, and two electives. These can include one 300-level course. The remaining elective must be taken at the 400-level and above. They may include up to six units of internship or up to six units from approved courses outside the department. A grade average of C is required for the minor. At least three of the advanced Spanish courses must be taken on the Appleton campus.

    Teaching Certification

    The Spanish department offers a course of study that prepares its majors to teach Spanish at the elementary and secondary level. Students interested in becoming licensed to teach Spanish, K-12, should plan to complete the major and should consult with the Education department about certification requirements.

    Study abroad

    The Spanish department strongly advises majors and minors to participate in off-campus programs in Latin America or Spain to fulfill program requirements and complement departmental offerings. Non-majors with sufficient linguistic preparation are also encouraged to participate in sponsored programs. Lawrence University offers a variety of off-campus courses in various disciplines, such as Biology, Psychology, Government, Art, History, Music, etc. Please contact the department chair or the off-campus programs office for additional information.

    Numbering

    At the beginning and intermediate levels, courses are numbered to indicate relative difficulty. Courses numbered 101-201 are primarily language courses and require the least proficiency in Spanish. They introduce students to the most important grammatical concepts and linguistic skills, making gradual progress to an intermediate level of competency. Any SPAN 200-level class satisfies the General Education Requirement in Foreign Language Competency. SPAN 202 is a gateway course to advanced offerings in the major. It provides intensive practice in the linguistic and analytic skills that students will need to succeed in subsequent classes. Courses numbered in the 300s provide linguistic development through the study of specific academic subjects (literature, media, linguistics). They introduce the student to the analyses of literature, film, media, and advanced grammatical concepts. The 400-level courses provide continued practice in linguistic and academic skills through the exploration of a variety of cultural, socio-political, artistic and literary topics. Courses at the 500-level are seminars for advanced majors. They explore a variety of topics and materials pertinent to our faculty’s fields of research and expertise. Students are expected to participate fluently in high-level academic discussions and produce superior scholarly work appropriate for this last stage in their education.
    Capstone courses (600s) allow students to delve into highly advanced topics that connect with the contents of SPAN 500-level courses. They bring together all the areas of knowledge and proficiency in order to research a particular issue in depth. Other tutorial studies and independent projects can be pursued in courses numbered in the 390s and 590s, subject to faculty availability and approval by the chair of the department.
    Native speakers are strongly encouraged to only take Spanish courses above 400; they will only be allowed to take 300-level courses with instructor’s approval. Note: The department does not offer DS/Tutorials/IS below the 300-level.

    Senior Experience in Spanish

    The Spanish Department’s Senior Experience consists of a Multimedia Portfolio that provides measurable evidence demonstrating that students have developed the intellectual qualities, knowledge and linguistic skills essential to their future success. The portfolio is a requirement for completion of the major. It presents a collection of evidence sufficient to prove that a student has achieved the learning goals established by the program. The portfolio also serves as a measure of students’ steady progress towards those goals by allowing comparisons between early class assignments (audio or written) and later ones, so that students can gauge their improvement and focus on the development of specific skills. Students are encouraged to provide a title for their portfolio that is appropriate and descriptive of its content.

    Students pursuing double majors, double degrees, and education certification are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and department chairs to plan their overall senior experience as early as possible, especially if they are interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates both majors, or combines their student teaching with a project in their major.

    Spanish majors are required to submit their multimedia portfolio in the required format to the Spanish Department by Friday of the third week of their final term at Lawrence. Spanish faculty members assigned by the chairperson will assess the portfolio and communicate the outcome of their evaluation to the students by the seventh week of the term. Unapproved portfolios must be revised and resubmitted before the last day of classes in order for students to graduate.

    The portfolio must include the following components:

    1. A cover letter*, in Spanish, which will specify the following:
      • an Individualized Portfolio Theme,
      • a description of the content of the portfolio
      • a reflective statement (in Spanish) of at least two pages, in which the student
        • evaluates his/her development during the years as Spanish majors,
        • justifies the selection of materials for the portfolio,
        • links the samples to their interests, and
        • reflects on the improvement gained throughout their careers at LU.

      *This part of the portfolio is expected to be error free

    2. A list of the courses completed for the major.
    3. A minimum of 15 pages written in Spanish from 3 different courses of the student’s choice at the 300-level and above. One of the three samples must be in the condition in which it was originally submitted, while the other two must be revised and thoroughly edited in order to reflect the student’s current level of proficiency.
    4. Two spoken samples (two-minutes each) prepared and recorded independently by the student in a computer lab.
      • Audio Sample 1: A reading of a text in Spanish
      • Audio Sample 2: A presentation with the recommended multimedia software (see Moodle site).
        This presentation must be about an off-campus experience such as a study abroad, internship or immersion program away from the Appleton campus (at a Spanish-speaking location or internship assignment). It should include no fewer than 5 student-taken photos, accompanied by a recorded, voice-over commentary in Spanish done by the student. Students will use their own visuals (photos or short video clips), whenever possible. No third-party visual materials (e.g., photos from commercial guidebooks, or other people's photos from Flickr or Facebook) may be used as part of the project. After the presentation is submitted and approved, it will become part of a rotating showcase of students’ experiences made available to on- and off- campus communities through departmental or Senior Experience websites.

    The entire portfolio must be presented in electronic format through the required channels. Students should familiarize themselves with these departmental requirements at the time of declaring the major. Important: Students must register for take an Independent Study for one (1) unit (S/U) with their assigned faculty evaluator during the term when they will submit their Portfolio.

    Theatre Arts

    Since 1930, the Department of Theatre Arts, provides an environment of academic exploration and production experiences in the innovative and collaborative tradition of theatre making throughout history. A broad knowledge of theater history and its literary heritage combines with the mastery of skills in performance, design, and production leading to clear and nuanced expression from our stages. Our close relationship with the Conservatory of Music benefits their opera offerings, as they support various aspects of our musical and play production. Our faculty instills a professional standard in each main stage production as we constantly encourage students to integrate their whole education at each stage of development as young artists and scholars. If students engage in our brand of serious and joyful theatre-making in close collaboration with their peers and faculty mentors, they will be ready to enter the profession or graduate training with the best our discipline offers. Our decades long tradition of Senior Projects provides a platform where students mark their development with research, performances, and production designs that rise to the level of enthusiastic young professionals. We are equally pleased when our graduates bring the skills and methods they learn in our department to other professions. As life-long learners, the passion for theatre they explored during their years with us will inspire them to contribute as audience members and supporters of the theatre community.

    Because the study of dramatic art requires a grounding in the study of production methods, past and present, and must be intimately connected to and supported by the study of theatre history and dramatic literature of various periods, the department has developed a core curriculum in those areas.

    Additionally, students are invited to further explore an area of concentration or to continue a generalist’s study of dramatic art. Areas of concentration include performance; design and technical theatre; and dramatic theory, history, and literature. We expect our majors to contribute to each area of the curriculum, to integrate their whole liberal arts exploration into their theatre studies, and to consistently participate in production — on stage, backstage, and in dramaturgical preparation.

    Typically, majors complete most of their studies in the core curriculum early in their junior year. At that time, students begin to work toward a finalizing senior project in that area. The senior project is required of all majors and is designed to exhibit the student’s strengths in the area in which he or she hopes to continue studies or seek employment. Students anticipating graduate study in an area of concentration should consult with their advisor to ensure that their auditions, résumés, or portfolio presentations are appropriately prepared. In addition, students are strongly encouraged to participate in one or more off-campus programs, such as the Lawrence London Centre, the Gaiety School of Acting in Dublin, or the ACM Chicago Arts Program, to deepen their understanding of the various areas of concentration prior to designing their senior projects. Students hoping to become certified as secondary-school teachers of theatre should consult with an advisor in the Department of Education to ensure that they have completed the necessary courses for that certification. Additional details about certification are contained on the education department’s website.

    Core curriculum — required of all theatre arts majors

    1. THAR 187: Acting I
    2. THAR 135: Stagecraft or THAR 137: Costume Crafts and Technology
    3. THAR 212: Theatre Traditions I: Greeks through the 18th Century
    4. THAR 224: Theatre Traditions II: Romanticism through the Present
    5. THAR 231: Introduction to Design for the Theatre
    6. THAR 327: Playscript Analysis
    7. Six terms of participation in either THAR 355: Theatre Production Laboratory or THAR 357: Musical Theatre Production Laboratory. Normally granted at one unit per term of participation.
    8. Three additional courses (18 units) in a focus area or courses across focus areas to continue a generalist approach. No more than twelve (12) units of tutorials may be counted in the Theatre Arts Major.
    9. Senior Project including enrollment in THAR 687 (1 unit)

    Performance

    Additional courses in performance study include Acting II, Play Directing, and 12 additional units in performance-related courses, including voice and dance.

    Design and Technical Theatre

    Additional production-related courses courses include Costume Design, Set Design, or Lighting Design, Advanced Design Studio, and courses in theater technology.

    Dramatic Theory, History, and Literature

    Dramatic Theory and Criticism and an additional course in theatre history are required. Then students will take an additional 12 units of dramatic literature in the Departments of Theatre Arts or English or in a foreign language department. We urge students who intend to pursue graduate studies in this area to continue their foreign language studies to the level of advanced proficiency.

