Please note: The information displayed here is current as of Wednesday, December 12, 2018, but the official Course Catalog should be used for all official planning.

2013-2014 Course Catalog

Period: 2018-20192017-20182016-20172015-20162014-2015

This catalog was created on Wednesday, December 12, 2018.


Biology

Professors:B. De Stasio (Dennis and Charlot Nelson Singleton Professor of Biological Sciences, chair), E. De Stasio (The Raymond H. Herzog Professor of Science)
Associate professors:K. Dickson, J. Humphries, J. Sedlock (on leave term(s) I, II, III), N. Wall
Assistant professors:I. Del Toro, A. Hakes, B. Piasecki
Visiting assistant professor:R. Ribbons (Freshman Studies)
Lecturer:C. Duckert

Students come to Lawrence with varied interests in the life sciences. A student with strong interests in molecules and cells will wish to learn different techniques and approaches than will a student who is passionate about terrestrial or aquatic ecology. A student who is thinking about a career in health care may want different experiences than a student who wishes to become a naturalist. One individual may wish to be specialized, another to be a generalist with a broader background. To accommodate this heterogeneity, the biology department has designed its program to provide as much flexibility as possible.

Philosophically, the department encourages an open-ended, original, experimental approach to life science. Beyond the introductory sequences in biology and chemistry, there is no prescribed program for students. The research-rich approach begins in BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms, in which all department faculty members participate. Students design, conduct, and interpret their own research projects and present their results at a professional-style symposium at the end of the term.

Experimental work becomes progressively more sophisticated and creative in advanced courses. All courses are designed to develop students’ insights and capacity to synthesize information and they include discussions, readings, field trips, lab work, and interactive class work in those areas most closely related to the competence of the faculty. Most courses feature intensive laboratory or field instruction where students use advanced research equipment and computer facilities to explore modern biological concepts.

All biology faculty members conduct active research programs and employ students during the summer as research assistants and they supervise students undertaking independent study research for credit during the academic year.

Many students culminate their work in biology with significant original research. In recent years, several papers with students and faculty as co-authors have been published in professional journals. Topics have included aquatic food chain energetics, physiology of aging, cellular metabolism, and molecular mechanics of vertebrate development. Recent advances in biological research are presented in a series of talks by faculty and by scientists from other universities. All students complete a project (research, curriculum development, outreach, or a creative project) of their own design as part of our Senior Experience program.

Students who have strong secondary interests in chemistry, geology, or physics may construct majors involving biology and one of the other three natural sciences, using the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences or the biochemistry major.

Required for the biology major

  1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170
  2. At least seven six-unit courses in biology numbered 200 or above (excluding Senior Experience courses, of which at least five must be laboratory courses
  3. Completion of Biology Senior Experience (A student-directed project, 6 units of BIOL 650, 2 units of BIOL 600)
    Note: Only two six-unit courses designated as tutorial, directed study, or independent study can be counted toward the major or minor requirements and only one of those can be counted toward the upper-level laboratory requirement.

Required for the biology minor

  1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170. Students majoring in disciplines requiring a research methods and statistics course may request exemption from the BIOL 170 requirement.
  2. At least four six-unit courses in biology numbered 200 or above, of which at least two must be laboratory courses.
  3. C average in the minor
    Note: Only two six-unit courses designated as tutorial, directed study, or independent study can be counted toward the major or minor requirements and only one of these can be counted toward the upper-level laboratory requirement.

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in biology and physics or geology

  1. BIOL 130 and 150
  2. PHYS 141 and 151 or 151 and 160
  3. GEOL 110 and GEOL 210, if geology is the secondary discipline.
  4. At least 10 six-unit courses in the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, and physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in biology (of which at least three must be laboratory courses), and at least three in the secondary discipline in other departments
  5. Completion of the Biology Senior Experience
  6. Note: Previous interdisciplinary combinations of biology and chemistry have been replaced by the Biochemistry major.

Wisconsin Teacher Certification

Students who major in biology and who wish to gain certification to teach biology in Wisconsin public schools should choose a broad range of biology courses that includes ecology, plant and animal organismal biology, as well as molecular and cellular biology. Students should gain experience in both field and laboratory research. Beyond the coursework required for the biology major, students will need to take the following additional courses:

  • One 6-unit geology course
  • One 6-unit physics course
  • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
  • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
  • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
  • EDUC 560: Methods in Middle and Secondary Teaching
  • EDUC 430: Educating All Learners
  • EDUC 650: Student Teaching
  • EDUC 660: Student Teaching Seminar
For more detailed information about the certification program refer to the course of study for the Department of Education.

Senior Experience in Biology

Required: A student-designed project, 6 units of BIOL 650, 2 units of BIOL 600.
Purposeful advising in the spring of the sophomore year and attendance at the spring BioFest is meant to inspire sophomore students to begin thinking about what they might want to undertake as their culminating project in biology. During the fall of the junior year, students will hear from department faculty, the internship coordinator, and others about opportunities available for senior experience projects at a junior retreat. Breakout groups will allow students to brainstorm ideas for projects. Project work (research, internship, creation of a curricular module, draft of a grant proposal, draft of a children's book on biology, production of art about biology, or other creative project) generally will be undertaken prior to term 2 of the senior year and may be based on an internship, tutorial, course work, independent study, or other work.
Usually in the senior year, students will take two terms of BIOL 600: Recent Advances in Biology Lecture Series (1 unit each), one term of BIOL 650 (5 units) and 1 additional unit of BIOL 650 in the spring term for BioFest. The purpose of the BIOL 650 course is to bring to culmination each student’s individual senior experience project and to place that project in an academic context. Each student will prepare a paper that places her or his project into a broader context, compares it to our past and current understanding of the topic using primary literature, and summarizes the student’s project or results. Students will begin gathering and organizing academic resources for this paper in the term 1 BIOL 600 course. In BIOL 650, students preparing a thesis for honors will prepare the introduction to their thesis, while a student creating a visual product or curriculum will describe the biological underpinnings of the work and reflect on the production of the work itself, for example. The senior experience will culminate with a symposium, BioFest, in the spring term, at which all students will present the results of their projects (or the project itself) as a poster, demonstration, or other visual display.


Courses - Biology

BIOL 100: The Biology of Human Reproduction

An introductory course focusing on human reproduction to demonstrate some basic biological principles. The course includes discussion of cellular and organismal processes related to the development of human biological complexity. Current research in reproductive biology and its impact on the individual and society is considered. Lecture and laboratory. Primarily for non-science majors; credit not applicable to the biology major.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Gender Studies 180

BIOL 103: Biotechnology and Society

An examination of basic biological principles underlying current biotechnology in the fields of human genetics and genetic engineering. Discussion of methods of basic scientific research, the impact of technology on society, and ethical problems in human and agricultural genetics. Credit not applicable to biology major. Weekly laboratories will introduce basic experimental methodology and procedures.
Units: 6.

BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms

An exploration of fundamental cellular processes in an evolutionary context including homeostasis, cell cycle, gene expression, energy transformation, inheritance, and multi-cellular development. Experimental approaches will be emphasized. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.

BIOL 150: Integrative Biology: Organisms to Ecosystems

Development, morphology, physiology, and ecology of plants, animals, fungi and unicellular organisms will be compared in evolutionary context. Phylogenic relationships, ecological interactions, and ecosystem processes will be explored. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 or departmental examination

BIOL 170: Integrative Biology: Experimental Design and Statistics

An introduction to experimental and sampling design in the fields of biology and biochemistry, as well as methods of data analysis and interpretation. The connection between statistical analysis and experimental design will be emphasized. Topics include descriptive, exploratory, and confirmatory statistical analyses. Lecture and computer laboratory.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or consent of instructor

BIOL 191: Directed Study in Biology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

BIOL 200: Animal Behavior

A lecture and field-study course examining the principles and problems of animal behavior. Subjects include orientation, feeding, locomotion, communication, escape in time and space, biological rhythms, mate choice, and aspects of social behavior, examined from evolutionary, ontogenetic, physiological, ecological, and ethological perspectives. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 210
Prerequisite: BIOL 150

BIOL 211: Botany

An introduction to the study of plants with an emphasis on their structure, development, physiology, and diversity. Although this course is lecture-based, students will frequently interact with plants from the Lawrence University greenhouse.
Units: 6.