    Required for the theatre arts minor

    1. THAR 111: Introduction to the Theatre
    2. THAR 135: Stagecraft or THAR 137: Costume Crafts and Technology
    3. THAR 187: Acting I
    4. THAR 212 or 224: Theatre Traditions
    5. THAR 327: Playscript Analysis
    6. THAR 477: Acting II or THAR 231: Introduction to Design for Theatre
    7. An additional course in performance, design, or theatre history/literature
    8. THAR 355 or 357: Theatre Production Laboratory (3 terms of participation, normally granted at one unit per term of participation)
    9. C average in the minor

    Senior Experience in Theatre Arts

    The required Senior Project is a cumulative project that reflects each student's specific interests, and the wide range of activity in our department. While majors often begin the planning process for their Senior Project with their advisor during sophomore year, proposals to the department are due at the end of winter term junior year. A wide variety of options are available as valid senior projects. They include:

    • creating a major acting role and documenting your efforts,
    • directing a one-act play (up to 70 minutes, department pays for license and scripts),
    • set, lighting, costume, or sound design for a main stage or Senior Project production,
    • technical direction or stage management for a production,
    • creating and teaching curriculum for primary or secondary students in cooperation with Appleton area schools,
    • writing a play and producing an initial reading of it for a general audience. Preparation for an initial reading consists of 2-3 rehearsals. In performance stage directions are read and actors present from music stands.
    • scholarly activities such as writing on an aspect of theatre history for presentation or publication.
    • Present a staged reading of a play. Preparation for staged-readings usually consist of 4-6 rehearsals. In performance actors should be at music stands and occasionally use key props and/or costume accessories to clarify action. Lighting is general. We encourage the use of sounds elements to establish setting, set mood, and clarify action.

    Proposals for projects must address the following:

    • the requirements and challenges of the project including impact on and intersection with the department's ongoing activity,
    • the course and production work and internship experiences that have prepared you to successfully complete the project,
    • the scholarly, artistic, and personal goals you hope to achieve with your project,
    • request for space including preferred term and special production needs.

    As theatre is a collaborative art form, the senior project is often a shared experience with other seniors; the department encourages groups of rising seniors to propose joint efforts.
     
    The department welcomes project proposals involving shared experiences with other departments. The senior project can be tailored to fit the needs of a student seeking secondary certification.

    University Courses

    University Courses deal with subjects of interest and importance that are outside the purview of any given department. Usually interdisciplinary, University Courses call upon students and faculty to integrate ideas from sometimes disparate fields of knowledge. Alternatively, they provide opportunity for faculty members to present material of specific scholarly interest or expertise. Students from all disciplines may enroll in University Courses.

    Conservatory of Music

    Conservatory of Music

    Piano

    1. Piano performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 301
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 18 units
      1. MURP 451, 452: Literature of the Piano I, II (12 units)
      2. MUEP 301, 302: Piano Pedagogy I, II (6 units)
    3. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors I, II
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble
      2. 3 units in chamber music
      3. 6 units in MUEN 250: Supervised Accompanying

    Organ

    1. Organ performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 302
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 9 units
      1. MURP 390: Tutorial Survey of Organ Literature, Design, Pedagogy and Performance Practice (3 units)
      2. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors
      3. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble
      2. 3 units in chamber music
      3. 6 units in major ensemble, chamber music, or supervised accompanying

    Harpsichord

    1. Harpsichord performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 319
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 7 units
      1. MURP 390: Tutorial Harpsichord Accompaniment (1 unit)
      2. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors I, II
      3. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
      4. MUEP 390: Tutorial Harpsichord Pedagogy (1 unit)
    3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble
      2. 3 units in chamber music
      3. 6 units in major ensemble, chamber music, or supervised accompanying
    5. General Education: French or German must be taken to fulfill the international diversity requirement

    Voice

    1. Voice performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 303
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 22 units
      1. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276: vocal diction and technique series (6 units)
      2. MURP 455: Vocal Literature (3 units)
      3. MUEP 371, 372: Vocal Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units)
      4. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
      5. MURP 361: Acting for Singers 1 (3 units)
    3. Ensemble: 18 units
      1. 6 units in MUEN 272/275
      2. 6 additional units in a major choral ensemble
      3. 6 units in opera theatre (MUEN 280: Performance Skills for Singers required, preferably in the first year)
    4. General Education:
      1. 12 units each of courses taught in two of the following languages (or placement at the intermediate level): French, German, or Italian. Must be taken for a grade.
      2. 2 units selected from: THAR 355:Theatre Production, THAR 357: Musical Theatre Production

    Strings: violin, viola, violoncello, doublebass

    1. String performance: 60 units
      1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 304, 305, 306, or 307
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Pedagogy: One course selected from MUEP 245, 250, 252, 333, or 334 (1-3 units)
    3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    5. Ensemble: 18 units
      1. 12 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra
      2. Chamber music: 6 units, 3 units of which must be completed after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major

    Classical guitar

    1. Guitar performance: 60 units
      1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 308
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 9 units
      1. MURP 315: Fretboard Harmony for the Classical Guitarist (1 unit)
      2. MUEP 304: Guitar Pedagogy (1 unit)
      3. MURP 317: History and Literature of the Guitar (1 unit)
      4. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble,
      2. 3 units in chamber music, and
      3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music

    Winds: flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, bassoon, horn, trumpet, trombone, euphonium, tuba

    1. Wind performance: 60 units
      1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, or 318
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Pedagogy: One course selected from MUEP 245, 259, 260, or 261 (3 units)
    3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    5. Ensemble: 15 units
      1. 6 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble, 3 units of which must be taken after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major, and
      2. 6 units in a major instrumental ensemble
      3. 3 units of chamber music

    Percussion

    1. Percussion performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 320
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Pedagogy: MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    5. Ensemble: 16 units
      1. 12 units in a major instrumental ensemble, including
        1. 3 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble, and
        2. 3 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra (A minimum of 3 units in MUEN 285 or MUEN 290 must be completed after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major.)
      2. 4 units of MUEN 230: Percussion Ensemble (one term each year for four years)

    Senior Experience in Music Performance

    The required senior recital is considered the standard Senior Experience for students in the performance major. Students have the option of proposing enhancements to the senior recital or alternative performance projects as their Senior Experience with the approval of the applied teacher, advisor, and department chair. Alternative Senior Experience projects do not replace the senior recital requirement.

    Emphasis in jazz and improvisational music

    Admission to the Bachelor of Music performance major with an emphasis in jazz and improvisational music may be granted to a limited number of students upon completion of qualifying examinations and with the approval of a candidate selection committee. For detailed information on admission and scheduling of requirements, students are referred to the chair of the jazz and improvisational music department.

    1. Performance: 54 units
      1. 36 units of applied individual instruction (MUIN) in piano, strings, winds, or percussion numbered 301-320 during the freshman and sophomore years (before admission to the jazz emphasis)
      2. 18 units of MUIN 329 after admission to the jazz emphasis (candidates may elect more than 18 units)
      3. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
      Note: Before admission to the jazz emphasis, Bachelor of Music performance candidates are required to study with the respective classical applied instructors but may elect added applied study with the respective jazz applied instructor. After admission to the jazz emphasis, candidates are required to study with the respective jazz applied instructors but may elect to continue with the respective classical instructor.
    2. Supporting courses for the emphasis:
      1. MUTH 240: Jazz Theory and Aural Training (3 units)
      2. MUCA 220, 221: Jazz Improvisation I, II (6 units)
      3. MUCA 230: Small Group Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
      4. MUCA 330: Large Ensemble Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
      5. MUCA 530: Advance Jazz Writing Skills (3 units)
      6. MUIN 329: Jazz Studies - one term of applied individual study in jazz piano (3 units)
      7. MUCO 455: Jazz History (6 units)
      8. MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit)
      9. MUEP 120: Basic Audio Recording (1 unit)
    3. Piano majors must complete either MURP 451 and 452: Literature of the Piano I and II or MUEP 301 and 302: Piano Pedagogy I and II
    4. Ensemble: completion of the requirement must include:
      1. 5 terms of MUEN 248: Jazz Small Group Studies after admission to the jazz emphasis (5 units)
      2. 6 terms of MUEN 295: Jazz Ensemble or MUEN 293: Jazz Band, after admission to the jazz emphasis (6 units)
      3. Additional ensembles, specific to primary instrument, as follows:
        • Winds/Percussion: 6 terms wind ensemble/symphonic band; 3 terms chamber music
        • Strings: 9 terms symphony orchestra (3 terms required participation after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies); 3 terms chamber music
        • Piano: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, or chorale; 3 terms supervised accompanying
        • Guitar: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, chorale, or chamber music
    5. Required Projects
      1. DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards Application: By December 31 of the senior year, all candidates are required to submit an application and compact-disc recording (a minimum of 10 minutes or 3 selections) for the Jazz Soloist category in the annual DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards. Repertoire will be chosen by the coordinator of jazz performance practice in consultation with the applied jazz studio teacher.
      2. Assembly of Self-Promotional CD and/or Web site: Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations must be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal Web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.
      3. Jazz Small Group Coaching: All candidates will direct or co-direct a jazz small group for a minimum of one term after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies (one 60-minute rehearsal per week). Each candidate must submit (in writing to the jazz faculty) a repertoire list and rehearsal plan for the term by the end of the third week. Each candidate must arrange for one group rehearsal observation by a jazz faculty member before the mid-term reading period.
      4. Jazz Big Band Conducting: All candidates will conduct designated rehearsals and sectionals of Jazz Band or Jazz Workshop after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies.
      5. Jazz “Tune of the Week” Tutoring: All admitted Jazz Emphasis candidates will serve as co-tutors for jazz “Tune of the Week” study/rehearsal sessions once each term. Tutors will organize and lead a single session (2-3 hours in duration, time and date TBA) at the end of each term for freshmen and sophomores contemplating admission to the Jazz Emphasis. Each session will serve as an “organized jam session” covering the 10 “Tune of the Week” selections assigned in each given term.