BIOL 221: Entomology

Topics covered will include a survey of all of the clades of insects with information on the systematics, diversity, ecology, life history, behavior and unique characteristics of each lineage. Lecture material will be augmented with required field trips to collect local species (terrestrial and aquatic) and the creation of a personal collection of species following the format as is customary for museum collections.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and sophomore standing

BIOL 222: Parasitology

Students will examine and compare the complex life cycles of a variety of parasites, including those of medical and veterinary importance. Specific topics covered within the course will include: parasite biochemistry, ecology, parasite evasion of the host immune system, host immune responses, and host behavior. The laboratory component of the course will include both live and preserved specimens.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 150

BIOL 226: Microbiology

A study of microbial life with an emphasis on prokaryotes. Microbial physiology is examined in the context of how unique characteristics allow microbes to exploit a vast diversity of environments, including the human body. Laboratory exercises introduce students to techniques used to safely study microorganisms.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 and BIOL 150, CHEM 116 recommended

BIOL 229: General Ecology (Lecture Only)

An introduction to the interactions between organisms and the environment. Explores the role of physical, chemical and biotic processes--including human activities--in determining the structure and function of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics include resource availability, competition, predation, symbiosis and natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as disease, biological invasions, pollution and climate change. Lecture only.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 229

BIOL 230: General Ecology

An introduction to the interactions between organisms and the environment. Explores the role of physical, chemical and biotic processes--including human activities--in determining the structure and function of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics include resource availability, competition, predation, symbiosis and natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as disease, biological invasions, pollution and climate change. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 220

BIOL 235: Evolutionary Biology

A study of biological evolution, including natural selection, adaptation, the evolution of sex, speciation, extinction, and constraints on evolutionary change. Reading primary literature is emphasized. Two lectures and one discussion per week.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 213
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 or ANTH 140

BIOL 240: Morphogenesis of the Vertebrates

An integrated lecture and laboratory course that undertakes the study of the structure and function of vertebrate organ systems through examination of morphology. Vertebrate ontogeny, phylogeny, and anatomy are addressed.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 150

BIOL 242: Comparative Physiology

A comparative study of the variety of solutions and adaptations diverse animals can make to similar problems — obtaining and transporting oxygen, maintaining water and salt balance, utilizing food, movement, and nervous and hormonal integration. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 150

BIOL 245: Conservation Biology

This course explores scientific concepts related to the conservation and restoration of Earth's biological diversity. Topics include patterns of species and ecosystem diversity, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, causes of extinction, assessing extinction risk, behavioral indicators, in-situ and ex-situ management strategies for endangered species, and ecosystem restoration. Lecture only.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 245
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and sophomore standing

BIOL 260: Genetics

A lecture and laboratory study of the principles of inheritance, gene expression, introductory genomics, sex determination, and the concepts of historical and modern eugenics and genetic engineering.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and BIOL 130 and BIOL 170 (or concurrent enrollment) or ANTH 140

BIOL 265: Biogeochemistry

This course explores fundamental cycles between earth's major reservoirs of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon and water. Through lecture and group presentations, students will gain a solid understanding of the fundamentals of biogeochemical cycles and the mechanism underlying the biological transformations of those elements. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 265, Geology 265
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 or GEOL 110

BIOL 310: Human Anatomy

A course in human anatomy only intended for students entering the allied health professions (e.g. nursing, PA, PT, athletic training) or forensic anthropology. Students learn detailed anatomy using full-size human models. Students are expected to learn structures of the skeletal, muscular, nervous (sensory included), circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urogenital, and endocrine systems. Emphasis is on the anatomy, particularly in the laboratory component of the course, but basic physiology is also covered.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or ANTH 140

BIOL 325: Cell Biology

Survey of the structure and function of eukaryotic cells, the basic functional unit of life. Correlation of cellular structures including organelles, proteins, and membranes with functions such as cellular communication, division, transport, movement, and secretory pathways will be analyzed. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 and BIOL 150, BIOL 170 recommended

BIOL 330: Aquatic Ecology

The principles of the ecology of fresh waters, developed through discussions, laboratory, and field investigations of the functional relationships and productivity of biotic communities as they are affected by the dynamics of physical, chemical, and biotic parameters. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 310
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 170 (or concurrent enrollment) or BIOL 230

BIOL 335: Plant Ecology

This course emphasizes core concepts in ecology and evolution from the unique perspective of plants. Students will explore the interactions between plants and their environment over a range of scales; from individuals to populations and communities. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 340
Prerequisite: BIOL 170

BIOL 340: Topics in Neuroscience

A study of the nervous system from the perspectives of psychology and biology. Topics vary year to year and may include glial cells, neural development, and the evolution of nervous systems and neurotransmitter systems. Lecture only. May be repeated when topic is different.

Topic for Spring 2019: Viral Vectors in the Central Nervous System
Viral vectors are exciting tools currently used in the field of gene therapy and in basic neuroscience research to further understand neurobiological processes. Using primary research and review articles as a basis, this course will explore the history of viral vectors, advancements in their design, the therapeutic potential of vectors for CNS disorders and the adverse effects, including biological, environmental and ethical issues, associated with them. Course format includes discussions, presentations, group work and writing assignments.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Psychology 580
Prerequisite: CHEM 116, BIOL 150, and one course in psychology; or PSYC 360 and one course in biology; or consent of instructor

BIOL 345: Terrestrial Field Ecology

A hands-on course intended to demonstrate basic ecological principles using local terrestrial ecosystems. Field research projects will introduce students to methods in hypothesis development, experimental design, data collection, statistical analysis, and scientific writing and presentation. Research topics will include estimating population size, community structure, plant-animal interactions, and foraging behavior. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 345
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 170, and sophomore standing

BIOL 354: Molecular Biology

An interdisciplinary examination of regulatory mechanisms leading to differential gene expression. Main topics include transcription, translation, gene and protein structure, and modern genomics. The application of current molecular techniques is emphasized throughout the course. Laboratory work is experimental in approach. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 and CHEM 115

BIOL 360: Introduction to Bioinformatics

An introduction to the methods and software used to analyze biological data. Through lecture and guided tutorials, students will learn the structure and organization of biological databases, explore methods for examining genomic and proteomic data sets, and examine specific case studies relating to evolution, drug discovery and human variation.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 260

BIOL 370: Human Physiology

An examination of how the body maintains homeostasis. The various physiological systems (e.g., respiratory and cardiovascular) will be studied at multiple levels of organization, from molecular and cellular to the macroscopic. This course is primarily aimed at students entering the health sciences. The course will have both lectures and a laboratory component.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 150

BIOL 380: Ecological Modeling

An integrated lecture and computer laboratory introduction to the process of developing mathematical descriptions of the interactions between components of a population, community, or ecosystem, and the use of computer simulation as a tool for understanding ecology and natural resource management. Topics include population growth, predator-prey and competitor interactions, biogeochemical cycling, and mass balance in ecosystems.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 380
Prerequisite: At least one of the following: BIOL 229, BIOL 230, BIOL 245, BIOL 330, BIOL 335 or BIOL 345

BIOL 390: Tutorial Studies in Biology

Individual investigations of problems in biology.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 391: Directed Study in Biology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

BIOL 399: Independent Study in Biology

Individual, in-depth investigation of a specific biological problem. Students contemplating an honors project should register for this course.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 420: The Geography of Life: Biodiversity in a Changing Planet

Earth is a dynamic and changing planet, comprised of tightly linked ecosystems and organisms. In this course we explore relationships between the biotic and abiotic drivers that influence the distribution of global diversity. We use large-scale datasets to develop practical skills for monitoring the responses of biodiversity to environmental change.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 420
Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and BIOL 170; preferred but not required: BIOL 230 and BIOL 235

BIOL 430: Immunology

This course will cover the basic concepts of immunology, including differentiation of immune cells, antibody structure and function, antigen-antibody reactions, the major-histocompatibility complex, the complement system, immune responses to pathogens, allergies and auto-immune diseases, and comparative immunology. The course will also examine recent advances in the field through current peer-reviewed publications. The weekly laboratory will examine the basic questions, experimental subjects, and procedures of the field.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 130, BIOL 150, and junior standing; or consent of instructor

BIOL 431: Immunology (lecture only)

This course will cover the basic concepts of immunology, including differentiation of immune cells, antibody structure and function, antigen-antibody reactions, the major-histocompatibility complex, the complement system, immune responses to pathogens, allergies and auto-immune diseases and comparative immunology. The course will also examine recent advances in the field through current peer-reviewed publications. Lecture only.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: Junior standing or consent of instructor

BIOL 434: Ecological Energetics

Field and laboratory experimental investigations of the transfer and transformation of energy or energy-containing materials between and within organisms and populations of aquatic ecosystems. Part of the Marine Biology Term. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 410
Prerequisite: BIOL 330, concurrent enrollment in BIOL 505 and 226 and consent of instructor

BIOL 444: Biochemistry I

An introduction to the study of biological processes at the molecular level with emphases on protein struction and function, enzyme mechanism and kinetics, fundamentals of physical biochemistry, and the chemistry of biological molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Chemistry 340
Prerequisite: CHEM 250 or concurrent enrollment, or consent of instructor

BIOL 450: Special Topics in Biology

A course designed to offer students an opportunity to study important issues in biology not covered in other regularly offered classes. Activities may include reading and analysis of material from primary literature, consideration of interdisciplinary connections, and field and laboratory activities.