    Senior Experience in Music - Jazz Emphasis

    The senior recital and media project (assembly of a self-promotional CD and/or personal Web site) are designated as the official Senior Experiences for Jazz Emphasis candidates in both Performance and Composition & Arranging. Students have the option of proposing enhancements to this Senior Experience with the approval of the applied teacher, advisor, and department chair.
    Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations will be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal Web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.

    Emphasis in collaborative piano

    In addition to all requirements for the major in piano performance, the following are required:

    1. Supporting courses for the emphasis: 12 units
      1. MURP 420: Piano Accompaniment: Vocal (3 units)
      2. MURP 425: Piano Accompaniment: Instrumental (3 units)
      3. MURP 420 or 425 — repetition of one course (3 units)
      4. MURP 272 English Singing Diction (1 unit); must be fulfilled before requirement 1.e. below
      5. Two of the following in a language not used to satisfy requirement 3 below (language requirement) (2 units): MURP 273 Italian and Latin Singing Diction, MURP 274 German Singing Diction, MURP 275 French Singing Diction.
      6. One term of the supervised accompanying requirement must be fulfilled with Opera Scenes.
    2. Recitals: in addition to required solo degree recitals, accompany 1 half vocal recital and 1 half instrumental recital; must be prepared under supervision of keyboard faculty member(s) through registration in an accompanying class, supervised accompanying, or chamber music.
    3. General Education: completion of the degree requirements must include 12 units of one of the following (or placement at the intermediate level): French, German, or Italian, taken for a grade

    Minor in pedagogy

    Keyboard

    1. MUEP 301, 302, 303: Piano Pedagogy I, II, III (9 units)
    2. Two of the following (6 units total):
      • MUEP 502: Early Advanced Piano Pedagogy
      • MUEP 503: Group Piano Pedagogy
      • MUEP 505: Internship in Piano Pedagogy
    3. MUEP 581, 582: Student Teaching in Piano I, II (6 units)
    4. MURP 451, 452: Literature of the Piano I, II (12 units)
    5. Completion of the general education requirement must include PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology or PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology (6 units)
    6. Presentation of a half recital.
    7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Voice

    1. MUEP 371, 372: Voice Science and Pedagogy I, II (4 units)
    2. MUEP 373: The Brain, Music, and Optimal Performance (3 units)
    3. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    4. Additional Guided Independent Study in Historic Pedagogy, Acoustics, and/or Body/Mind Research (3 units)
    5. MURP 211: Keyboard Skills for Music Educators I (1 unit)
    6. Completion of the general education requirement must include one of the following (6 units):
      • PSYC 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
    7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Strings

    1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques I, II (6 units)
    4. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    5. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
      • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    6. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Brass

    1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
    4. MUEP 259: Brass Pedagogy (3 units)
    5. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    6. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
      • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Percussion

    1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques (3 units)
    4. MUEP 390: Tutorial in Music Pedagogy-Percussion (3 units)
    5. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    6. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
      • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Woodwinds

    1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques I, II (6 units)
    4. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    5. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
      • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    6. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    The Bachelor of Music degree with a major in music education is subject to revision. It is the student’s responsibility to confirm requirements with the chair of the music education department. A cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required for certification in music. To be admitted to the teacher education program, candidates for certification must pass Praxis I: Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) in reading, writing, and mathematics. Before they may student teach, candidates for certification must pass Praxis II: Subject Assessment/Specialty Area Test for each subject in which they intend to be licensed. Students seeking licensure should also consult the Music Education Student Teaching Handbook for further information and requirements.

    Students in the Bachelor of Music degree program may qualify for a 13th term tuition waiver for student teaching, paying only a registration fee ($1,283). Students must have completed all graduation requirements except student teaching; this term must immediately follow the 12th term. For students in the five-year double degree program, a 16th term of student teaching is available under the same policy; this term must immediately follow the 15th term.

    Common requirements for the major in music education

    In addition to degree requirements and those of specific areas below, the following are required of all music education majors:

    1. Education: 21 units
      1. EDST 180: Psychology of Learning (6 units)
      2. EDST 440 Sociology of Education (6 units)
      3. EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education (6 units)
      4. EDUC 431: Educating All Learners - Music (3 units)
    2. Music education: 9 units
      1. MUEP 201: Introduction to Music Education (3 units)
      2. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    3. Student teaching: 21 units
      1. MUEP 660: Advanced Methods in Teaching Music (3 units)
      2. MUEP 680: Student Teaching (18 units)
    4. Performance: 36 units
      1. Minimum of 36 units in applied individual instruction, required every term in which the student is in residence on the Appleton campus with the exception of the student-teaching semester
      2. Presentation of a half recital during the junior or senior year
    5. Non-music courses
      Must include the following:
      1. 6 units of biological science or ANTH 140 and 6 units of physical science; or 6 units of BIOL 103, BIOL 230, or ENST 150
      2. 6 units in mathematics
      3. A total of 60 units in courses other than music
    6. Participation in a major ensemble is required every term in residence on the Appleton campus, as specified in the following requirements for each track: general, choral/general, instrumental, and instrumental/general.
    7. Completion of major requirements for one of the areas as outlined below.

    Senior Experience in Music Education

    Student Teaching is the culminating experience for students in music education. This experience places Lawrence seniors in schools for a period of 18 weeks. During this time, student teachers work closely with a mentor teacher at the secondary and/or elementary level to gain the professional knowledge and skills that will prepare them for state certification licensure in Wisconsin. A variety of projects, tasks, and events comprise the student teaching Senior Experience at Lawrence. As they work with their mentor teacher, students observe classroom teaching as they prepare to take responsibility for planning and executing classes, rehearsals, and lessons under the expert guidance of master teachers.
    In addition to working with a mentor teacher in the schools, students also work with Lawrence faculty during student teaching, both as mentors and in a weekly seminar meeting. Seminar topics include examination of practical issues related to the classroom, (such as classroom management, lesson planning and execution, and working with young learners), broad matters related to functioning professionally in schools and the profession (licensure, administration, and community), and philosophical issues. One of the mechanisms for facilitating discourse in the seminar is the videotape that student teachers bring in to the seminar. These brief episodes facilitate group discussion of their concerns, questions, and wonderments while providing a glimpse into their distinct student teaching environment.
    During student teaching, students engage the complete range of their Lawrence studies, including but not limited to the musical, pedagogical and technical coursework in the program. One of the culminating products of the student teaching experience is the creation of an electronic portfolio that includes lesson plans, philosophical statement, résumé, assessments, audio and video examples of their teaching, demonstrating the range and scope of the student's experiences and documenting that the student has met Lawrence's teacher education standards.

    General music

    In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (above), the following are required for the general music emphasis:

    1. Music education and pedagogy: 28-30 units
      1. MUEP 371 and 372: Voice Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units) or MUEP 231 and 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units). (Students whose principal performance instrument is other than voice must complete MUEP 231 and 232.)
      2. MUEP 240, 350, 370: General Music Methods and Practicum (15 units)
      3. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      4. MUEP 340/THAR 340: Musical Theatre Production Overview (3 units)
      5. MUEP 402: Choral Techniques I (6 units)
      6. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
    2. Keyboard skills: MURP 211 and 212: Keyboard Skills for Music Educators I, II (2 units) in addition to degree requirement in keyboard skills
    3. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 for students whose primary instrument is voice
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus.
      The requirement is based on the student’s principal instrument, as follows:
      1. Voice and keyboard:
        1. 9 units in a major choral ensemble, and
        2. 3 units in any major ensemble
      2. Winds and percussion:
        1. 6 units in Wind Ensemble or Symphonic Band,
        2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble, and
        3. 3 units in any major ensemble.
      3. Strings:
        1. 6 units in Symphony Orchestra,
        2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble, and
        3. 3 units in any major ensemble

    Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

    Choral/general

    In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the choral/general emphasis:

    1. Music education and pedagogy: 34-36 units
      1. MUEP 371 and 372: Voice Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units) or MUEP 231 and 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units).
        (Students whose principal performance instrument is other than voice must complete MUEP 231 and 232.)
      2. MUEP 240, 350, 370: General Music Methods and Practicum (15 units)
      3. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      4. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      5. MUEP 340/THAR 340: Musical Theatre Production Overview (3 units)
      6. MUEP 402: Choral Techniques I (6 units)
      7. MUEP 442: Choral Techniques II (6 units)
    2. Keyboard skills: MURP 211 and 212: Keyboard Skills for Music Educators I, II (2 units) in addition to degree requirement in keyboard skills
    3. Performance: 5-6 units
      1. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 for students whose primary instrument is voice
      2. A minimum of 2 terms of MUIN 303 for students whose primary instrument is other than voice and satisfactory completion of the vocal proficiency examination
    4. Ensemble: 12 units in a major choral ensemble
      Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

    Instrumental

    In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the instrumental emphasis:

    1. Music education and pedagogy: 33 units
      1. MUEP 230: Voice for Instrumental Music Educators (1 units)
      2. One of the following: MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit), MUEP 333 String Pedagogy: Pedagogues and Methods (1 unit), or MUEP 334 String Pedagogy: Editing Orchestral String Parts (1 unit)
      3. MUEP 401: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques I (6 units)
      4. MUEP 451: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques II (6 units)
      5. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      6. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
      7. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques (3 units)
      8. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques I, II (6 units)
      9. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques I, II (6 units)
    2. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. Winds and percussion:
        1. 9 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble or MUEN 287: Symphonic Band, and
        2. an additional 3 units in any major ensemble
      2. Strings:
        1. 9 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra, and
        2. 3 additional units in any major ensemble

    Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

    Instrumental/general

    In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the instrumental/general emphasis:

    1. Music education and pedagogy: 50 units
      1. One of the following: MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit), MUEP 333 String Pedagogy: Pedagogues and Methods (1 unit), or MUEP 334 String Pedagogy: Editing Orchestral String Parts (1 unit)
      2. MUEP 231, 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units)
      3. MUEP 240, 350, 370: General Music Methods and Practicum (15 units)
      4. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      5. MUEP 401: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques I (6 units)
      6. MUEP 451: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques II (6 units)
      7. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      8. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
      9. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques ( 3 units)
      10. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques (6 units)
      11. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques (6 units)
    2. Keyboard skills:
      1. MURP 211 and 212: Keyboard Skills for Music Educators I, II (2 units) in addition to degree requirements in keyboard skills.
    3. Ensemble: 12 units
      Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus. The requirement is based on the student’s primary instrument, as follows:
      1. Winds and percussion:
        1. 6 units in Wind Ensemble or Symphonic Band,
        2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble, and
        3. 3 additional units in any major ensemble
      2. Strings:
        1. 6 units in Symphony Orchestra,
        2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble, and
        3. 3 units in any major ensemble

    Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

    Composition

    1. Music composition: 45 units
      1. MUCA 100: Fundamentals of Composition (6 units)
      2. MUCA 345: Composition (27 units; 9 terms, 3 units per term)
      3. MUCA 300: Techniques of the Contemporary Composer (6 units)
      4. MUCA 400: Topics in Electronic Music (6 units)
    2. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree: 12 units
      1. One course in counterpoint (6 units), either:
        1. MUTH 400: Renaissance Counterpoint (6 units) or
        2. MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units)
      2. One course in analysis (6 units) selected from the following:
        1. MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units)
        2. MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
        3. MUTH 550: Topics in Music Theory and Analysis (6 units); topic must concern music composed since 1900
    3. Orchestration: MUCA 411, 412: Orchestration I, II (12 units)
    4. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    5. Performance: 18 units
      A minimum of 18 units in applied individual instruction
    6. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble,
      2. 3 units in chamber music, and
      3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music

    Senior Experience in Composition

    For students majoring in Composition, the Senior Experience consists of a recital of original compositions and a portfolio of scores and recordings of works composed while at Lawrence. The composition recital, which is normally held during the winter or spring term of the senior year, must include approximately 35-40 minutes of original music composed while at Lawrence (e.g., 5 to 6 works for various chamber ensembles, possibly including a solo work or two), showing variety in musical style, compositional technique, and artistic conception. The compositions should represent the student's finest work at Lawrence, and they should be prepared, rehearsed, and performed at the highest possible level.
    The student, in consultation with his or her principal composition instructor, is responsible for all aspects of production (assembling personnel, preparation of scores and parts, preparation of the concert program and program notes, organizing rehearsals, and, where appropriate, coaching). The senior portfolio consists of professional-quality scores prepared by the student along with recordings of works performed at Lawrence, and must be submitted by the end of the tenth week of the term in which the senior recital occurs.
    The senior recital and portfolio is not normally subject to consideration for honors in independent study. Students wishing to undertake an honors project distinct from the senior recital may do so, but the honors project may not substitute for the senior recital and portfolio.

    Emphasis in jazz and improvisational music

    Admission to the Bachelor of Music in composition with an emphasis in jazz and improvisational music may be granted to a limited number of students upon successful completion of qualifying examinations and with the approval of a candidate selection committee. For detailed information on admission and scheduling of requirements, students are referred to the chair of the jazz and improvisational music department.
    Specific courses required for the emphasis are as follows:

    1. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree:
      MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units) or MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
    2. Music composition and arranging
      1. MUCA 230: Small Group Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
      2. MUCA 330: Large Ensemble Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
      3. MUCA 411: Orchestration I (6 units)
      4. MUCA 530: Advanced Jazz Writing Skills (3 units)
      5. MUCA 530: Advanced Jazz Composition (9 units at 3 units per term)
      6. MUCA 300: Techniques of the Contemporary Composer (6 units)
      7. 6 units from MUCA 345: Composition
    3. Supporting courses for the emphasis:
      1. MUCA 220, 221: Jazz Improvisation I, II (6 units)
      2. MUTH 240: Jazz Theory and Aural Training (3 units)
      3. MUIN 329: Jazz Studies - one term of applied individual study in jazz piano (3 units)
      4. MUCO 455: Jazz History (3 units)
      5. MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit)
      6. MUEP 120: Basic Audio Recording (1 unit)
    4. Performance: A minimum of 24 units in applied individual instruction and 6 terms on the major instrument or voice
    5. Ensemble: Completion of the requirement must include:
      1. 3 terms of MUEN 248: Jazz Small Group Studies, after admission to jazz emphasis (3 units)
      2. 3 terms of MUEN 295: Jazz Ensemble or MUEN 293: Jazz Band, after admission to the jazz emphasis (3 units)
      3. Additional ensembles, specific to primary instrument, as follows:
        Winds/Percussion: 6 terms wind ensemble/ symphonic band; 3 terms chamber music
        Strings: 9 terms symphony orchestra (3 terms required participation after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies); 3 terms chamber music
        Piano: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, or chorale; 3 terms supervised accompanying
        Guitar: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, chorale, or chamber music
        Voice: 6 terms concert choir or women’s choir
    6. Required Projects
      1. Recitals: Half recital (30 minutes maximum stage time) during junior year, full recital (60 minutes maximum stage time) during senior year.
      2. DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards Application: By December 31 of the senior year, all candidates are required to submit an application and CD recording (a minimum of 10 minutes or 3 selections) for the Jazz Soloist category in the annual DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards. Repertoire will be chosen by the coordinator of jazz performance practice in consultation with the applied jazz studio teacher
      3. Assembly of Self-Promotional CD and/or Web site: Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations must be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal Web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.
      4. Jazz Small Group Coaching: All candidates will direct or co-direct a jazz small group for a minimum of one term after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies (one 60-minute rehearsal per week). Each candidate must submit (in writing to the jazz faculty) a repertoire list and rehearsal plan for the term by the end of the third week. Each candidate must arrange for one group rehearsal observation by a jazz faculty member before the mid-term reading period.
      5. Jazz Big Band Conducting: All candidates will conduct designated rehearsals and sectionals of Jazz Band or Jazz Workshop after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies.
      6. Jazz “Tune of the Week” Tutoring: All admitted Jazz Emphasis candidates will serve as co-tutors for jazz “Tune of the Week” study/rehearsal sessions once each term. Tutors will organize and lead a single session (2-3 hours in duration, time and date TBA) at the end of each term for freshmen and sophomores contemplating admission to the Jazz Emphasis. Each session will serve as an “organized jam session” covering the 10 “Tune of the Week” selections assigned in each given term.

    Note: Before admission to the jazz emphasis, students are required to study with the respective classical applied instructors but may elect added applied study with the respective jazz applied instructor. After admission to the jazz emphasis, candidates are required to study with the respective jazz applied instructors but may elect to continue applied study with the respective classical instructor.