Topic for Winter 2019: Cell Biology
Survey of the structure and function of eukaryotic cells, the basic functional unit of life. Correlation of cellular structures including organelles, proteins, and membranes with functions such as cellular communication, division, transport, movement, and secretory pathways will be analyzed. Lecture and primary literature discussions
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 and BIOL 150, or consent of instructor

BIOL 453: Developmental Biology

An experimental approach to animal development with laboratory and lecture emphasis on molecular and cellular processes of embryogenesis. Includes discussions of pattern formation, differentiation, cell interactions, gametogenesis and fertilization. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: BIOL 150; and one of the following (or concurrent enrollment): BIOL 354, BIOL 444/CHEM 340, BIOL 260, or BIOL 325

BIOL 455: Biochemistry II

A continuation of Biochemistry I. A study of biological processes at the molecular level with an emphasis on metabolic pathways, recent advances in biochemical medicine, and biochemical aspects of gene replication, protein synthesis, molecular motors, and sensing. The course is divided between lecture and discussion and will rely heavily on current biochemical literature.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Chemistry 440
Prerequisite: CHEM 340 or consent of instructor

BIOL 465: Advanced Biotechnology

An advanced course that examines the ways in which fundamental principles of biochemistry and molecular biology are transformed into technologies that revolutionize basic science, industrial processes, medicine, and agriculture. Lectures, discussions and laboratory work will focus on current primary literature and novel research questions.
Units: 6.
Prerequisite: CHEM 340, BIOL 354, or consent of instructor

BIOL 505: Coral Reef Environments

Examines the ecology of coral reef environments. Lecture, laboratory, and field components. Part of the Marine Biology Term. Lecture and laboratory.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Environmental Studies 505
Prerequisite: BIOL 330 and concurrent enrollment in BIOL 226 and BIOL 434

BIOL 570: Biological Physics

Develops and explores the physical principles underlying biological systems, with a particular emphasis on building quantitative models. Applies fundamental topics including thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity, and electrostatics to model molecular and cellular phenomena such as gene expression, virus assembly, DNA bending and stretching, and nerve impulses.
Units: 6.
Also listed as Physics 570
Prerequisite: PHYS 151, and one of PHYS 230, CHEM 252, CHEM 340, or BIOL 354

BIOL 590: Tutorial Studies in Biology

Individual investigations of problems in biology.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 591: Directed Study in Biology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

BIOL 599: Independent Study in Biology

Individual, in-depth investigation of a specific biological problem. Students contemplating an honors project should register for this course.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 600: Recent Advances in Biology Seminar

A multidisciplinary lecture series on modern biological theory and research. Students attend seminars and prepare short summaries or “reaction papers” on topics covered. Biology faculty members and visiting scientists in biological and allied fields present seminars relating their research to the broader aspects of their disciplines. Topics discussed within any academic year provide a comprehensive exposure to the current frontiers of biological research. May be repeated for a maximum of three units.
Units: 1.
Prerequisite: Senior standing and declared major in biology, or consent of instructor

BIOL 650: Biology Senior Capstone

Senior capstone in which students will benefit from direct input and feedback on their scientific writing and oral presentation skills as they complete senior experience projects and papers. Successful completion of BIOL 650 includes participation in BioFest, a symposium of biology senior experience projects during spring term.
Units: 1 OR 5.
Prerequisite: Major in biology or biochemistry, or in neuroscience with departmental approval; and senior class standing or departmental approval

BIOL 690: Tutorial Studies in Biology

Individual investigations of problems in biology.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

BIOL 691: Directed Study in Biology

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required.

BIOL 699: Independent Study in Biology

Individual, in-depth investigation of a specific biological problem. Students contemplating an honors project should register for this course.
Units: 1 TO 98.
Prerequisite: Counter Registration Required

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