    Theory

    1. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree: 42 units
      1. Two courses in counterpoint (12 units), either:
        1. MUTH 400: Renaissance Counterpoint (6 units) and MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units), or
        2. MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units) and MUTH 402: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach II (6 units)
      2. Two 400-level courses in theory and analysis (12 units):
        1. MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units)
        2. MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
      3. MUTH 520: Schenkerian Analysis (6 units)
      4. Two different iterations of MUTH 550: Topics in Music Theory and Analysis (12 units)
    2. Music composition and arranging (12 units):
      1. MUCA 100: Fundamentals of Composition (6 units)
      2. Two terms of MUCA 345: Composition (6 units; 3 units per term)
    3. Any two of the following courses: (12 units)
      • ANTH 531/LING 531: Semiotics
      • EDST 545/LING 545/PSYC 545: Gesture Studies
      • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
      • MUCO 411: Aesthetics of Music
      • PHYS 107: Physics of Music
      • PSYC 230: Psychology of Music
    4. Performance: 24 units
      1. A minimum of 24 units in applied individual instruction
    5. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble,
      2. 3 units in chamber music, and
      3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music
    6. Foreign language: 6 units taken from course numbered 200 or above (German is strongly encouraged because of its prevalence in music theoretical scholarship)
    7. Required project: One public performance of a work for small ensemble that the student has composed in MUCA 345: Composition and rehearsed and prepared under faculty supervision.

    Senior Experience in Music Theory

    The topic of the senior experience in music theory will arise from the student’s encounter, in upper-level courses, with advanced theoretical and analytical concepts, methods, and techniques. Topics may take one of the following forms, subject to approval by the music theory faculty:

    1. an original essay, of substantive length and publishable quality, on a theoretical or analytic topic;
    2. a critical exegesis of a monograph by a contemporary or historical music theorist or of a series of interrelated essays;
    3. a lecture-recital; or
    4. a software application for music theory pedagogy or analysis.

    Ensemble performance study

    Note: A maximum of 12 units of major ensemble may apply toward the Bachelor of Music degree, except when required by the major. Major ensembles are Concert Choir, Cantala Women’s Choir, Viking Chorale, Music Theatre, Wind Ensemble, Symphonic Band, Symphony Orchestra, Jazz Ensemble, and Jazz Band.

    Students may not register for ensemble study by using Voyager; registration will be handled by ensemble directors at the beginning of each term.

    Bachelor of Music Degree

    The Bachelor of Music is a professional degree. Courses in music represent approximately two-thirds of the curriculum, while one-third is devoted to Freshman Studies and General Education Requirements.

    In addition to academic policies and regulations, students in the conservatory are subject to policies and procedures detailed in conservatory department guidelines and the Conservatory Student Handbook.

    Admission to the Degree

    An entrance audition is required of all applicants for admission to the Bachelor of Music degree. Bachelor of Arts students who wish to become Bachelor of Music students must petition the Conservatory Committee on Administration for admission. Bachelor of Music students who wish to become Bachelor of Arts students must petition the University Faculty Subcommittee on Administration for acceptance into the Bachelor of Arts degree program. Such changes are not normally allowed before the end of the freshman year nor later than the beginning of the junior year.

    Degree Requirements

    1. Completion of a minimum of 216 units. The following music courses are used in the computation of the degree grade-point average but are excluded from the total of 216 units required for the degree: MURP 201, 202, 203, 301, 302 and MUTH 161, 162, 171, 172.
    2. Of the 216 units required to complete the degree, a student must present:
      1. a minimum of 144 units in music
      2. a minimum of 60 units in courses other than music.
      3. no more than 12 units from academic internships
      The additional 12 units may be selected from any department.
    3. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies.
    4. Completion of the General Education Requirements:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive
      2. International diversity. One of the following:
        1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States
        2. 12 units selected from courses numbered below 200 in a single foreign language. This requirement may also be satisfied by attaining a score of 4 or 5 on an Advanced Placement examination or by passing a proficiency examination administered by a Lawrence University foreign language department.
        3. Participation for one term in a Lawrence or affiliated off-campus study program held outside the United States
      Note: While some music courses may satisfy General Education Requirements, a minimum of 60 units in courses other than music is required for the degree.

      Stipulations Pertaining to the General Education Requirements

      A single course may be used to satisfy both requirement a. and requirement b. above. Credits granted pursuant to university policy for advanced placement or for transfer work may be used to fulfill General Education Requirement (see also Evaluation of Credit for Transfer Students).
    5. Completion of music core requirements:
      1. Music theory
        1. MUTH 151, 161, 171 or MUTH 201, 211, 221
        2. MUTH 152, 162, 172 or MUTH 202, 212, 222
        3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
        4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
        5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
      2. Musicology
        1. MUCO 201 and 202
        2. 12 units selected from courses in musicology numbered 400 or above
      3. Keyboard skills: MURP 201, 202, 203 or MURP 301, 302
      4. Applied music individual instruction as specified under requirements for the major and areas of emphasis
      5. Ensemble study: a minimum of 12 units. Students are required to participate in an ensemble every term in which they are attending classes on the Appleton campus. Requirements for specific types of ensemble study (MUEN) are specified under requirements for majors and areas of emphasis.
    6. Completion of a major in music — performance, music education, theory/composition, or student-designed — including all course and non-course requirements, such as recitals, qualifying examinations, etc.
    7. An academic record that meets the following standards:
      1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses.
      2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the music major (all music courses and non-music courses required for the major) unless otherwise specified under the major requirements.
    8. Completion of required terms and units in residence as specified by the residence requirements.

    Music Repertoire - Performance Study

    Piano

    1. Piano performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 301
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 18 units
      1. MURP 451, 452: Literature of the Piano I, II (12 units)
      2. MUEP 301, 302: Piano Pedagogy I, II (6 units)
    3. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors I, II
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble
      2. 3 units in chamber music
      3. 6 units in MUEN 250: Supervised Accompanying

    Organ

    1. Organ performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 302
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 9 units
      1. MURP 390: Tutorial Survey of Organ Literature, Design, Pedagogy and Performance Practice (3 units)
      2. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors
      3. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble
      2. 3 units in chamber music
      3. 6 units in major ensemble, chamber music, or supervised accompanying

    Harpsichord

    1. Harpsichord performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 319
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 7 units
      1. MURP 390: Tutorial Harpsichord Accompaniment (1 unit)
      2. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors I, II
      3. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
      4. MUEP 390: Tutorial Harpsichord Pedagogy (1 unit)
    3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble
      2. 3 units in chamber music
      3. 6 units in major ensemble, chamber music, or supervised accompanying
    5. General Education: French or German must be taken to fulfill the international diversity requirement

    Voice

    1. Voice performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 303
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 22 units
      1. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276: vocal diction and technique series (6 units)
      2. MURP 455: Vocal Literature (3 units)
      3. MUEP 371, 372: Vocal Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units)
      4. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
      5. MURP 361: Acting for Singers 1 (3 units)
    3. Ensemble: 18 units
      1. 6 units in MUEN 272/275
      2. 6 additional units in a major choral ensemble
      3. 6 units in opera theatre (MUEN 280: Performance Skills for Singers required, preferably in the first year)
    4. General Education:
      1. 12 units each of courses taught in two of the following languages (or placement at the intermediate level): French, German, or Italian. Must be taken for a grade.
      2. 2 units selected from: THAR 355:Theatre Production, THAR 357: Musical Theatre Production

    Strings: violin, viola, violoncello, doublebass

    1. String performance: 60 units
      1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 304, 305, 306, or 307
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Pedagogy: One course selected from MUEP 245, 250, 252, 333, or 334 (1-3 units)
    3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    5. Ensemble: 18 units
      1. 12 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra
      2. Chamber music: 6 units, 3 units of which must be completed after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major

    Classical guitar

    1. Guitar performance: 60 units
      1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 308
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Supporting courses for the major: 9 units
      1. MURP 315: Fretboard Harmony for the Classical Guitarist (1 unit)
      2. MUEP 304: Guitar Pedagogy (1 unit)
      3. MURP 317: History and Literature of the Guitar (1 unit)
      4. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble,
      2. 3 units in chamber music, and
      3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music

    Winds: flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, bassoon, horn, trumpet, trombone, euphonium, tuba

    1. Wind performance: 60 units
      1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, or 318
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Pedagogy: One course selected from MUEP 245, 259, 260, or 261 (3 units)
    3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    5. Ensemble: 15 units
      1. 6 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble, 3 units of which must be taken after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major, and
      2. 6 units in a major instrumental ensemble
      3. 3 units of chamber music

    Percussion

    1. Percussion performance: 54 units
      1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 320
      2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
    2. Pedagogy: MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
    5. Ensemble: 16 units
      1. 12 units in a major instrumental ensemble, including
        1. 3 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble, and
        2. 3 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra (A minimum of 3 units in MUEN 285 or MUEN 290 must be completed after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major.)
      2. 4 units of MUEN 230: Percussion Ensemble (one term each year for four years)

    Senior Experience in Music Performance

    The required senior recital is considered the standard Senior Experience for students in the performance major. Students have the option of proposing enhancements to the senior recital or alternative performance projects as their Senior Experience with the approval of the applied teacher, advisor, and department chair. Alternative Senior Experience projects do not replace the senior recital requirement.

    Emphasis in jazz and improvisational music

    Admission to the Bachelor of Music performance major with an emphasis in jazz and improvisational music may be granted to a limited number of students upon completion of qualifying examinations and with the approval of a candidate selection committee. For detailed information on admission and scheduling of requirements, students are referred to the chair of the jazz and improvisational music department.

    1. Performance: 54 units
      1. 36 units of applied individual instruction (MUIN) in piano, strings, winds, or percussion numbered 301-320 during the freshman and sophomore years (before admission to the jazz emphasis)
      2. 18 units of MUIN 329 after admission to the jazz emphasis (candidates may elect more than 18 units)
      3. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
      Note: Before admission to the jazz emphasis, Bachelor of Music performance candidates are required to study with the respective classical applied instructors but may elect added applied study with the respective jazz applied instructor. After admission to the jazz emphasis, candidates are required to study with the respective jazz applied instructors but may elect to continue with the respective classical instructor.
    2. Supporting courses for the emphasis:
      1. MUTH 240: Jazz Theory and Aural Training (3 units)
      2. MUCA 220, 221: Jazz Improvisation I, II (6 units)
      3. MUCA 230: Small Group Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
      4. MUCA 330: Large Ensemble Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
      5. MUCA 530: Advance Jazz Writing Skills (3 units)
      6. MUIN 329: Jazz Studies - one term of applied individual study in jazz piano (3 units)
      7. MUCO 455: Jazz History (6 units)
      8. MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit)
      9. MUEP 120: Basic Audio Recording (1 unit)
    3. Piano majors must complete either MURP 451 and 452: Literature of the Piano I and II or MUEP 301 and 302: Piano Pedagogy I and II
    4. Ensemble: completion of the requirement must include:
      1. 5 terms of MUEN 248: Jazz Small Group Studies after admission to the jazz emphasis (5 units)
      2. 6 terms of MUEN 295: Jazz Ensemble or MUEN 293: Jazz Band, after admission to the jazz emphasis (6 units)
      3. Additional ensembles, specific to primary instrument, as follows:
        • Winds/Percussion: 6 terms wind ensemble/symphonic band; 3 terms chamber music
        • Strings: 9 terms symphony orchestra (3 terms required participation after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies); 3 terms chamber music
        • Piano: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, or chorale; 3 terms supervised accompanying
        • Guitar: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, chorale, or chamber music
    5. Required Projects
      1. DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards Application: By December 31 of the senior year, all candidates are required to submit an application and compact-disc recording (a minimum of 10 minutes or 3 selections) for the Jazz Soloist category in the annual DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards. Repertoire will be chosen by the coordinator of jazz performance practice in consultation with the applied jazz studio teacher.
      2. Assembly of Self-Promotional CD and/or Web site: Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations must be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal Web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.
      3. Jazz Small Group Coaching: All candidates will direct or co-direct a jazz small group for a minimum of one term after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies (one 60-minute rehearsal per week). Each candidate must submit (in writing to the jazz faculty) a repertoire list and rehearsal plan for the term by the end of the third week. Each candidate must arrange for one group rehearsal observation by a jazz faculty member before the mid-term reading period.
      4. Jazz Big Band Conducting: All candidates will conduct designated rehearsals and sectionals of Jazz Band or Jazz Workshop after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies.
      5. Jazz “Tune of the Week” Tutoring: All admitted Jazz Emphasis candidates will serve as co-tutors for jazz “Tune of the Week” study/rehearsal sessions once each term. Tutors will organize and lead a single session (2-3 hours in duration, time and date TBA) at the end of each term for freshmen and sophomores contemplating admission to the Jazz Emphasis. Each session will serve as an “organized jam session” covering the 10 “Tune of the Week” selections assigned in each given term.

    Senior Experience in Music - Jazz Emphasis

    The senior recital and media project (assembly of a self-promotional CD and/or personal Web site) are designated as the official Senior Experiences for Jazz Emphasis candidates in both Performance and Composition & Arranging. Students have the option of proposing enhancements to this Senior Experience with the approval of the applied teacher, advisor, and department chair.
    Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations will be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal Web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.

    Emphasis in collaborative piano

    In addition to all requirements for the major in piano performance, the following are required:

    1. Supporting courses for the emphasis: 12 units
      1. MURP 420: Piano Accompaniment: Vocal (3 units)
      2. MURP 425: Piano Accompaniment: Instrumental (3 units)
      3. MURP 420 or 425 — repetition of one course (3 units)
      4. MURP 272 English Singing Diction (1 unit); must be fulfilled before requirement 1.e. below
      5. Two of the following in a language not used to satisfy requirement 3 below (language requirement) (2 units): MURP 273 Italian and Latin Singing Diction, MURP 274 German Singing Diction, MURP 275 French Singing Diction.
      6. One term of the supervised accompanying requirement must be fulfilled with Opera Scenes.
    2. Recitals: in addition to required solo degree recitals, accompany 1 half vocal recital and 1 half instrumental recital; must be prepared under supervision of keyboard faculty member(s) through registration in an accompanying class, supervised accompanying, or chamber music.
    3. General Education: completion of the degree requirements must include 12 units of one of the following (or placement at the intermediate level): French, German, or Italian, taken for a grade

    Minor in pedagogy

    Keyboard

    1. MUEP 301, 302, 303: Piano Pedagogy I, II, III (9 units)
    2. Two of the following (6 units total):
      • MUEP 502: Early Advanced Piano Pedagogy
      • MUEP 503: Group Piano Pedagogy
      • MUEP 505: Internship in Piano Pedagogy
    3. MUEP 581, 582: Student Teaching in Piano I, II (6 units)
    4. MURP 451, 452: Literature of the Piano I, II (12 units)
    5. Completion of the general education requirement must include PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology or PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology (6 units)
    6. Presentation of a half recital.
    7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Voice

    1. MUEP 371, 372: Voice Science and Pedagogy I, II (4 units)
    2. MUEP 373: The Brain, Music, and Optimal Performance (3 units)
    3. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    4. Additional Guided Independent Study in Historic Pedagogy, Acoustics, and/or Body/Mind Research (3 units)
    5. MURP 211: Keyboard Skills for Music Educators I (1 unit)
    6. Completion of the general education requirement must include one of the following (6 units):
      • PSYC 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
    7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Strings

    1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques I, II (6 units)
    4. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    5. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
      • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    6. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Brass

    1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
    4. MUEP 259: Brass Pedagogy (3 units)
    5. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    6. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
      • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Percussion

    1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques (3 units)
    4. MUEP 390: Tutorial in Music Pedagogy-Percussion (3 units)
    5. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    6. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
      • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Woodwinds

    1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
    3. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques I, II (6 units)
    4. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
    5. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
      • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
      • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    6. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Music Education and Pedagogy

    The Bachelor of Music degree with a major in music education is subject to revision. It is the student’s responsibility to confirm requirements with the chair of the music education department. A cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required for certification in music. To be admitted to the teacher education program, candidates for certification must pass Praxis I: Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) in reading, writing, and mathematics. Before they may student teach, candidates for certification must pass Praxis II: Subject Assessment/Specialty Area Test for each subject in which they intend to be licensed. Students seeking licensure should also consult the Music Education Student Teaching Handbook for further information and requirements.

    Students in the Bachelor of Music degree program may qualify for a 13th term tuition waiver for student teaching, paying only a registration fee ($1,283). Students must have completed all graduation requirements except student teaching; this term must immediately follow the 12th term. For students in the five-year double degree program, a 16th term of student teaching is available under the same policy; this term must immediately follow the 15th term.

    Common requirements for the major in music education

    In addition to degree requirements and those of specific areas below, the following are required of all music education majors:

    1. Education: 21 units
      1. EDST 180: Psychology of Learning (6 units)
      2. EDST 440 Sociology of Education (6 units)
      3. EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education (6 units)
      4. EDUC 431: Educating All Learners - Music (3 units)
    2. Music education: 9 units
      1. MUEP 201: Introduction to Music Education (3 units)
      2. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    3. Student teaching: 21 units
      1. MUEP 660: Advanced Methods in Teaching Music (3 units)
      2. MUEP 680: Student Teaching (18 units)
    4. Performance: 36 units
      1. Minimum of 36 units in applied individual instruction, required every term in which the student is in residence on the Appleton campus with the exception of the student-teaching semester
      2. Presentation of a half recital during the junior or senior year
    5. Non-music courses
      Must include the following:
      1. 6 units of biological science or ANTH 140 and 6 units of physical science; or 6 units of BIOL 103, BIOL 230, or ENST 150
      2. 6 units in mathematics
      3. A total of 60 units in courses other than music
    6. Participation in a major ensemble is required every term in residence on the Appleton campus, as specified in the following requirements for each track: general, choral/general, instrumental, and instrumental/general.
    7. Completion of major requirements for one of the areas as outlined below.

    Senior Experience in Music Education

    Student Teaching is the culminating experience for students in music education. This experience places Lawrence seniors in schools for a period of 18 weeks. During this time, student teachers work closely with a mentor teacher at the secondary and/or elementary level to gain the professional knowledge and skills that will prepare them for state certification licensure in Wisconsin. A variety of projects, tasks, and events comprise the student teaching Senior Experience at Lawrence. As they work with their mentor teacher, students observe classroom teaching as they prepare to take responsibility for planning and executing classes, rehearsals, and lessons under the expert guidance of master teachers.
    In addition to working with a mentor teacher in the schools, students also work with Lawrence faculty during student teaching, both as mentors and in a weekly seminar meeting. Seminar topics include examination of practical issues related to the classroom, (such as classroom management, lesson planning and execution, and working with young learners), broad matters related to functioning professionally in schools and the profession (licensure, administration, and community), and philosophical issues. One of the mechanisms for facilitating discourse in the seminar is the videotape that student teachers bring in to the seminar. These brief episodes facilitate group discussion of their concerns, questions, and wonderments while providing a glimpse into their distinct student teaching environment.
    During student teaching, students engage the complete range of their Lawrence studies, including but not limited to the musical, pedagogical and technical coursework in the program. One of the culminating products of the student teaching experience is the creation of an electronic portfolio that includes lesson plans, philosophical statement, résumé, assessments, audio and video examples of their teaching, demonstrating the range and scope of the student's experiences and documenting that the student has met Lawrence's teacher education standards.

    General music

    In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (above), the following are required for the general music emphasis:

    1. Music education and pedagogy: 28-30 units
      1. MUEP 371 and 372: Voice Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units) or MUEP 231 and 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units). (Students whose principal performance instrument is other than voice must complete MUEP 231 and 232.)
      2. MUEP 240, 350, 370: General Music Methods and Practicum (15 units)
      3. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      4. MUEP 340/THAR 340: Musical Theatre Production Overview (3 units)
      5. MUEP 402: Choral Techniques I (6 units)
      6. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
    2. Keyboard skills: MURP 211 and 212: Keyboard Skills for Music Educators I, II (2 units) in addition to degree requirement in keyboard skills
    3. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 for students whose primary instrument is voice
    4. Ensemble: 12 units
      Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus.
      The requirement is based on the student’s principal instrument, as follows:
      1. Voice and keyboard:
        1. 9 units in a major choral ensemble, and
        2. 3 units in any major ensemble
      2. Winds and percussion:
        1. 6 units in Wind Ensemble or Symphonic Band,
        2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble, and
        3. 3 units in any major ensemble.
      3. Strings:
        1. 6 units in Symphony Orchestra,
        2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble, and
        3. 3 units in any major ensemble

    Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

    Choral/general

    In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the choral/general emphasis:

    1. Music education and pedagogy: 34-36 units
      1. MUEP 371 and 372: Voice Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units) or MUEP 231 and 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units).
        (Students whose principal performance instrument is other than voice must complete MUEP 231 and 232.)
      2. MUEP 240, 350, 370: General Music Methods and Practicum (15 units)
      3. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      4. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      5. MUEP 340/THAR 340: Musical Theatre Production Overview (3 units)
      6. MUEP 402: Choral Techniques I (6 units)
      7. MUEP 442: Choral Techniques II (6 units)
    2. Keyboard skills: MURP 211 and 212: Keyboard Skills for Music Educators I, II (2 units) in addition to degree requirement in keyboard skills
    3. Performance: 5-6 units
      1. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 for students whose primary instrument is voice
      2. A minimum of 2 terms of MUIN 303 for students whose primary instrument is other than voice and satisfactory completion of the vocal proficiency examination
    4. Ensemble: 12 units in a major choral ensemble
      Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus.

    Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

    Instrumental

    In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the instrumental emphasis:

    1. Music education and pedagogy: 33 units
      1. MUEP 230: Voice for Instrumental Music Educators (1 units)
      2. One of the following: MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit), MUEP 333 String Pedagogy: Pedagogues and Methods (1 unit), or MUEP 334 String Pedagogy: Editing Orchestral String Parts (1 unit)
      3. MUEP 401: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques I (6 units)
      4. MUEP 451: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques II (6 units)
      5. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      6. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
      7. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques (3 units)
      8. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques I, II (6 units)
      9. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques I, II (6 units)
    2. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. Winds and percussion:
        1. 9 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble or MUEN 287: Symphonic Band, and
        2. an additional 3 units in any major ensemble
      2. Strings:
        1. 9 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra, and
        2. 3 additional units in any major ensemble

    Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

    Instrumental/general

    In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the instrumental/general emphasis:

    1. Music education and pedagogy: 50 units
      1. One of the following: MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit), MUEP 333 String Pedagogy: Pedagogues and Methods (1 unit), or MUEP 334 String Pedagogy: Editing Orchestral String Parts (1 unit)
      2. MUEP 231, 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units)
      3. MUEP 240, 350, 370: General Music Methods and Practicum (15 units)
      4. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      5. MUEP 401: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques I (6 units)
      6. MUEP 451: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques II (6 units)
      7. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
      8. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
      9. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques ( 3 units)
      10. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques (6 units)
      11. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques (6 units)
    2. Keyboard skills:
      1. MURP 211 and 212: Keyboard Skills for Music Educators I, II (2 units) in addition to degree requirements in keyboard skills.
    3. Ensemble: 12 units
      Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus. The requirement is based on the student’s primary instrument, as follows:
      1. Winds and percussion:
        1. 6 units in Wind Ensemble or Symphonic Band,
        2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble, and
        3. 3 additional units in any major ensemble
      2. Strings:
        1. 6 units in Symphony Orchestra,
        2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble, and
        3. 3 units in any major ensemble

    Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

    Music Composition & Arranging

    The major in Composition

    1. Music composition: 45 units
      1. MUCA 100: Fundamentals of Composition (6 units)
      2. MUCA 345: Composition (27 units; 9 terms, 3 units per term)
      3. MUCA 300: Techniques of the Contemporary Composer (6 units)
      4. MUCA 400: Topics in Electronic Music (6 units)
    2. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree: 12 units
      1. One course in counterpoint (6 units), either:
        1. MUTH 400: Renaissance Counterpoint (6 units) or
        2. MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units)
      2. One course in analysis (6 units) selected from the following:
        1. MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units)
        2. MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
        3. MUTH 550: Topics in Music Theory and Analysis (6 units); topic must concern music composed since 1900
    3. Orchestration: MUCA 411, 412: Orchestration I, II (12 units)
    4. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    5. Performance: 18 units
      A minimum of 18 units in applied individual instruction
    6. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble,
      2. 3 units in chamber music, and
      3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music

    Senior Experience in Composition

    For students majoring in Composition, the Senior Experience consists of a recital of original compositions and a portfolio of scores and recordings of works composed while at Lawrence. The composition recital, which is normally held during the winter or spring term of the senior year, must include approximately 35-40 minutes of original music composed while at Lawrence (e.g., 5 to 6 works for various chamber ensembles, possibly including a solo work or two), showing variety in musical style, compositional technique, and artistic conception. The compositions should represent the student's finest work at Lawrence, and they should be prepared, rehearsed, and performed at the highest possible level.
    The student, in consultation with his or her principal composition instructor, is responsible for all aspects of production (assembling personnel, preparation of scores and parts, preparation of the concert program and program notes, organizing rehearsals, and, where appropriate, coaching). The senior portfolio consists of professional-quality scores prepared by the student along with recordings of works performed at Lawrence, and must be submitted by the end of the tenth week of the term in which the senior recital occurs.
    The senior recital and portfolio is not normally subject to consideration for honors in independent study. Students wishing to undertake an honors project distinct from the senior recital may do so, but the honors project may not substitute for the senior recital and portfolio.

    Emphasis in jazz and improvisational music

    Admission to the Bachelor of Music in composition with an emphasis in jazz and improvisational music may be granted to a limited number of students upon successful completion of qualifying examinations and with the approval of a candidate selection committee. For detailed information on admission and scheduling of requirements, students are referred to the chair of the jazz and improvisational music department.
    Specific courses required for the emphasis are as follows:

    1. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree:
      MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units) or MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
    2. Music composition and arranging
      1. MUCA 230: Small Group Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
      2. MUCA 330: Large Ensemble Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
      3. MUCA 411: Orchestration I (6 units)
      4. MUCA 530: Advanced Jazz Writing Skills (3 units)
      5. MUCA 530: Advanced Jazz Composition (9 units at 3 units per term)
      6. MUCA 300: Techniques of the Contemporary Composer (6 units)
      7. 6 units from MUCA 345: Composition
    3. Supporting courses for the emphasis:
      1. MUCA 220, 221: Jazz Improvisation I, II (6 units)
      2. MUTH 240: Jazz Theory and Aural Training (3 units)
      3. MUIN 329: Jazz Studies - one term of applied individual study in jazz piano (3 units)
      4. MUCO 455: Jazz History (3 units)
      5. MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit)
      6. MUEP 120: Basic Audio Recording (1 unit)
    4. Performance: A minimum of 24 units in applied individual instruction and 6 terms on the major instrument or voice
    5. Ensemble: Completion of the requirement must include:
      1. 3 terms of MUEN 248: Jazz Small Group Studies, after admission to jazz emphasis (3 units)
      2. 3 terms of MUEN 295: Jazz Ensemble or MUEN 293: Jazz Band, after admission to the jazz emphasis (3 units)
      3. Additional ensembles, specific to primary instrument, as follows:
        Winds/Percussion: 6 terms wind ensemble/ symphonic band; 3 terms chamber music
        Strings: 9 terms symphony orchestra (3 terms required participation after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies); 3 terms chamber music
        Piano: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, or chorale; 3 terms supervised accompanying
        Guitar: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, chorale, or chamber music
        Voice: 6 terms concert choir or women’s choir
    6. Required Projects
      1. Recitals: Half recital (30 minutes maximum stage time) during junior year, full recital (60 minutes maximum stage time) during senior year.
      2. DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards Application: By December 31 of the senior year, all candidates are required to submit an application and CD recording (a minimum of 10 minutes or 3 selections) for the Jazz Soloist category in the annual DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards. Repertoire will be chosen by the coordinator of jazz performance practice in consultation with the applied jazz studio teacher
      3. Assembly of Self-Promotional CD and/or Web site: Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations must be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal Web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.
      4. Jazz Small Group Coaching: All candidates will direct or co-direct a jazz small group for a minimum of one term after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies (one 60-minute rehearsal per week). Each candidate must submit (in writing to the jazz faculty) a repertoire list and rehearsal plan for the term by the end of the third week. Each candidate must arrange for one group rehearsal observation by a jazz faculty member before the mid-term reading period.
      5. Jazz Big Band Conducting: All candidates will conduct designated rehearsals and sectionals of Jazz Band or Jazz Workshop after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies.
      6. Jazz “Tune of the Week” Tutoring: All admitted Jazz Emphasis candidates will serve as co-tutors for jazz “Tune of the Week” study/rehearsal sessions once each term. Tutors will organize and lead a single session (2-3 hours in duration, time and date TBA) at the end of each term for freshmen and sophomores contemplating admission to the Jazz Emphasis. Each session will serve as an “organized jam session” covering the 10 “Tune of the Week” selections assigned in each given term.

    Note: Before admission to the jazz emphasis, students are required to study with the respective classical applied instructors but may elect added applied study with the respective jazz applied instructor. After admission to the jazz emphasis, candidates are required to study with the respective jazz applied instructors but may elect to continue applied study with the respective classical instructor.

    Music Theory

    The major in Music Theory

    1. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree: 42 units
      1. Two courses in counterpoint (12 units), either:
        1. MUTH 400: Renaissance Counterpoint (6 units) and MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units), or
        2. MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units) and MUTH 402: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach II (6 units)
      2. Two 400-level courses in theory and analysis (12 units):
        1. MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units)
        2. MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
      3. MUTH 520: Schenkerian Analysis (6 units)
      4. Two different iterations of MUTH 550: Topics in Music Theory and Analysis (12 units)
    2. Music composition and arranging (12 units):
      1. MUCA 100: Fundamentals of Composition (6 units)
      2. Two terms of MUCA 345: Composition (6 units; 3 units per term)
    3. Any two of the following courses: (12 units)
      • ANTH 531/LING 531: Semiotics
      • EDST 545/LING 545/PSYC 545: Gesture Studies
      • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
      • MUCO 411: Aesthetics of Music
      • PHYS 107: Physics of Music
      • PSYC 230: Psychology of Music
    4. Performance: 24 units
      1. A minimum of 24 units in applied individual instruction
    5. Ensemble: 12 units
      1. 3 units in major ensemble,
      2. 3 units in chamber music, and
      3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music
    6. Foreign language: 6 units taken from course numbered 200 or above (German is strongly encouraged because of its prevalence in music theoretical scholarship)
    7. Required project: One public performance of a work for small ensemble that the student has composed in MUCA 345: Composition and rehearsed and prepared under faculty supervision.

    Senior Experience in Music Theory

    The topic of the senior experience in music theory will arise from the student’s encounter, in upper-level courses, with advanced theoretical and analytical concepts, methods, and techniques. Topics may take one of the following forms, subject to approval by the music theory faculty:

    1. an original essay, of substantive length and publishable quality, on a theoretical or analytic topic;
    2. a critical exegesis of a monograph by a contemporary or historical music theorist or of a series of interrelated essays;
    3. a lecture-recital; or
    4. a software application for music theory pedagogy or analysis.

    Ensemble performance study

    Note: A maximum of 12 units of major ensemble may apply toward the Bachelor of Music degree, except when required by the major. Major ensembles are Concert Choir, Cantala Women’s Choir, Viking Chorale, Music Theatre, Wind Ensemble, Symphonic Band, Symphony Orchestra, Jazz Ensemble, and Jazz Band.

    Students may not register for ensemble study by using Voyager; registration will be handled by ensemble directors at the beginning of each term.

    Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Music Degree

    Professional study in music and study in the liberal arts may be combined in a five-year program leading to both Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Arts degrees, the latter with a major other than music. Both degrees are awarded at the conclusion of the five-year program. Interested students should discuss this possibility with their advisors as early as possible.

    Approximately half of the curriculum is devoted to the study of music — completion of the music core and requirements for a major in performance, music education, or theory/composition. The other half of the curriculum mirrors that of the Bachelor of Arts program, emphasizing breadth of study central to a liberal arts education, focused study in the college major, and elective study to complement other work or explore other fields of interest.

    Certain majors in the Bachelor of Arts degree program (for example, some laboratory sciences) may be difficult to combine with the Bachelor of Music degree program into a five-year double-degree program, especially if the student’s objective is to maintain serious options for graduate or professional work in both areas after graduation. Such combinations may require that course overloads be taken to complete minimum requirements in each major in a timely and satisfactory manner. Early and regular consultation with advisors in both the college and the conservatory is imperative. Further, students who seek certification for purposes of teaching a subject other than music are urged to see the associate dean of the conservatory.

    In addition to academic policies and regulations, students in the conservatory are subject to policies and procedures detailed in conservatory department guidelines and the Conservatory Student Handbook.

    Requirements for the five-year Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Music Degrees

    1. Completion of a minimum of 15 terms of study and 270 units. Of the 270 units required, a student must present:
      1. a minimum of 144 units in music, exclusive of MURP 201, 202, 203, 301, 302 and MUTH 161, 162, 171, 172
      2. a minimum of 114 units selected from courses other than music
      3. no more than 42 units from courses in education
      4. a minimum of 72 units from courses numbered 200 and above
      5. no more than 90 units from a single department outside of music, except that in the art department a student may present no more than 126 units, no more than 90 of which may be in art and no more than 90 of which may be in art history
      6. no more than 12 units from academic internships
    2. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies.
    3. Completion of the General Education Requirements:
      1. Distribution, in order to gain exposure to a range of disciplines, subjects, and perspectives within the liberal arts:
        1. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Humanities. All courses in the humanities taught in English will count toward this requirement. Humanities courses taught in a foreign language and numbered 300 and above also will count toward this requirement, except as noted in the course catalog.
        2. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Fine Arts;
        3. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the Division of Social Sciences;
        4. 6 units selected from laboratory courses in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics in the Division of Natural Sciences
      2. Diversity, in order to prepare students for a more global world and a more diverse America:
        1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States;
        2. 6 units selected from courses designated as focusing on dimensions of diversity, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, that are of particular importance in understanding contemporary society in the United States.
      3. Competency, in order to improve and reinforce those fundamental abilities central to a liberal arts education:
        1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive or 6 units selected from courses designated as speaking intensive;
        2. 6 units selected from courses designated as emphasizing mathematical reasoning or quantitative analysis;
        3. 6 units in a foreign language taken from courses numbered 200 or above and taught primarily in a language other than English. This requirement may also be satisfied by attaining a score of 4 or 5 on an Advanced Placement examination in a foreign language or by passing a proficiency examination administered by a Lawrence University foreign language department.

      Stipulations pertaining to the General Education Requirements

      Qualified courses may count toward the requirements in any two of the categories above (distribution, diversity, and competency). Some courses may meet two requirements within a category. No single course can be used to fulfill more than two requirements. Credits granted pursuant to university policy for examinations (Lawrence Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), or A-levels) may be used as appropriate to fulfill diversity or competency requirements only.
    4. Completion of a college major — departmental, interdisciplinary, or student-designed — exclusive of music, including all course and non-course requirements, such as departmental examinations, research projects and presentations, portfolios, etc. Students are required to declare a major by the beginning of the junior year.
    5. Completion of music core requirements:
      1. Music Theory
        1. MUTH 151, 161, 171 or MUTH 201, 211, 221
        2. MUTH 152, 162, 172 or MUTH 202, 212, 222
        3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
        4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
        5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
      2. Musicology
        1. MUCO 201 and 202
        2. 12 units selected from courses in musicology numbered 400 or above
      3. Keyboard skills: MURP 201, 202, 203 or MURP 301, 302
      4. Applied music individual instruction as specified under requirements for the major and areas of emphasis
      5. Ensemble study: a minimum of 12 units. Students are required to participate in an ensemble every term in which they are attending classes on the Appleton campus. Requirements for specific types of ensemble study (MUEN) are specified under requirements for majors and areas of emphasis.
      6. Completion of a major in music — performance, music education, theory/composition, or student-designed — including all course and non-course requirements, such as recitals, qualifying examinations, etc.
      7. Completion of a designated Senior Experience course or activity within the chosen majors for each degree.
      8. An academic record that meets the following standards:
        1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses.
        2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the music major (all music courses and non-music courses required for the major) unless otherwise specified under the major requirements.
      9. Completion of required terms and units in residence as specified by the university residence requirements

    December Term

    Student-Initiated Courses and Programs

    Honors

    Academic Procedures and Regulations

    Admission

    Tuition, Fees and Financial Assistance

    Academic Calendar

    Errata

    Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube