Course Catalog
2017-2018

2017-2018 Course Catalog

Period: 2018-20192017-20182016-20172015-20162014-2015

This catalog was created on Monday, March 18, 2019.


Table of Contents

About Lawrence

Mission Statement

Lawrence University of Wisconsin, through its undergraduate residential college and Conservatory of Music, educates students in the liberal arts and sciences. The university is devoted to excellence and integrity in all of its activities and committed to the development of intellect and talent, the pursuit of knowledge and understanding, the cultivation of sound judgment, and respect for the perspectives of others. Lawrence prepares students for lives of achievement, responsible and meaningful citizenship, lifelong learning, and personal fulfillment. As a diverse learning community of scholars and artists, we actively foster a transformative process that emphasizes engaged learning, supported by an environment of rich educational opportunities in a residential campus setting.

Educational Philosophy

Students enter Lawrence at a time when they are actively forging their identities and seeking their places in the world. A Lawrence education is therefore transformative: We strive to help each student develop as a liberally educated person who can think deeply and creatively about ideas, gather and analyze evidence, communicate effectively, and articulate a personal identity that leads to thoughtful life choices. This transformation is supported by a learning community that immerses students in the breadth of human experience, engages ideas in a spirit of open discourse, values the uniqueness of the individual, and celebrates accomplishment. The foundation for this learning community is a vibrant, safe, and healthful residential campus that contains talented and diverse groups of students, faculty, administrators, and staff. Our residential experience is enhanced by opportunities to study abroad and to become involved in the wider community. The university values effective teaching combined with distinguished scholarship and creative activity.

We see in each student the potential to become an informed, independent thinker and concerned, responsible citizen. Lawrence students can personalize their learning through interactions with peers, professors, and staff in a wide variety of settings, both formal and informal. The process begins with our Freshman Studies program, continues through the sophomore and junior years, and ends with the Senior Experience.

Statement on Inclusion

The Faculty of Lawrence University reaffirms its commitment to fostering a diverse and welcoming learning community that embraces all members, including those marginalized by aspects of their identities. The principles of respect and inclusion are critical to our mission as an educational institution dedicated to cultivating dialogue across differences and to the development of meaningful citizenship that will meet the challenges of a complex world.

adopted February 7, 2017

Lawrence in the Community

Lawrence is part of an intellectual and creative community that includes Appleton and the Fox Valley, Lawrence's alumni, and the larger global community. We are committed to providing service to and learning from the larger community. Through such resources as Björklunden and the Academy of Music, Lawrence contributes to the vitality of the surrounding community by:

  • making available programs of cultural enrichment,
  • drawing on the knowledge and experience of members of the community in the exploration of significant issues,
  • providing opportunities for alumni to maintain a lifelong connection with the institution and each other and encouraging their continuing interest in learning, and
  • providing such educational programs as the certification as public school teachers in the state of Wisconsin.

The Liberal Arts Education

Liberal Learning

Liberal education is transformative education. It transforms individuals with intellectual and creative potential into persons ready for lives of accomplishment and fulfillment. Through liberal learning, students develop their intellect, capacity for creativity, and self-direction. Liberal learning is based on principles of open and free inquiry, a devotion to excellence, and engagement with exciting and interesting fields of knowledge. Liberal learning aims to develop analytical thinking abilities, communication skills, quantitative reasoning, and creativity. It is creativity—the capacity to create what did not exist before—that helps set us free and makes liberal education a liberating education.

Liberal learning frees us from the restraints of time and place, enabling us to grow, to change, and to respond to the new, the unforeseen, the unexpected. To be liberally educated is to live imaginatively in worlds not our own and to examine values not of our making.

A liberal education tests our ability to investigate and understand the nature of an organism, the applications of a theorem, the behavior of a crowd, the principles of a political system, the meaning of a poem, the causes of an event, the consequences of an argument, or the composition of a symphony.

Liberal education promotes diversity, skepticism, and debate. It views the world as changing, not fixed. It asks not only what, but why. It insists that we make judgments rather than have opinions; that we treat ideas seriously, not casually; that we be committed instead of indifferent.

Above all, however, a liberal education enables us to be self-directed—to choose for ourselves what we want to be and what we want to create. Lawrence students use their education for many careers—law, public service, health professions, business, teaching, science creative writing, theatre, the social sciences, and art. The liberal education that Lawrence provides is a solid foundation for all of these careers—and many more. We help you learn how to learn things you have not experienced before and create what is new, and these abilities will help you in anything you choose to do in life.

What Makes Lawrence Special?

Lawrence University places a priority on preparing students for a life of personal fulfillment and professional accomplishment and a lifetime of learning. It is the job of all Lawrentians to learn by availing themselves of those things that are truly unique to Lawrence.

Engaged Learning

Engaged Learning is that which characterizes a Lawrence education and distinguishes Lawrentians. Although students may have encountered engaged learning experiences elsewhere, at Lawrence it is the foremost attribute of every subject and every class we offer. By actively engaging in challenging and meaningful learning experiences with faculty and with one another, students will be prepared to adapt and succeed in an ever-changing world. Those who prefer to passively absorb information passed from teacher to student will find Lawrence to be a poor fit. Those who prefer instead to explore, debate, create, research, practice and perform in collaboration with others—to be an active participant in the learning experience—will find Lawrence to be an exhilarating community in which to live and thrive.

Freshman Studies

From the moment they arrive at Lawrence, new students have something in common with every other new student on campus: Freshman Studies. The cornerstone of the Lawrence curriculum for more than sixty years, each Freshman Studies class consists of no more than 15 students who explore a multidisciplinary list of books, musical works, art, and films in discussions facilitated by a professor. Students are asked not to summarize or memorize, but to think deeply and critically about each topic. The Freshman Studies course is required of all incoming students and establishes the expectation for all other classes to come, regardless of discipline. Those expectations include advanced preparation, critical thinking, active class participation, and disciplined writing. The fact that all freshmen simultaneously work through the same syllabus ensures that all new students share the excitement of liberal learning and that discussions continue well beyond the classroom. 

Björklunden

Each year, more than a thousand Lawrence students flock to the sanctuary and serenity of Björklunden, a 425-acre estate on the shore of Lake Michigan that serves as Lawrence’s “northern campus.” A place where students are encouraged to leave old assumptions behind and barriers are removed in order for students and faculty to learn from each other, Björklunden’s natural setting is the perfect backdrop for engaged learning opportunities.

Community Engagement

Keenly interested in their local and global communities, the active citizens at Lawrence reach beyond volunteerism when it’s intertwined with education. Lawrence believes community engagement is an essential ingredient in a liberal arts education and an opportunity for students to connect learning in the classroom, studio, and laboratory with real-world experiences in Appleton, the Fox Cities, and around the world.

Multi-interested

Typical is not a word one associates with Lawrentians. However, one characteristic is typical of most students arriving at Lawrence: their wide variety of interests. The Lawrence curriculum is well-suited to such students because it encourages the exploration and development of several interests, rather than focusing on just one. Lawrence’s undergraduate liberal arts college is uniquely and fully integrated with a nationally renowned conservatory of music, a place where gifted musicians might be inspired to tackle physics and math majors may learn to sing arias. Athletics are also seen as part of the educational experience as a complement to, and enhancement of, a well-rounded liberal arts education. Lawrence takes pride in its scholar-athlete tradition.

A Residential Community

Lawrence is by design a residential college. All students live on campus because we believe that a small residential community with abundant opportunities for personal interaction outside the classroom provides the proper environment for a liberal arts education. Juniors can learn from freshmen, science majors from art majors and student athletes from student musicians. Located near downtown Appleton on the banks of the Fox River, the Lawrence campus has become the cultural and intellectual heart of a vibrant, modern Midwestern city.

At the core of everything we do is a deep commitment to our mission to educate young adults in the liberal arts and sciences: developing intellect, talent, knowledge, and understanding; cultivating judgment and values; and preparing students for lives of service, achievement, leadership, personal fulfillment, and lifelong learning.

Academic Freedom Statement

Lawrence University, a liberal arts college and conservatory of music, is dedicated to the development of intellect and talent, the pursuit of knowledge and understanding, and the cultivation of critical literacy and sound judgment. To that end, members of the Lawrence community are free to engage in, speak on, and write about scholarly research and creative activity without fear of censorship or retaliation. In the classroom, laboratory, and studio, teachers must be free to teach and students free to learn; we must be free to challenge each other’s beliefs, to explore new ideas and critically examine old ones, and to listen to others without disruption. Knowledge, skill, understanding, and creative expression are acquired through interactions that are often complex and even controversial. Although these interactions may at times cause discomfort, they may not be obstructed. Intellectually honest and vibrant communities engage in complex interactions and the ability, hereby protected, to exchange ideas in a spirit of mutual respect is essential to our educational mission.

Lawrence University faculty, as well as invited speakers and performers, may express their views publicly. However, the University may restrict speech that is defamatory of character, harassing, or infringes a protected right to privacy or confidentiality.

adopted February 7, 2017

Structure of the Curriculum

The Structure of the Curriculum

The curriculum of the university is structured in three parts. For the Bachelor of Arts degree, students take about one-third of their coursework in general education, another third in their major course of study, and a final third in elective areas of study. Bachelor of Music students take about one-third of their courses in general education and the remaining two-thirds in music-related study. All courses of study begin with Freshman Studies and culminate in a Senior Experience.

Divisions within the University

Lawrence University has organized its academic departments into divisions referenced in the degree requirements. The divisions are as follows:

  • Humanities: Chinese, Classics, English, French and Francophone Studies, German, History, Japanese, Philosophy, Religious Studies, Russian, and Spanish.
  • Natural sciences: Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics and Computer Science, and Physics.
  • Social sciences: Anthropology, Economics, Education Studies, Government, and Psychology.
  • Fine arts: Art and Art History, Music, and Theatre Arts.

Interdisciplinary programs such as Biomedical Ethics, Cognitive Science, East Asian Studies, Environmental Studies, Ethnic Studies, Film Studies, Gender Studies, Global Studies, Latin American Studies, and Linguistics are non-divisional. Non-divisional and university courses may be assigned divisional affiliations when appropriate.

Freshman Studies

Entering students are enrolled in Freshman Studies, a two-course sequence specifically designed to acquaint students with the modes of inquiry characteristic of intellectual discourse at Lawrence and to improve their reading, writing, and speaking skills. The program does more than develop these basic academic skills, however. While studying distinctive works suggested by all academic divisions, students engage in critical analysis and discussion of important ideas that are timelessly relevant. Freshman Studies is both an introduction to the liberal arts and a foundation for a Lawrence education.

Transfer students may have one or both terms of Freshman Studies waived based on the amount and nature of the credit accepted from other colleges and universities towards Lawrence degrees.

General education requirements

General education ensures that Lawrence students gain familiarity with different academic disciplines and the modes of thought and expression appropriate to each, that they develop an understanding of global and domestic diversity and their impact on contemporary life, and that they develop competencies in writing/speaking, quantitative reasoning, and world languages.

Distribution

The purpose of the distribution requirement is to ensure that students graduating from Lawrence experience the breadth of study central to a liberal arts education. For that reason, students are required to take at least one course in each division: humanities, natural sciences, social sciences, and fine arts (see "Divisions within the university").  This requirement cannot be satisfied with examination credit (AP, IB, or A-levels).

Diversity

The purpose of the diversity requirements is to prepare students for an increasingly diverse American society and an increasingly interconnected world. Diversity requirements call for at least one course with a global perspective focusing on an area outside Europe and the United States (courses listed with a “G” designation in the class schedule) and one course exploring dimensions of diversity in contemporary American society (courses listed with a “D” designation in the class schedule).

Competency

Competency requirements improve fundamental skills central to a liberal arts education and include courses designated as writing intensive (W) or speaking intensive (S), as emphasizing quantitative reasoning (Q), and as leading toward proficiency in a language other than English (at the 200 level or above). Alternative ways to satisfy the language proficiency requirement are described under Academic Procedures and Regulations.

Majors

Liberal learning calls for depth as well as breadth of knowledge. The academic major gives students the opportunity to master a subject while providing the challenge and pleasure of learning something thoroughly. Students can choose to major in the academic area that best suits their interests or design their own major (see Student-initiated Courses and Programs). Students pursuing a Bachelor of Music degree also select an area of emphasis for the major in performance, music education, or theory/composition (see Conservatory of Music). All major programs share a commitment to increasing knowledge and methodological sophistication in a specific area of study, and every major includes a Senior Experience (see below) as a capstone requirement.

Elective areas of study

Many students supplement their majors with focused study in a second major, minor or interdisciplinary area; with certification to teach in pre-kindergarten through 12th grade education; or with preparation for professional study in business, law, or health careers (described under “postgraduate options” in Planning an Academic Program). Students may also take university courses on topics of interest, pursue various options for student-initiated courses, and gain firsthand experience in an off-campus program in the U.S. or abroad.

Minors and interdisciplinary areas

Minors provide an opportunity for students to do focused work in a field outside the major. Some students will combine majors and minors in closely related fields—biology and chemistry, for instance, or English and history—while others will use minors to explore subjects very different from their major areas of study. Minors are offered by almost all curricular departments of the university.

Interdisciplinary areas allow students to cross departmental or disciplinary boundaries and address issues from several perspectives. Those students who satisfy the requirements of an interdisciplinary area may have the area listed on their transcripts along with their declared majors.

Majors, minors, and interdisciplinary areas are listed alphabetically under Areas of Study.

Teacher certification

Lawrence offers certification at the elementary level (with any major), at the secondary level in most subjects (with a major in the subject area and a major or minor for any additional area) and at the elementary and secondary level (preK–12) in music, art, world languages, and English as a second language. Students may student-teach during the senior year or in a 13th term (without normal tuition charges) in the fall after graduation. Those interested in teacher certification should consult with the education department faculty at their earliest opportunity.

University courses

University courses (listed with the prefix UNIC) deal with subjects of interest and importance that are outside the purview of any given department. These include courses in additional languages, academic skills, or personal development, as well as interdisciplinary courses on contemporary concerns that cross traditional academic boundaries. Students from all disciplines may enroll in university courses.

Student-initiated courses

Student-initiated options for study are a long-standing feature of the Lawrence curriculum. Most often, students elect tutorials or independent study in order to pursue topics of interest in depth. Additional opportunities for individualized learning include academic internships, directed study, and writing for credit. Non-music majors may request private music lessons by audition or interview and with an additional fee.

Off-campus programs

Lawrence University encourages students to extend their programs of study by participating in the challenging educational and cultural experiences offered through our portfolio of off-campus programs. Lawrence operates two programs of its own, the London Centre and the Francophone Seminar in Senegal, and offers programs operated by other organizations such as the Associated Colleges of the Midwest (ACM) and the Institute for the International Education of Students (IES). These programs have been evaluated by the faculty and approved for Lawrence affiliation.

It is best to plan ahead for off-campus study when considering options for majors and minors. Interested students should make an appointment with the director of off-campus programs as early as the freshman year to explore the range of possibilities for including off-campus study in their degree program.

Senior Experience

Senior Experience is the culmination of a Lawrence education, a way for students to integrate knowledge and skills developed through years of study, demonstrate proficiency in their major fields, and develop scholarly or artistic independence. Every graduating senior produces something significant — an independent or collaborative project, major seminar paper, portfolio, performance, or exhibition — to satisfy criteria for the major set by faculty of that department or program. The Senior Experience is thus unique to each student yet universal to students across the university.

Every major listed under Areas of Study includes a description of how students can satisfy the Senior Experience requirement for that department or program. Juniors should discuss with their academic advisors how they plan to fulfill the requirement for graduation. Students pursuing studies in more than one area can propose a Senior Experience that integrates two majors or incorporates student teaching, but the proposal must be approved by both departments or programs as satisfying the requirement.

Senior Experience titles appear in the Commencement program. Graduating seniors are asked to submit their titles as part of the graduation application process. 

Academic Planning

Preparing for academic success

Students must plan ahead if they are to meet the goals of a liberal arts education. The first step toward planning is to become aware of the range of Lawrence’s curricular offerings and programs. The Course Catalog contains this information, and students should become thoroughly familiar with it. Students should discuss their academic plans regularly with their faculty advisors and, as needed, with advisors of other programs in which they have an interest.

Faculty advisors

Upon entering Lawrence, each student is assigned a faculty advisor to give advice and perspective on developing an educational program. Students who build strong relationships with their advisors will benefit most from a Lawrence education. If necessary, students may change or add advisors as they develop a close working relationship with another faculty member.

Students should have an advisor in their major field of study by the spring term of their sophomore year when they register for their junior courses. The major advisor will help them plan their coursework to satisfy requirements for the major, select courses in other areas to complement the major or satisfy personal interests, and prepare for their Senior Experience. The major advisor will also certify completion of major requirements when the student applies for graduation.

Students must have an advisor for every major. Students do not need an official advisor for a minor, interdisciplinary area, or teacher certification but are encouraged to consult with the chair or faculty in those departments or programs for advice on course selection and how to satisfy requirements.

Planning a course of study

In the first year of study, freshmen typically enroll in seven courses (two in fall, two in winter, and three in spring) in addition to the two-term Freshman Studies sequence. Freshmen should take courses that will help them plan their next three years of study: exploring possible majors and areas of interest while also trying new subjects. Students interested in math, computer science, or natural sciences should take a math sequence the first year, while students interested in the humanities, social sciences, or arts should consider a foreign language sequence. Students should also balance different types of courses each term, with no more than one lab course or intensive reading/writing course at a time. Bachelor of Music students have fewer choices in the first year since they must also take music theory and private lessons. Some majors and pre-professional programs require that specific course sequences be started in the freshman year. And students may want to look ahead to off-campus programs and learn when these programs are offered and what, if any, coursework is required to participate in them.

In the second year of study, sophomores continue to sample a variety of disciplines and satisfy general education requirements as they work toward declaring a major and finding an advisor in their major department who can help them plan their final two years of study. At this point, students might begin to pursue a minor, interdisciplinary area, or teacher certification. Finally, the sophomore year is an excellent time to plan for off-campus study (often undertaken in the junior year), to explore possible internships or summer research that places learning in context, and to begin considering postgraduate options such as graduate study, professional study, or the start of a career.

In the third and fourth years of study, juniors and seniors complete coursework for the major and any minor, interdisciplinary area, or teacher certification. They may pursue experiential learning through off-campus study, internships, or summer research. All students plan and carry out a Senior Experience to integrate what they have learned in their Lawrence education.

While planning is essential, it need not be rigid. Interests that students express on arrival at Lawrence often change as a result of exposure to new and different areas of study. This is why students are encouraged to explore the curriculum during the first year of study and need not declare a major until later in the sophomore year.

Course numbering

Lawrence courses are numbered at four different levels: introductory (100-199), foundation/gateway (200-399), advanced (400-599), and capstone (600-699). Freshmen select courses mostly at the introductory level, though some foundation/gateway courses can be taken without prerequisites or with advanced placement credit.

Introductory courses (100–199): Introductory courses generally do not require prior study unless they are part of a sequence, such as introductory language or mathematics courses. This level includes courses introducing students to the discipline as well as any topical courses aimed at non-majors.

Foundation/gateway courses (200–399): Foundation/gateway courses represent the second tier of work in each discipline and might include methods courses and introductions to sub-disciplines. Typically these courses are not appropriate for entering freshmen, but in some departments they might be appropriate for continuing students with no prior experience in the subject.

Advanced courses (400–599): Advanced courses include seminar series, special-topics courses and advanced work in sub-disciplines. Students enrolling in advanced courses are expected to understand the basic methodology of the discipline.

Capstone courses (600–699): Capstone courses include the culminating work in a discipline that is typically part of a Senior Experience. They are not appropriate for students who are neither majors nor minors in the discipline.

It is the responsibility of the student to satisfy any prerequisites listed for specific courses. Faculty members may refuse to admit any student who has not satisfied listed prerequisites.

Course credit

A standard course at Lawrence is valued at 6 units. A normal course load for a term is three standard courses (18 units), and a total of 36 standard courses (216 units) is required for a Lawrence degree. Music ensembles are valued at 1 unit per term, and there are some other courses that carry fewer than 6 units. For more information about course loads and how to translate Lawrence units into semester or quarter hours, please see Academic Procedures and Regulations.

Postgraduate considerations

Career planning

Career Services offers a wide range of services to all Lawrentians—undergraduates and graduates alike. These include individual career counseling to assist in identifying career interests and skills, as well as assistance in developing internships and summer employment. Career Services participates in job and internship fairs and on-campus and off-campus recruiting opportunities. The department offers workshops and seminars to increase career awareness and to improve job-search skills. It also collects and publicizes information on specific job and internship opportunities. Students are urged to attend Career Services events as early as the freshman year to begin developing career plans and internship opportunities.

Graduate study

Students can discuss options for postgraduate study with any faculty member. In addition, students interested in graduate and professional schools will find a variety of valuable resources in Career Services. Students can research information on specific schools and programs, on graduate and professional school entrance examinations and on financial aid.

Professional study

Lawrence strongly believes that liberal education—with its emphasis on skills of analysis and communication, on breadth of knowledge, and on the ability to pursue knowledge of one area in depth—affords the best preparation for rigorous professional study. Since these attributes of liberal education can be developed and nurtured regardless of a student’s area of concentration, in most cases Lawrence does not prescribe fixed courses of study for students with pre-professional interests.

At the same time, we recognize that some professional programs and schools require specific preparation at the undergraduate level. Students should consult with the Coordinator for Pre-Professional Advising and Major Fellowships, who will arrange for them to meet with a faculty advisor and guide them through the process of preparing for and applying for professional study.

Pre-Business

Advisor: Adam Galambos

Students who plan to undertake postgraduate study in business—in most cases a program leading to a master’s degree in business administration—normally are advised to supplement the major of their choice and the university’s General Education Requirements with coursework in mathematics, as well as statistics, economics and computer science. In addition, they should pay particular attention to the development of writing skills.

Pre-Law

Advisory Committee: David Gerard (chair), Minoo Adenwalla, Andy Guenther-Pal, Jerry Podair

Legal studies require strong analytic skills, a knowledge of society and the ability to communicate effectively. Students planning to attend law school normally are advised to supplement the major of their choice and the university’s General Education Requirements with some coursework in philosophy and the theoretical and analytic aspects of their field of concentration, as well as coursework in the social sciences.

Health Careers

Advisory Committee: Doug Martin (chair), Matt Ansfield, Steffan Debbert, Elizabeth De Stasio, Nancy Wall

The Health Careers Advisory Committee works closely with students as they apply to medical schools and other programs to prepare for health science and allied health careers. It provides guidance in the selection of schools, in developing applications, in the preparation for interviews and in planning for medical school admissions testing.

Students who plan to attend medical school may concentrate in the field or fields of their greatest interest. Medical schools do, however, require considerable work in the natural sciences, including biology, chemistry and physics, as well as English. Members of the Health Careers Advisory Committee are available to help students select courses that will meet the requirements of medical schools and at the same time provide a broad liberal education.

Lawrence offers a number of programs designed to familiarize students with the nature of medical education and practice. These programs include workshops, discussions with local physicians and opportunities to observe, under the supervision of local practitioners, various aspects of the medical profession. The college also sponsors Mielke and Kasel Summer Internship Grants. The former provides opportunities to study medical problems in the Fox Valley, and the latter offers internships in biomedical ethics, health economics and medical humanities.

Degree Requirements

Residence Requirements

To qualify for a Lawrence University B.A. or B.Mus. degree, students are required to have a minimum of six terms in residence and earn 108 units (Lawrence foreign study programs, Associated Colleges of the Midwest programs, and other special arrangements under Lawrence sponsorship included). Nine terms in residence and 162 units are required for the five-year B.A. and B.Mus. double-degree program.

Students must be in residence on the Appleton campus until they have completed the Freshman Studies requirement.

The last three terms of work and a minimum of 54 units submitted for the graduation requirements must be done in residence unless a department (or departments, or advisory committee, where appropriate) previously has certified completion of the requirements for a major. This requirement, or one of its parts, may be waived by the admissions office in the case of incoming transfer students or by the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration in any other cases.

December Term is not counted as part of the residence requirement for a Lawrence degree.

Bachelor of Arts Degree

Students seeking the Bachelor of Arts degree will complete approximately one-third of their work in each of three areas: Freshman Studies and general education, a major, and elective study. The Freshman Studies and general education requirements are designed to promote the breadth of study central to a liberal arts education, perspective on issues critical to a diverse America and an interconnected world, and the development of skills essential for success in any discipline or profession. The completion of a major provides focused, in-depth work in a single discipline. Elective study affords students opportunities to develop secondary interests, work in areas complementary to their primary discipline, or explore new fields of study.

Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts Degree

  1. Completion of 216 units. Of the 216 units required for the degree, a student must present:
    1. a minimum of 72 units from courses numbered 200 or above
    2. no more than 162 units from a single division
    3. no more than 90 units from a single department, except that in the art department a student may present no more than 126 units, no more than 90 of which may be in studio art and no more than 90 of which may be in art history.
    4. no more than 42 units in education
    5. no more than 18 units in ESL courses
    6. no more than 12 units from academic internships
  2. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies
  3. Completion of the general education requirements:
    1. Distribution, in order to gain exposure to a range of disciplines, subjects, and perspectives within the liberal arts:
      1. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of humanities. All courses in the humanities taught in English will count toward this requirement. Humanities courses taught in a language other than English and numbered 300 and above will count toward this requirement, except as noted in the course catalog.
      2. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of fine arts
      3. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of social sciences
      4. 6 units selected from laboratory courses in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics in the division of natural sciences
      See divisions within the university under Structure of the Curriculum.
    2. Diversity, in order to prepare students for a more global world and a more diverse America:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as focusing on dimensions of diversity, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, that are of particular importance in understanding contemporary society in the United States
    3. Competency, in order to improve and reinforce those fundamental abilities central to a liberal arts education:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive or 6 units selected from courses designated as speaking intensive
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as emphasizing mathematical reasoning or quantitative analysis
      3. 6 units in a language other than English taken from courses numbered 200 or above and taught primarily in that language. The language competency requirement may be satisfied in other ways described under Academic Procedures and Regulations.
  4. Completion of a major—departmental, interdisciplinary, or student-designed—including all course and non-course requirements, such as departmental examinations, research projects and presentations, portfolios, etc. Students are required to declare a major by the beginning of the junior year.
  5. Completion of the designated Senior Experience course or activity within the chosen major.
  6. An academic record that meets the following standards:
    1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses
    2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the college major (all courses taken in the major department and any required courses outside the major department)
  7. Completion of the required terms and units in residence as specified by the university residence requirements.

Stipulations pertaining to the general education requirements

Qualified courses may count toward the requirements in any two of the categories above (distribution, diversity, and competency). Some courses may meet two requirements within a category. No single course can be used to fulfill more than two requirements.

Credits granted pursuant to university policy for examinations (Lawrence Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), or A-levels) may be used as appropriate to fulfill diversity or competency requirements only (see also Evaluation of Credit for Transfer Students).

Bachelor of Music Degree

The Bachelor of Music is a professional degree. Courses in music represent approximately two-thirds of the curriculum, while one-third is devoted to Freshman Studies and general education requirements.

In addition to academic policies and regulations, students in the conservatory are subject to policies and procedures detailed in conservatory department guidelines and the Conservatory Student Handbook.

Admission to the Degree

An entrance audition is required of all applicants for admission to the Bachelor of Music degree. Bachelor of Arts students who wish to become Bachelor of Music students must petition the Conservatory Committee on Administration for admission. Bachelor of Music students who wish to become Bachelor of Arts students must petition the University Faculty Subcommittee on Administration for acceptance into the Bachelor of Arts degree program. Such changes are not normally allowed before the end of the freshman year nor later than the beginning of the junior year.

Degree Requirements

  1. Completion of a minimum of 216 units. The following music courses are used in the computation of the degree grade-point average but are excluded from the total of 216 units required for the degree: MURP 201, 202, 203, 301, 302 and MUTH 161, 162, 171, 172.
  2. Of the 216 units required to complete the degree, a student must present:
    1. a minimum of 144 units in music
    2. a minimum of 60 units in courses other than music
    3. no more than 18 units in ESL courses
    4. no more than 12 units from academic internships
    The additional 12 units may be selected from any department.
  3. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies
  4. Completion of the general education requirements:
    1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive
    2. International diversity. One of the following:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States
      2. 12 units selected from courses numbered below 200 in a single language other than English. The language competency requirement may be satisfied in other ways described under Academic Procedures and Regulations.
      3. Participation for one term in a Lawrence or affiliated off-campus study program held outside the United States
      Note: While some music courses may satisfy general education requirements, a minimum of 60 units in courses other than music is required for the degree.
  5. Completion of music core requirements:
    1. Music theory
      1. MUTH 151, 161, 171 or MUTH 201, 211, 221
      2. MUTH 152, 162, 172 or MUTH 202, 212, 222
      3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
      4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
      5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
    2. Musicology
      1. MUCO 201 and 202
      2. 12 units selected from courses in musicology numbered 400 or above
    3. Keyboard skills: MURP 201, 202, 203 or MURP 301, 302
    4. Applied music individual instruction as specified under requirements for the major and areas of emphasis
    5. Ensemble study: a minimum of 12 units. Students are required to participate in an ensemble every term in which they are attending classes on the Appleton campus. Requirements for specific types of ensemble study (MUEN) are specified under requirements for majors and areas of emphasis.
  6. Completion of a major in music—performance, music education, theory/composition, or student-designed—including all course and non-course requirements, such as recitals, qualifying examinations, etc.
  7. An academic record that meets the following standards:
    1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses
    2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the music major (all music courses and non-music courses required for the major) unless otherwise specified under the major requirements
  8. Completion of required terms and units in residence as specified by the residence requirements.

Stipulations pertaining to the general education requirements

A single course may be used to satisfy both requirement a. (writing intensive) and b. (international diversity) above. Credits granted pursuant to university policy for advanced placement or for transfer work may be used to fulfill general education requirement (see also Evaluation of Credit for Transfer Students).

Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Music Degree

Professional study in music and study in the liberal arts may be combined in a five-year program leading to both Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Arts degrees, the latter with a major other than music. Both degrees are awarded at the conclusion of the five-year program. Interested students should discuss this possibility with their advisors as early as possible.

Approximately half of the curriculum is devoted to the study of music—completion of the music core and requirements for a major in performance, music education, or theory/composition. The other half of the curriculum mirrors that of the Bachelor of Arts program, emphasizing breadth of study central to a liberal arts education, focused study in the college major, and elective study to complement other work or explore other fields of interest.

Certain majors in the Bachelor of Arts degree program (for example, some laboratory sciences) may be difficult to combine with the Bachelor of Music degree program into a five-year double-degree program, especially if the student’s objective is to maintain serious options for graduate or professional work in both areas after graduation. Such combinations may require that course overloads be taken to complete minimum requirements in each major in a timely and satisfactory manner. Early and regular consultation with advisors in both the college and the conservatory is imperative. Further, students who seek certification for purposes of teaching a subject other than music are urged to see the associate dean of the conservatory and the director of teacher education.

In addition to academic policies and regulations, students in the conservatory are subject to policies and procedures detailed in conservatory department guidelines and the conservatory student handbook.

Requirements for the five-year Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Music Degrees

  1. Completion of a minimum of 15 terms of study and 270 units. December Term does not count as a term toward this requirement. Of the 270 units required, a student must present:
    1. a minimum of 144 units in music, exclusive of MURP 201, 202, 203, 301, 302 and MUTH 161, 162, 171, 172
    2. a minimum of 114 units selected from courses other than music
    3. no more than 42 units from courses in education
    4. no more than 18 units in ESL courses
    5. a minimum of 72 units from courses numbered 200 and above
    6. no more than 90 units from a single department outside of music, except that in the art department a student may present no more than 126 units, no more than 90 of which may be in art and no more than 90 of which may be in art history
    7. no more than 12 units from academic internships
  2. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies.
  3. Completion of the general education requirements:
    1. Distribution, in order to gain exposure to a range of disciplines, subjects, and perspectives within the liberal arts:
      1. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of humanities. All courses in the humanities taught in English will count toward this requirement. Humanities courses taught in a language other than English and numbered 300 and above also will count toward this requirement, except as noted in the course catalog.
      2. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of fine arts
      3. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of social sciences
      4. 6 units selected from laboratory courses in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics in the division of natural sciences
      See divisions within the university under Structure of the Curriculum.
    2. Diversity, in order to prepare students for a more global world and a more diverse America:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as focusing on dimensions of diversity, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, that are of particular importance in understanding contemporary society in the United States
    3. Competency, in order to improve and reinforce those fundamental abilities central to a liberal arts education:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive or 6 units selected from courses designated as speaking intensive
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as emphasizing mathematical reasoning or quantitative analysis
      3. 6 units in a language other than English taken from courses numbered 200 or above and taught primarily in a language other than English. The language competency requirement may be satisfied in other ways described under Academic Procedures and Regulations.
  4. Completion of a college major—departmental, interdisciplinary, or student-designed—exclusive of music, including all course and non-course requirements, such as departmental examinations, research projects and presentations, portfolios, etc. Students are required to declare a major by the beginning of the junior year.
  5. Completion of music core requirements:
    1. Music Theory
      1. MUTH 151, 161, 171 or MUTH 201, 211, 221
      2. MUTH 152, 162, 172 or MUTH 202, 212, 222
      3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
      4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
      5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
    2. Musicology
      1. MUCO 201 and 202
      2. 12 units selected from courses in musicology numbered 400 or above
    3. Keyboard skills: MURP 201, 202, 203 or MURP 301, 302
    4. Applied music individual instruction as specified under requirements for the major and areas of emphasis
    5. Ensemble study: a minimum of 12 units. Students are required to participate in an ensemble every term in which they are attending classes on the Appleton campus. Requirements for specific types of ensemble study (MUEN) are specified under requirements for majors and areas of emphasis.
    6. Completion of a major in music—performance, music education, theory/composition, or student-designed—including all course and non-course requirements, such as recitals, qualifying examinations, etc.
    7. Completion of a designated Senior Experience course or activity within the chosen majors for each degree.
    8. An academic record that meets the following standards:
      1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses
      2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the music major (all music courses and non-music courses required for the major) unless otherwise specified under the major requirements
    9. Completion of required terms and units in residence as specified by the university residence requirements.

Stipulations pertaining to the general education requirements

Qualified courses may count toward the requirements in any two of the categories above (distribution, diversity, and competency). Some courses may meet two requirements within a category. No single course can be used to fulfill more than two requirements. Credits granted pursuant to university policy for examinations (Lawrence Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), or A-levels) may be used as appropriate to fulfill diversity or competency requirements only.

Cooperative Programs

A liberal arts education provides excellent preparation for careers in a variety of professions. For this reason, several professional schools have contracted with Lawrence for cooperative programs that enable students to build a foundation in the liberal arts and then acquire specific professional skills. These programs lead, in most cases, to the awarding of two degrees.

The Lawrence cooperative programs listed below generally provide for students to study at Lawrence for three years and then transfer to a professional school for two more years. To qualify for a Lawrence degree in these programs, students must earn 162 units and fulfill all other degree requirements that cannot be met in the professional school. Students must undertake careful planning with the professional advisors and with their own faculty advisors to make sure all requirements will be completed satisfactorily.

Engineering

Program advisor: Jeff Collett
Students wishing to combine a liberal arts program with professional training in engineering or computer science may want to choose the 3-2 program in engineering, which involves three years of study at Lawrence University and two years of study at an engineering school. Lawrence has formal affiliations with Columbia University (New York, New York), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, New York), and Washington University (St. Louis, Missouri), but students may transfer to any accredited engineering school with the agreement of the chosen institution. Upon satisfactory completion of the five-year program, these students will receive the Bachelor of Arts degree from Lawrence as well as a Bachelor of Engineering degree from the professional school they have attended. To prepare for the transfer to an engineering school, students must include among their courses basic mathematics (normally MATH 140, 150, 160, and 210), computer science (CMSC 110 or 150), introductory chemistry (CHEM 115 and 116), introductory physics with calculus (PHYS 141 & 151, or 151 & 160), and six courses (36 units) in humanities and social sciences. Many of these courses also will figure in the student’s major at Lawrence. Because specific requirements vary slightly among the engineering schools, students contemplating the 3-2 program should consult early with the program advisor.

Forestry and Environmental Studies

Program advisor: Bart De Stasio
The college offers a cooperative program with Duke University in the areas of environmental science and forestry. Upon satisfactory completion of this five-year program, spending three years at Lawrence and two at Duke’s School of the Environment, the student will receive the B.A. degree from Lawrence and the professional degree Master of Forestry or Master of Environmental Management from Duke.

The major emphases at Duke are in forest resource production, resource ecology, resource policy and economics, water and air resources, and ecotoxicology. An undergraduate major in natural sciences, social sciences, or pre-engineering is good preparation for the programs at Duke, but a student with any undergraduate concentration will be considered for admission. The student must complete a total of 48 units at Duke, which generally takes four semesters. The student must complete 162 units at Lawrence and fulfill all other requirements that cannot be completed at Duke. All students contemplating this cooperative program should plan to take work in ecology, economics, and statistics at Lawrence before matriculating at Duke.

Some students may prefer to complete the bachelor’s degree before undertaking graduate study at Duke. The master’s degree requirements for these students are the same as those for students entering after the junior year, but the 48-unit requirements may be reduced for relevant, already completed undergraduate work of satisfactory quality. All credit reductions are determined individually and consider both the student’s educational background and objectives.

Occupational Therapy

Program advisor: Gerald Metalsky
Lawrence offers a 3-2 program in occupational therapy in conjunction with the School of Medicine of Washington University, St. Louis. Students spend three years of study at Lawrence and then continue for five semesters and two summers in the occupational therapy program at Washington University. After two semesters of successful study at Washington University, Lawrence awards the Bachelor of Arts degree. The student then continues for three more semesters and two summers at Washington University to earn the Master of Science in Occupational Therapy degree. Students who complete this program are prepared to address the prevention and treatment of physical or mental dysfunctions that impair people’s abilities to perform activities of daily life. Occupational therapists focus on the methods that permit individuals to engage in meaningful life activities. They also assist in modifying environments that make it possible for individuals to function at home, at work, and in the community.

Lawrence students apply to the occupational therapy program of the School of Medicine, Washington University during the fall of the junior year and must meet the entrance requirements established by the occupational therapy program. The Washington University School of Medicine is one of the finest in the country, and the occupational therapy program is competitive. A 3.25 Lawrence grade-point average is a minimum requirement but does not guarantee admission. Students who are admitted may apply for financial aid provided by Washington University.

To complete the occupational therapy program, students must complete 162 units at Lawrence, meet General Education Requirements, and fulfill all requirements for a Lawrence major. Students also must fulfill the prerequisite course requirements for occupational therapy, as follows: BIOL 130, 150, and 242; one additional biology course (6 units) numbered 200 or above; one additional science course (6 units) chosen from physics, chemistry, biology, or neuroscience; PSYC 250 and 260; one course (6 units) chosen from among PHIL 100, PHIL 120, PHIL 320, PHIL 440, ECON 290, or GOV 495; two additional courses (12 units) chosen from the social sciences; and MATH 107. Completing Lawrence requirements and the prerequisite requirements will require careful planning, which must begin early in the Lawrence career. Students interested in this program should talk with their faculty advisors not later than the beginning of the sophomore year. Students should coordinate their plans with Students should coordinate their plans with the program advisor as well.

More detailed information about the program, requirements for admission, and how to apply can be found at http://www.ot.wustl.edu/education/masters-msot/application-process-and-requirements-138.

Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humanity in all its cultural, biological, linguistic, and historical diversity. A synthesis of scientific and humanistic concerns and methods, it attempts to distinguish universal human characteristics from those unique to individual social groups, and to understand the reasons for differences between individuals and groups.

The insights of anthropology are essential for a critical understanding of the problems of the contemporary world. Anthropology informs a public confronted with choices to be made with respect to changing value systems; competing social goals; ethnic, religious, class, gender, and race relations; new and emerging technologies; environmental and cultural resources management; changing paradigms of health, wellness, and disease; linguistic diversity; and international relations.

Anthropology offers both unique theoretical perspectives and a particular set of methodological approaches. The faculty considers it essential that we educate our students in both. Students should take away from their studies a substantive knowledge of the commonalities and differences in human experiences and also an understanding of how that knowledge is obtained and evaluated.

The anthropology major thus prepares students for successful entry into any number of professional and graduate programs, as well as careers that require a multicultural approach and perspective. Our mission is to represent anthropology appropriately at Lawrence and in the wider communities within which we live and work, and to educate others wherever and whenever possible with the insights that anthropology has to offer.

The anthropology department at Lawrence includes a range of courses and opportunities for guided independent study from the complementary perspectives of archaeology, biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and ethnology. Faculty members provide expertise in a number of ethnographic areas, including North and West Africa, India, East Asia, the Middle East, and North America. Topical interests include archaeological methods, refugee communities, medical anthropology, linguistic anthropology, biological anthropology, and museum studies. The department maintains two well-equipped laboratories, as well as collections of archaeological and ethnographic materials from many culture areas. The department holds a full suite of geophysical equipment for non-invasive archaeology and also provides equipment for audio and video data collection and transcription to support research in the cultural and linguistic anthropology subfields.

Required core courses for the anthropology major

  1. The following introductory courses:
    1. ANTH 110: Cultural Anthropology
    2. ANTH 120: World Prehistory
    3. ANTH 140: Biological Anthropology
  2. ANTH 200: History of Anthropological Ideas (Students are expected to complete this course during their sophomore year and no later than the end of their junior year.)
  3. ANTH 501: Research Questions in Anthropology
  4. ANTH 601: Research Design in Anthropology
  5. Completion of the requirements for one of the tracks listed below.

Required for the anthropology major: cultural anthropology and general track

  1. Students are expected to complete the following methods courses during their sophomore year and no later than the end of their junior year:
    1. ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology
    2. ANTH 210: Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology
  2. Four six-unit elective courses in anthropology, including at least one upper-division seminar (courses numbered in the 500s). (Anthropology majors are urged to take several of these seminars in their junior and senior years.)

 

Required for the anthropology major: linguistic anthropology track

  1. Students are expected to complete the following methods courses by the end of their sophomore year:
    1. ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology
    2. ANTH 210: Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology
  2. ANTH 330: Language and Culture or ANTH 331: Introduction to Sociolinguistics (sophomore year)
  3. ANTH 430: Methods in Linguistic Anthropology (junior year)
  4. ANTH 530: Topics in Linguistic Anthropology or ANTH 531: Semiotics
  5. One additional six-unit elective course in anthropology

Note: All required courses in the linguistic anthropology track also apply towards completion of the cultural anthropology track.

Required for the anthropology major: archaeology track

  1. Students are expected to complete the following methods courses during their sophomore year and no later than the end of their junior year:
    1. ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology
    2. ANTH 220: Research Methods in Archaeology or another approved field experience
    3. ANTH 222: Historic Preservation Theory and Practice
  2. Six units of ANTH 422: Archaeological Collections Management
  3. Three six-unit elective courses in anthropology, including ANTH 520: Topics in Archaeology or a related 500-level seminar.

Required for the anthropology major: biological anthropology track

  1. BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms
  2. BIOL 150: Integrative Biology: Organisms to Ecosystems
  3. ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology or BIOL 170: Integrative Biology: Experimental Design and Analysis. ANTH 210 is recommended for students pursuing an interest in biocultural anthropology via the biological anthropology track. Students are expected to complete this requirement during their sophomore year and no later than the end of their junior year.
  4. Three six-unit elective courses in anthropology, including ANTH 540: Topics in Biological Anthropology.
  5. Three six-unit courses in biology, chemistry, geology, mathematics, or physics, at least two of which must be biology courses numbered 200 or above and at least one of which must be a laboratory course.

Required for the anthropology minor

  1. Two of the following courses:
    • ANTH 110: Cultural Anthropology
    • ANTH 120: World Prehistory
    • ANTH 140: Biological Anthropology
  2. Three six-unit electives in anthropology, selected from courses numbered 200 and above, except ANTH 501 or 601
  3. One six-unit upper-division seminar (courses numbered in the 500s)
  4. C average in the minor

Teacher Certification in Social Studies

Anthropology majors can seek certification to teach social studies at the secondary level. For certification in broad-field social studies, students must complete the major and a minimum of two courses each in two other social studies (economics, government/political science, history, or psychology) and at least one course in each of the remaining social studies. Students are strongly encouraged to take a course in U.S. history and a course in global history. A course in environmental studies is also required. Students can seek endorsement to teach English as a second language by completing the Teaching ESL minor in linguistics. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Anthropology

The Department of Anthropology's Senior Experience is a two-course sequence which marks the culmination of a four-year series of core courses designed to develop the student's abilities to reason and practice as an anthropologist. Students begin their study of anthropology with a three-course introductory sequence, and move on in their sophomore year to a three-course theory and methods sequence. After further exploration of their specific interests within anthropology through elective courses and off-campus study, students continue their development with ANTH 501, which introduces them to the process of formulating research questions. In their senior year students take ANTH 601, which provides students the opportunity to reflect upon and synthesize what they have learned in the anthropology program by designing a focused research project. These projects are presented to the anthropology faculty and student majors during a formal symposium at the end of the Winter Term.

Studio Art

An integral part of a liberal arts curriculum, the courses of the art and art history department encourage aesthetic awareness and appreciation by emphasizing the interdependence of art-making, art history, and other creative and intellectual fields. A major is offered in either studio art or art history, and certification for teaching K-12 is available in conjunction with the studio art major. A student may complete a double major in studio art and art history by fulfilling the requirements for each major. Students planning to major in studio art and/ or art history should take the introductory 100-level courses required for the major in their freshman and sophomore years. Students may take a maximum of 126 units in the art and art history department, provided that no more than 90 are in either studio art or art history.

Required for the studio art major

  1. A minimum of nine studio art courses (54 units) to include:
    1. ART 100 and 110
    2. One two-dimensional and one three-dimensional course (6 units each) at the 200 level
    3. At least four courses (24 units) numbered 300 or above, of which at least one (6 units) must be numbered 500 or above
    4. ART 600: Senior Seminar
  2. A grouping of works in the senior exhibition
  3. Two Art History courses (12 units) to include:
    1. ARHI 100 or 102
    2. One ARHI course (6 units) with an emphasis on 20th century or contemporary art

Required for the studio art minor

  1. A minimum of six studio art courses (36 units) to include:
    1. ART 100 and 110
    2. One course (6 units) numbered 500 or above
    3. Three additional courses (18 units)
  2. A grouping of works in the senior exhibition
  3. C average in the minor

Teacher certification in art (K-12)

Studio art majors may seek certification to teach art in grades K-12. Required art courses for certification include ART 200, 240, 250, and 585, and ARHI 100 and 102. These courses may be taken in conjunction with or in addition to the studio art major requirements. Additional recommended courses to expand knowledge of media and processes are ART 220, 230, and 270. Students can add an endorsement for a second area (such as English as a second language) by completing the appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should notify their advisor, review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog, and meet with the director of teacher education as soon as possible, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Studio Art

The studio art Senior Experience consists of two separate yet complementary components: ART 600: Senior Seminar (usually offered Term II) and participation in the Senior Exhibition, held annually in the Wriston Galleries near the end of Term III.

Both aspects of the studio art Senior Experience are intended to be a culmination of the practical and conceptual art-making skills developed through the studio art program. Designed to inform one another, both serve to encourage a more refined awareness and understanding of current issues pertinent to contemporary art along with the applied skills and critical thinking processes necessary for success either in graduate school or as a professional visual artist.

Art History

An integral part of a liberal arts curriculum, the courses of the art and art history department encourage aesthetic awareness and appreciation by emphasizing the interdependence of art-making, art history, and other creative and intellectual fields. A major is offered in either studio art or art history, and certification for teaching K-12 is available in conjunction with the studio art major. A student may complete a double major in studio art and art history by fulfilling the requirements for each major. Students planning to major in studio art and/ or art history should take the introductory 100-level courses required for the major in their freshman and sophomore years. Students may take a maximum of 126 units in the art and art history department, provided that no more than 90 are in either studio art or art history.

Required for the art history major

  1. A minimum of 9 art history courses (54 units) to include:
    1. ARHI 100 and 102
    2. One 200- or 300-level course (6 units each) in each of the following periods or areas:
      • Ancient
      • East Asian
      • Medieval and Renaissance
      • Modern and Contemporary
    3. One 400 level course (6 units)
    4. ARHI 680: Senior Seminar
    5. Two additional art history courses (12 units)
  2. One course in studio art (6 units)

Required for the art history minor

  1. A minimum of six art history courses (36 units) to include:
    1. ARHI 100 and 102
    2. Three courses at the 200 or 300 level (6 units each) to be taken from at least two of the following periods or areas:
      • Ancient
      • East Asian
      • Medieval and Renaissance
      • Modern and Contemporary
    3. One 400-level course (6 units)
  2. C average in the minor

Recommendations

Art history majors are urged to coordinate with their studies participation in one of Lawrence’s international off-campus programs or the program at the Newberry Library in Chicago.

Art history majors, particularly those considering graduate studies, are strongly encouraged to begin the study of German and/or French in the freshman or sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Art History

The art history Senior Experience consists of ARHI 680: Senior Seminar, taken during the senior year. Students pursuing double majors and double degrees are encouraged to consult in advance with the art history faculty if they are interested in pursuing a research topic in ARHI 680 that integrates their interests in both majors.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of biological phenomena at the molecular level. Specifically, the scientific principles explored in chemistry and physics are related to the biology of organisms or communities of organisms. Although scientists have been fascinated with the molecules that compose living organisms for more than 200 years, biochemistry was finally recognized as a discipline at the beginning of the 20th century, as scientists strove to understand nutrition and metabolism in the context of human disease. Modern biochemistry is a vast subject that has applications to medicine, dentistry, agriculture, forensics, toxicology, pharmacy, anthropology, environmental science, and other fields.

Biochemistry is a dynamic and highly technical field. A degree in biochemistry presents students with many options for careers or advanced study. The biochemistry major will prepare students for graduate study in biochemistry (or related biomedical fields such as bacteriology, molecular biology, or immunology) as well as for many pre-professional programs of study, such as forensic science or pharmacy.

The biochemistry curriculum includes a strong foundation in the basic sciences, core courses central to the field, and electives that enable students to explore aspects of biochemistry in sub-fields of their choice. Most courses include an intensive laboratory experience, supported by equipment in biology, chemistry, and physics. Experimental work becomes progressively more sophisticated and creative in advanced courses as students gain insight to the primary literature and cutting-edge laboratory techniques. Students are strongly encouraged to engage in summer research, either in an academic setting—at Lawrence or another institution—or in industry.

The vision of a biochemistry Senior Experience is best described by a report by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College. A biochemistry major at graduation should be an “intentional learner who can adapt to new environments, integrate knowledge from different sources, and continue learning throughout their life. They should also become empowered learners through the mastery of intellectual and practical skills by learning to effectively communicate orally, and in writing; understand and employ quantitative and qualitative analysis to solve problems; interpret and evaluate information from a variety of sources; understand and work within complex systems; demonstrate intellectual agility and the ability to manage change; transform information into knowledge and knowledge into judgment and action.” Biochemistry majors can attain these skills in either the Biology or Chemistry Senior Experience course sequences.

Required for the Biochemistry Major

Required Foundation Courses

  1. CHEM 116: Principles of Chemistry
  2. CHEM 250: Organic Chemistry I
  3. BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms
  4. Either:
    • MATH 140: Calculus I, or
    • MATH 120 and 130: Applied Calculus I and II
  5. One of the following:
    • BIOL 170: Experimental Design and Analysis
    • CHEM 210: Analytic Chemistry
    • Statistics in the math department over the 200 level
  6. PHYS 141: Principles of Classical, Relativistic and Quantum Mechanics
  7. PHYS 151: Principles of Classical Physics
  8. Senior Experience Courses — Please see description in the respective departmental portions of the course catalog
    Either:
    1. CHEM 380 (1 unit S/U)
    2. CHEM 480 (2 units S/U)
    3. CHEM 680 (3 units S/U)
    -OR-
    1. BIOL 650 (5 units and 1 unit)
    2. Fall and Spring Terms BIOL 600 or equivalent (1 unit S/U each)

Required Core Courses

  1. BIOL 354: Molecular Biology
  2. CHEM 340: Biochemistry I (cross-listed as BIOL 444)
  3. CHEM 440: Biochemistry II or BIOL 465: Advanced Biotechnology
  4. Elective Courses (Students must choose three courses from the list below, including at least one CHEM and one BIOL. One of the three must be a laboratory class)
    • Biology courses:
      • BIOL 226: Microbiology
      • BIOL 235: Evolutionary Biology
      • BIOL 325: Cell Biology
      • BIOL 340: Topics in Neuroscience (also PSYC 580)
      • BIOL 360: Introduction to Bioinformatics
      • BIOL 430: Immunology or BIOL 431: Immunology (lecture only)
      • BIOL 450: Special Topics with advisor permission
      • BIOL 453: Developmental Biology
      • BIOL 510: Modern Concepts of Embryogenesis
      • BIOL 520: Cancer Biology
    • Chemistry courses:
      • CHEM 210: Analytical Chemistry
      • CHEM 252: Organic Chemistry II
      • CHEM 320: Inorganic Chemistry
      • CHEM 350: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry
      • CHEM 370: Chemical Dynamics
      • CHEM 410: Instrumental Analysis
      • CHEM 450: Topics in Advanced Organic Chemistry
    • Other:
      • PSYC 350: Psychopharmacology and Behavior
      • PHYS 570: Biological Physics
      • CMSC 205: Data-Scientific Programming
  5. On-line coursework cannot be transferred to fulfill these requirements.
    Students interested in chemistry-focused graduate programs or careers are encouraged to take Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics. Students interested in molecular biology focused careers or graduate programs are encouraged to take Genetics and Cell Biology.

Biology

Students come to Lawrence with varied interests in the life sciences, thus course offerings in biology span the breadth of this exciting discipline and the biology major is flexible. Though each student may create a unique path to completing a major in biology, we encourage students to sample courses across the breadth of the field, including courses in ecology, organismal biology, and molecular genetics. The flexibility of the major allows students to include off-campus study into the undergraduate experience, whether that be the Lawrence marine term or an experience that does not include the study of biology.

The department encourages an open-ended, original, experimental approach to life science. The research-rich approach begins in BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms, in which all department faculty members participate. Students design, conduct, and interpret their own research projects and present their results at a professional-style symposium at the end of the term. The second course, BIOL 150, includes three open-ended research modules in the laboratory portion of the course while the third course has students focused on experimental design and statistical analysis of data.

Experimental work becomes progressively more sophisticated and creative in advanced courses. All courses are designed to develop students’ insights and capacity to synthesize information, and they include discussions, readings, field trips, lab work, and interactive class work in those areas most closely related to the competence of the faculty. Most courses feature intensive laboratory or field instruction in which students use advanced research equipment to explore modern biological concepts.

All biology faculty members conduct active research programs and employ students during the summer as research assistants as well as supervise students undertaking independent study research for credit during the academic year. Motivated students may approach faculty about laboratory or field research after their first or second year of study. Many students culminate their work in biology with significant original research. In recent years, several papers with students and faculty as co-authors have been published in professional journals. Topics have included aquatic food chain energetics, host-parasite and plant/animal interactions, gene expression, and molecular mechanisms of vertebrate development. Recent advances in biological research are presented in a series of talks by faculty and by scientists from other universities. All students complete a project (research, curriculum development, outreach, or a creative project) of their own design as part of our Senior Experience program and they present their work at our annual BioFest celebration of Senior Experience (see below for more details).

Students who have strong secondary interests in chemistry, geology, or physics may construct majors involving biology and one of the other three natural sciences, using the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences or the biochemistry major.

Required for the biology major

  1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170
  2. CHEM 116
  3. At least seven six-unit courses in biology numbered 200 or above (excluding Senior Experience courses), of which at least five must be laboratory courses
  4. Completion of biology Senior Experience (A student-directed project, 6 units of BIOL 650, 2 units of BIOL 600)

Note: Only two six-unit courses designated as tutorial, directed study, or independent study can be counted toward the major or minor requirements and only one of those can be counted toward the upper-level laboratory requirement. On-line coursework cannot be transferred to earn biology credit.

Required for the biology minor

  1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170. Students majoring in disciplines requiring a research methods and statistics course may request exemption from the BIOL 170 requirement.
  2. At least four six-unit courses in biology numbered 200 or above, of which at least two must be laboratory courses.
  3. C average in the minor

Note: Only two six-unit courses designated as tutorial, directed study, or independent study can be counted toward the major or minor requirements and only one of these can be counted toward the upper-level laboratory requirement. On-line coursework cannot be transferred to earn biology credit.

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in biology and physics or geology

  1. BIOL 130, 150, and 170
  2. PHYS 141 and 151 or 151 and 160
  3. GEOL 110 and GEOL 210, if geology is the secondary discipline.
  4. At least 10 six-unit courses in the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, and physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in biology (of which at least three must be laboratory courses), and at least three in the secondary discipline in other departments
  5. Completion of the biology Senior Experience

Note: The interdisciplinary combinations of biology and chemistry have been replaced by the biochemistry major.

Teacher certification in biology or broad-field science

Students who seek certification to teach biology at the secondary level should choose a broad range of biology courses that includes ecology, plant and animal organismal biology, and molecular and cellular biology, and should gain experience in both field and laboratory research. Students also have the option of seeking broad-field science certification by completing a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines and at least one course in each of the remaining sciences. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Biology

Required: A student-designed project, 6 units of BIOL 650, 2 units of BIOL 600.

Purposeful advising in the spring of the sophomore year and attendance at the spring BioFest is meant to inspire sophomore students to think about what they might want to undertake as their culminating project in biology. During the fall of the junior year, students will hear from department faculty, the internship coordinator, and others about opportunities available for Senior Experience projects at a weekend retreat. Breakout groups allow students to brainstorm project ideas. Project work (research, internship, creation of a curricular module, draft of a grant proposal, draft of a children's book on biology, production of art about biology, or other creative project) generally will be undertaken prior to Term II of the senior year and may be based on an internship, summer or academic year research, a tutorial, course work, independent study, or other student activities.

Usually in the senior year, students will take two terms of BIOL 600: Recent Advances in Biology Lecture Series (1 unit each), one term of BIOL 650 (5 units) in Winter Term and one additional unit of BIOL 650 in Spring Term for BioFest. The purpose of the BIOL 650 course is to bring to culmination each student’s individual Senior Experience project and to place that project in an academic context. Each student prepares a paper that places her or his project into a biological context, compares it to our past and current understanding of the topic using primary literature, and summarizes the student’s project or results. Students will begin gathering and organizing academic resources for this paper in the Term I BIOL 600 course. In BIOL 650, students preparing a thesis for honors will prepare a significant portion of their thesis, while a student creating a visual product or curriculum will describe the biological underpinnings of the work and reflect on the production of the work itself, for example. The Senior Experience will culminate with a symposium, BioFest, during Spring Term, at which all students will present the results of their projects (or the project itself) as a poster, demonstration, or other visual display.

Biomedical Ethics

The minor in biomedical ethics is designed to coordinate a student’s background and interests in biomedical ethics, health care public policy, and the biological sciences with a variety of more specialized approaches to the study and application of relevant principles, insights, and understandings gleaned from those backgrounds and interests. This minor has been designed to appeal to Lawrence students planning further work in medicine, nursing, genetic counseling, public health, and other areas of study in or related to health care as well as students wishing to undertake graduate work in applied ethics.

Required for the minor in biomedical ethics

  1. Completion of the following core courses:
    1. BIET 120/PHIL 120: Applied Ethics: Introduction to Biomedical Ethics
    2. BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms, BIOL 103: Biotechnology and Society, or ANTH 140: Biological Anthropology
    3. BIET 290/ECON 290: The Economics of Medical Care or BIET 495/GOV 495: Health Policy
    4. PSYC 245: Health Psychology or ANTH 342: Medical Anthropology
    5. BIET 370/PHIL 370: Advanced Studies in Bioethics, BIET 380/PHIL 380: Ethics of Technology or an approved independent study project on some aspect of biomedical ethics or health policy.
  2. Two additional 6-unit courses from the list below, or other relevant courses with approval of the program chair. Independent study projects must be approved by the advisory committee. Possible contexts for projects include a Mielke, Kasel, or Hughes internship, a tutorial, an independent study course, or a health care-related project in conjunction with an off-campus program.

Courses that fulfill requirement number two

  • ANTH 340: Human Biology, Evolution, and Health
  • ANTH 342: Medical Anthropology
  • ANTH 377: Culture and Aging
  • BIOL 260: Genetics
  • BIOL 354: Molecular Biology
  • BIOL 465: Advanced Biotechnology
  • BIOL 453: Developmental Biology
  • ECON 271: Public Sector Economics
  • ECON 290: The Economics of Medical Care
  • ECON 400: Industrial Organization
  • ECON 440: Public Expenditure
  • GEOL 213: Geology and Health
  • GOVT 380: Introduction to Public Policy
  • GOVT 465: Environmental Politics
  • GOVT 495: Health Policy
  • PHIL 320: Ethics
  • PHIL 350: Political Philosophy
  • PHIL 360: Environmental Ethics
  • PHIL 370: Advanced Studies in Bioethics
  • PHIL 380: Ethics of Technology
  • PHIL 430: Philosophy of Law
  • PSYC 245: Health Psychology
  • PSYC 250: Psychopathology

Chemistry

Chemists, biochemists, and chemical engineers contribute to the development and utilization of the materials, medicines, foods, and fuels that are the hallmarks of modern life. They also contribute to the understanding and protection of the natural environment. Working in concert with biologists, geologists, physicists, psychologists, and others, chemists work toward the solution of many of society’s most pressing problems—challenges to physical and mental health, pollution and its effects, resource recovery, and energy production and conservation among them.

The American Chemical Society certified chemistry major at Lawrence prepares students for a broad range of opportunities and careers, including academic or industrial research, engineering, secondary or college teaching, medical or veterinary practice, law, business, or public service.

The Lawrence chemistry department is large enough to ensure that all the major areas of chemistry are well represented, yet small enough that students can build close working relationships with all the faculty members. Our faculty are all actively engaged in their own research programs, primarily using Lawrence’s own wide array of instrumentation; these programs create ample indepensdent research opportunities for students, either during the school year or the summer months. We see these research experiences as a critical part of our curriculum, as they provide students with the analytical techniques, problem-solving strategies, and critical thinking skills necessary for success in the physical, medical or life sciences. Our goals are to engage students from diverse backgrounds with the excitement of chemistry; foster in them the habit of informed and critical thinking; involve them in independent learning and research; and prepare them for the successful pursuit of a wide variety of post-baccalaureate and professional opportunities.

Advanced Placement

Students who have had the equivalent of a college general chemistry course are encouraged to take the Advanced Placement (AP) Examination in Chemistry administered by the Educational Testing Service. Students with sufficiently high AP exam scores will receive six units of college credit for CHEM 115, and will typically be advised to enroll in CHEM 116.

Students that have not taken or passed the AP Chemistry exam may also be placed in CHEM 116, depending on their score on our online placement test; in this case, no course credit for CHEM 115 would be awarded. In any case, instructor approval is required for our general chemistry courses, and students are encouraged to reach out to a chemistry faculty member with any questions about the courses. For more information about placement in our introductory chemistry courses, please visit the Introductory Chemistry and Advanced Placement page at our departmental website: http://go.lawrence.edu/4420.

Required for the chemistry major

  1. Introductory principles
    1. CHEM 115 and 116 or the equivalent
    2. MATH 140 and 150, or the equivalent
    3. PHYS 141 and 151
  2. Core competencies
    1. CHEM 210: Analytical chemistry
    2. CHEM 250: Organic chemistry I
    3. CHEM 252: Organic chemistry II
    4. CHEM 320: Inorganic chemistry
    5. CHEM 340: Biochemistry
    6. CHEM 370: Physical chemistry I
    7. Four additional classes. At least three must be chemistry classes at or above the 400 level, and at least one of those three must be a class in physical chemistry. One class in another natural science department, if it has significant chemistry content (such as a course in molecular biology), may be counted as one of the four electives with departmental approval.
  3. Six units of credit earned in chemistry Senior Experience courses numbered 380, 480, and 680
  4. C average in the major

Required for the chemistry minor

  1. Introductory principles
    1. CHEM 115 and 116 or the equivalent
  2. Core competencies
    1. CHEM 210: Analytical chemistry
    2. CHEM 250: Organic chemistry I
    3. CHEM 320: Inorganic chemistry
    4. CHEM 370: Physical Chemistry I
    5. Two additional chemistry classes, one of which must be at or above the 400 level.
  3. At least three units of credit earned in chemistry seminar courses numbered 380, 480, and 680
  4. C average in the minor

Teacher Certification in Chemsitry or Broad-Field Science

Students can seek teacher certification to teach chemistry at the secondary level. Certification requires a major in chemistry with courses in other science subjects. Students also have the option of seeking broad-field science certification by completing a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines and at least one course in each of the remaining sciences. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in chemistry and physics or geology

Chemistry students who have strong secondary interests in physics or geology may construct a major involving chemistry and geology or physics, using the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences. Previous interdisciplinary combinations of biology and chemistry have been replaced by the biochemistry major.

The requirements for the interdisciplinary major with chemistry as the primary discipline are:

  1. Introductory course sequences in chemistry, physics, and geology, chosen to include the discipline of secondary interest. The introductory sequences are:
    1. CHEM 115 and 116 or the equivalent
    2. GEOL 110 and 210
    3. PHYS 141 and 151
  2. Intermediate/Advanced Requirement: At least 10 six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in chemistry and at least three in the secondary discipline.
  3. Six units of credit earned in chemistry seminar courses numbered 380, 480, and 680

Senior Experience in Chemistry

The chemistry department's capstone sequence consists of a series of 3 seminars:

  1. CHEM 380: Seminar: Perspectives on Chemistry (Fall Term, 1 unit) Taken optimally by sophomores or juniors, this is a series of presentations by visiting chemists and Lawrence students, faculty, and staff, featuring current issues in chemistry, important applications of chemistry, and professional development topics appropriate to chemistry majors or minors.
  2. CHEM 480: Seminar: Chemical Literature (Winter Term, 2 units) A seminar course for chemistry majors and minors, taken optimally during the junior year, in which students learn how to educate themselves about the chemical literature in fields of interest to them. In this seminar, they learn the character and organization of the chemical literature and become familiar with search strategies. Students select topics and, guided by the instructor, conduct a literature search for key papers, construct a bibliography, and prepare presentations highlighting key research findings. Students are encouraged to correlate their activities in this seminar with research projects that they undertake at Lawrence or elsewhere, which form the basis of the senior seminar.
  3. CHEM 680: Senior Seminar (Spring Term, 3 units): The culminating course in our capstone sequence asks each major to present an individual seminar presentation based on research they have done at Lawrence or elsewhere. 3 units.

Students are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall capstone experience as early as possible.

Chinese and Japanese

The Department of Chinese and Japanese provides students with a coherent study of a cultural region. This region primarily encompasses China, Japan, and Korea—countries that spring from a common historical experience and share many common values and traditions. Though language forms an important part of this study, the focus of the curriculum remains as much cultural as linguistic. Courses are thus taught in English as well as in East Asian languages.

Required for the Chinese major

  1. Completion of beginning and intermediate Chinese language courses: CHJA 101, 102, 201, 202, 203, 301
  2. Three six-unit courses in advanced Chinese, taught in Chinese:
    1. CHJA 401: Advanced Communicative Chinese
    2. CHJA 402: Advanced Readings in Chinese
    3. CHJA 590: Tutorial Studies in Chinese or CHJA 598: Internship in Chinese
    Participation in the Lawrence-affiliated study-abroad program at Associated Colleges in China and successful completion of its fourth-year level courses will fulfill this category. Participation in other off-campus Chinese language programs is to be evaluated for this category by the department faculty.
  3. Three six-unit courses in Chinese literature and linguistics, taught in English, selected from the following. The third course may be substituted by an additional course in category 4.
    • CHJA 255: Introduction to Chinese Language and Culture
    • CHJA 310: Introduction to East Asian Linguistics
    • CHJA 350: Modern Chinese Literature and Cinema in Translation
    • CHJA 355: History of the Chinese Language
    • CHJA 370: Traditional Chinese Literature and Thought
  4. One six-unit courses in Chinese culture, taught in English, selected from the following:
    • HIST 308: Half the Sky: Chinese Women’s History
    • HIST 360: Contemporary China: 1949-2000
    • HIST 361: Western Encounters with China: Perceptions and Misperceptions
    • HIST 482: The Art of Healing: A History of Chinese Medicine
    • ARHI 430: Topics in Asian Art
  5. One senior-level independent study, CHJA 699 (6 units)

Required for the Chinese language minor

  1. Completion of beginning and intermediate Chinese language courses: CHJA 101, 102, 201, 202, 203, and 301 or the equivalent
  2. One advanced language course
  3. An exit proficiency interview
  4. C average in the minor

Required for the Japanese language minor

  1. Completion of beginning and intermediate Japanese language courses: CHJA 111, 112, 211, 212, 213, and 311
  2. One advanced language course
  3. An exit proficiency interview
  4. C average in the minor

Teacher Certification in Chinese (K-12)

Chinese majors can seek certification to teach Chinese at the elementary and secondary levels. To be certified, students must spend a term in a Chinese-speaking country studying the language and culture and must pass an oral and writing proficiency test. Students can add an endorsement in a second area (such as another language or English as a second language) by completing the appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Advanced Placement

Students who have studied Chinese or Japanese in high school and who wish to study Chinese and Japanese beyond the beginning level are required to take a placement examination. They also are advised to consult with the department chair in order to ensure their proper placement in language classes.

International Study

Opportunities exist to study in both Chinese- and Japanese-speaking areas through an ACM program in Tokyo and the Associated Colleges in China Program in Beijing (see Off-Campus Programs).

Senior Experience in Chinese

CHJA 699: A senior level one-term independent study (6 units) culminating in the completion of a substantial paper or project derived from previous coursework in the discipline or related fields or field experience in consultation with department faculty. Students with sufficiently advanced Chinese language skills are encouraged to use some Chinese language sources in carrying out their research. Students must share the results of their work in a public forum prior to graduation.

Classics

The field of classics is dedicated to the study of the languages, literatures, history, art, ideas, myths, societies, and cultures of ancient Greece and Rome. As such, it is an inherently interdisciplinary field of study, grounded in the critical reading of Greek and Latin texts but involving the examination of all aspects of Greek and Roman civilization and the ancient Mediterranean world. The program of the Classics Department at Lawrence emphasizes formal training in Greek and Latin, plus interdisciplinary engagement with topics in classical civilization, as a basis for the study of Greek and Roman literature, history, art, mythology, culture, and thought.

Accordingly, the department offers two related but distinct concentrations within the major. The concentration in Classical Languages and Literatures focuses on the study of Latin and Greek literature in the original languages, and is especially recommended for those students who are planning to go on to graduate study in classics. The concentration in Classical Civilization combines the study of Greek or Latin with coursework in ancient history, society, and culture, and is intended for students who wish to engage with the Greco-Roman world from multiple disciplinary perspectives.

Required for the classics major

Students may elect to fulfill the requirements of the classics major by concentrating in (I) classical languages and literatures or (II) classical civilization, depending on their intellectual interests and postgraduate plans.

  1. Classical Languages and Literatures
    1. The introductory/intermediate sequences in both Latin and Greek (CLAS 120-220 and CLAS 125-225), or their equivalents.
    2. Six courses (36 units) at the 300-, 400-, or 500-level in Latin and Greek literature. At least four of these courses (24 units) must be taken at the 400- or 500-level. The following courses fulfill this requirement:
      • In Latin: CLAS 301/401, 302/402, 303/403, 304/404, 306/406, 307/407, 308/408
      • In Greek: CLAS 321/421, 322/422, 323/423, 324/424, 326/426, 327/427, 328/428
      • In Latin and Greek: CLAS 545
    3. Two courses (12 units) in classical civilization or Greek and Roman history. The following courses fulfill this requirement:
      • In classical civilization: CLAS 101, 250, 260, 305, 363, 370
      • In Greek and Roman history: CLAS 150, 160, 280, 300, 310.
    4. Senior Experience
  2. Classical Civilization
    1. The introductory/intermediate sequence in either Latin or Greek (CLAS 120-220 or CLAS 125-225), or its equivalent.
    2. Two courses (12 units) at the 300- or 400-level in the literature of the target language. The following courses fulfill this requirement:
      • In Latin: CLAS 301/401, 302/402, 303/403, 304/404, 306/406, 307/407, 308/408
      • In Greek: CLAS 321/421, 322/422, 323/423, 324/424, 326/426, 327/427, 328/428
    3. Two courses (12 units) in classical civilization. The following courses fulfill this requirement: CLAS 101, 250, 260, 305, 363, 370.
    4. Two courses (12 units) in Greek and Roman history. The following courses fulfill this requirement: CLAS 150, 160, 280, 300, 310.
    5. Four additional courses (24 units) in classics or related fields. Up to two of these courses (12 units) may be chosen from the following list of courses originating in other departments:
      • ANTH 324 (CLAS 365)
      • ANTH 328 (CLAS 368)
      • ARHI 200 (CLAS 340)
      • ARHI 202 (CLAS 345)
      • ARHI 204 (CLAS 350)
      • ARHI 400 (CLAS 540)
      • ENG 285
      • ENG 527
      • HIST 105
      • PHIL 200
      • RLST 150
      • RLST 290
      • RLST 316 (CLAS 315)
    6. Senior Experience

Required for the Greek and Latin minors

  1. CLAS 120 and 220 or CLAS 125 and 225 (or their equivalents), as appropriate to the target language.
  2. At least four courses (24 units) at the 300- or 400-level in the target language and literature. At least two of these courses (12 units) must be taken at the 400-level.
  3. C average in the minor.

Required for the classical civilization minor

  1. Two courses (12 units) in classical civilization. The following courses fulfill this requirement: CLAS 101, 250, 260, 305, 363, 370.
  2. Two courses (12 units) in Greek and Roman history. The following courses fulfill this requirement: CLAS 150, 160, 280, 300, 310.
  3. Two additional courses (12 units) selected from courses taught within the Classics Department.

International Study

The undergraduate classics programs at the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome (ICCS-Rome), the American University of Rome (ISA Rome), and the College Year in Athens (CYA) are affiliated and approved options for study abroad in classics. Consult the department chair for more details.

Language requirement

Students may fulfill the university’s language requirement by taking Latin or Greek at the intermediate level (CLAS 220 or CLAS 225) or any 300-, 400-, or 500-level course in Latin or Greek literature.

Senior Experience in Classics

For students in both concentrations, the major culminates in the Senior Experience in classics, a self-designed project that enables each student to explore a topic of individual interest within the field. The Senior Experience in classics may be fulfilled in a variety of ways, in consultation with the department faculty. Scholarly, pedagogical, creative, and experiential projects are all viable options. Past Senior Experience projects have included: research papers on topics ranging from the interaction of speech and identity in Homer's Iliad to Hannibal's military strategy in Italy during the Second Punic War; choreographing and staging a mixed-media performance that combined dance with the recitation of passages of Greek and Roman lyric poetry; developing a complete syllabus and lesson plans for an introductory course in Latin at the high school level; designing a stage set and lighting for a production of Euripides' Medea; and using computer rendering software to create an explorable three-dimensional model of the Temple of Apollo Epikourios at Bassai in Greece. Other possible experiences might include delivering a scholarly paper at a conference or as part of Classics Week, or working at relevant archaeological sites in Europe and the Mediterranean Sea region. For projects that take place off-campus, an on-campus oral presentation is also required.

Classics majors are required to declare a topic and choose an advisor for their senior experience project no later than the Midterm Reading Period of the Spring Term before their senior year. The due date for the final version of the project will be determined in consultation with the advisor but should normally be no later than the Midterm Reading Period of the Winter Term of the student’s senior year.

Students pursuing double majors, double degrees, and/or education certification are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall senior experience as early as possible, especially if they are interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in both majors, or combines their student teaching with a project in their major.

Cognitive Science

Cognitive science is an area of interdisciplinary study that investigates the nature and representation of knowledge, the structure and function of intelligence (natural and artificial), and the relation of mind to brain and machine. In studying cognitive science, students are encouraged to acquaint themselves with insights and methods from a variety of disciplines, including psychology, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology, and neuroscience.

The interdisciplinary minor in cognitive science is particularly relevant for students interested in experimental psychology, computer science, linguistics, or philosophy. Students interested in other disciplines, such as anthropology, economics, political science, neuroscience, or music theory, may also find cognitive science an important perspective from which to consider their work.

Requirements for the minor in cognitive science

  1. PHIL 105: Introduction to Cognitive Science
  2. Six additional courses, five of which must be in departments other than the student's major.
    Courses must be from at least three of the following groups:
    1. Philosophical Foundations
      • PHIL 150: Symbolic Logic
      • PHIL 300: Epistemology
      • PHIL 305: Experimental Philosophy
      • PHIL 330: Philosophy of Science
      • PHIL 347: Valuing Art: The Philosophy and Psychology of Aesthetic Appreciation
      • PHIL 410: Philosophy of Mind
      • PHIL 420/LING 420: Topics in Logic
    2. Computation
      • CMSC 100: Exploring Computer Science
      • CMSC 105: WWII Codebreaking
      • CMSC 205: Data-Scientific Programming
      • CMSC 210: Introduction to Scientific Programming
      • CMSC 470: Artificial Intelligence
      • CMSC 515: Theory of Computation
    3. Neuroscience
      • PSYC 350: Psychopharmacology and Behavior
      • PSYC 360: Brain and Behavior I
      • PSYC 420: Clinical and Affective Neuroscience
      • PSYC 525 or 530: Brain and Behavior II
      • BIOL 340/PSYC 580: Topics in Neuroscience
    4. Cognitive Processes
      • ECON 225: Decision Theory
      • ECON 410: Advanced Game Theory and Applications
      • EDST 180/PSYC 180: Psychology of Learning
      • EDST 345/ANTH 345/PSYC 345: Distributed Cognition and the Extended Mind
      • PSYC 260 or 265: Developmental Psychology
      • PSYC 290: Developmental Psychopathology
      • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
      • PSYC 370: Perception
    5. Language
      • ANTH 330/LING 330: Language and Culture
      • ANTH 531/LING 531: Semiotics
      • LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
      • LING 335: Words, Words, Words: Introduction to Lexical Semantics
      • LING 340: Introduction to Syntax
      • LING 350: Introduction to Phonology
      • LING 355: Child Language Acquisition
      • LING 370/PSYC 375: Phonetics
      • LING 450: Topics in the Psychology of Language
      • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
      • LING 545/EDST 545/PSYC 545: Gesture Studies
      • PHIL 400/LING 400: Philosophy of Language
      • PHIL 405/LING 405: How to Do Things With Words

Computer Science

The mathematics department, with other members of the faculty, coordinates computer science. The interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science major offers students an opportunity to combine these two disciplines, enriching both.

Computer science combines an empirical aspect—which involves implementing specific algorithms—with a theoretical aspect—which involves analysis of abstract processes using methods of applied mathematics. Both aspects of the discipline contribute to understanding what problems are amenable to computer solution and what methods are optimal.

Today, computing importantly serves academic research no less than commercial enterprise. Moreover, a disciplined exposure to computer science within the context of studies in liberal arts and sciences fosters in the student the development of clarity and precision in analysis, logic, and expression.

Computing facilities on campus are abundant, offering students the opportunity to work with all major operating systems and programming languages.

Required for the interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science major

  1. The core sequence: MATH 140, 150, 160 and CMSC 150, 250, 270
  2. MATH 220 and 300
  3. CMSC 460, 510, 515
  4. 6 additional units in mathematics courses selected from:
    • MATH 310
    • MATH 420
    • MATH 525
  5. 6 additional units in a computer science course numbered 400 or above
  6. 6 additional units in a computer science course numbered 400 or above or selected from among MATH 310, 420, 525
  7. Completion of an independent study project prior to the Spring Term of the senior year
  8. CMSC 600 in the senior year

Required for the computer science minor

  1. MATH 140, 150, and 160
  2. MATH 210 or 220
  3. CMSC 150 and 270
  4. 18 additional units in computer science courses numbered 250 or above, one of which must be numbered 400 or above
  5. C average in the minor

Tutorials

No directed studies are given for courses routinely offered, and the department does not normally permit a tutorial to satisfy a major or minor requirement for graduation

Placement

Advanced placement and six units of Lawrence credit (for CMSC 150) may be obtained by scoring 4 or 5 on the A or AB computer science exam administered by the College Board. Consult the department for details and proper placement.

Senior Experience in Mathematics-Computer Science

Interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science majors must complete their independent study project in two parts: an independent study in the Fall or Winter Term of the senior year (usually 3 units), followed by a presentation of their results in the Computer Science Senior Seminar (3 units) during Winter Term.

The project must be approved and supervised by a faculty member in the mathematics department. Students should consult with departmental members in the spring before their senior year, in order to plan appropriately for their Senior Experience.

East Asian Studies

The program in East Asian Studies is dedicated to the study of the civilizations, cultures, and contemporary importance of East Asia. The rich cultural heritages and the political and economic significance of the region are covered by courses in anthropology, art history, history, government, literature, and religious studies. To achieve in-depth and critical understanding of East Asia, the East Asian Studies major combines the study of Chinese or Japanese language to the advanced intermediate level with breadth of coursework on East Asia taught in English. Majors typically further strengthen their Chinese or Japanese language skills by studying in China or Japan through an off-campus program. In addition to improving language skills and filling out the student’s program in regionally specific courses, studying abroad in China or Japan enhances the students’ academic program through firsthand cultural experience in East Asia.

Beginning with foundational coursework in traditional and modern East Asian history, students gain an understanding of the basic historical development of East Asian political and cultural traditions. Students then draw from this historical knowledge in their subsequent seminars to analyze in depth how these traditions have evolved with modernization, and to examine contemporary areas of social change. Through a disciplinary focus as well as coursework that situates East Asia in a global context, majors also learn how to relate the relevance of the study of China, Japan, or South Korea to a broader international or academic context.

The major in East Asian Studies thus seeks to prepare students intellectually, linguistically, and personally for further graduate work or professional careers as East Asian specialists.

Required for the major in East Asian Studies

  1. At least one language course CHJA 301/311 or higher
  2. EAST 140: Traditional East Asian Civilization
  3. EAST 150: Modern East Asian Civilization
  4. Three 6-unit elective courses in EAST, one of which must be a mid-level seminar or higher (300-level or higher). One elective course taken on an off-campus program may, upon approval of an EAST faculty advisor, count for one of these three courses.
  5. One course that situates East Asian culture in a broader academic or international context, such as:
    • GOVT 245: Comparative Politics of Less-Developed Countries
    • GOVT 340: International Politics
    • GOVT 480: International Organizations
    • HIST 295: Nationalism in the Modern World
    Students should consult with the EAST chair to select a course appropriate to their interests.
  6. EAST 620: Senior Seminar in East Asian Studies or, if EAST 620 is not offered, EAST 699: Independent Study in East Asian Studies (6 units), resulting in the completion of a substantial research paper or project.
  7. At least nine 6-unit courses should be taken at the Lawrence, Appleton campus.

In addition to the requirements listed above, majors are strongly advised to have a disciplinary focus to frame their Senior Experience. EAST coursework in a discipline of interest such as anthropology, art history, history, religious studies, government, linguistics, economics, or literature, as well as additional coursework in methods and theory in that same discipline should be completed prior to EAST 620.

Majors are also encouraged to further strengthen their Chinese or Japanese language skills by studying in China or Japan (see Off-Campus Programs) and/or in one of several intensive summer language programs offered in the U.S.

Required for the minor in East Asian Studies

  1. Five courses, as follows:
    1. EAST 140: Traditional East Asian Civilization
    2. EAST 150: Modern East Asian Civilization
    3. Three 6-unit elective courses in EAST
  2. One additional advanced course on East Asia that builds on coursework already taken
  3. An independent study in an area of interest
  4. C average in the minor

Senior Experience in East Asian Studies

EAST 620: Senior Seminar in East Asian Studies A senior level workshop culminating in the completion of a substantial paper or project derived from previous coursework in the discipline or related fields or field experience in consultation with department faculty.

Students with sufficiently advanced Chinese or Japanese language skills are encouraged to use some target language sources in carrying out their research. Students are encouraged to share the results of their work in a public forum prior to graduation.

Economics

The Lawrence economics department emphasizes abstract modeling and quantitative reasoning skills. Students first acquire a basic knowledge of economic theories, principles, and techniques of analysis. They then apply them to a wide range of problems, from poverty and discrimination to macroeconomic stabilization policy and environmental degradation.

Students learn early on that modern economics is an application of mathematical modeling to the study of human behavior. The interdisciplinary mathematics-economics major provides a strong foundation for graduate work in economics, where mathematical aptitude is at a premium. This route also provides outstanding preparation for technical business careers, such as investment banking, management consulting, and finance.

Required for the economics major

  1. ECON 100
  2. MATH 140 or both MATH 120 and 130; MATH 107 (or equivalent)
  3. Intermediate Theory
    1. ECON 300
    2. ECON 320
    3. ECON 380
    (Majors must take all three courses prior to completion of the junior year. The economics department must approve any exception.)
  4. Two additional six-unit courses numbered 200 or higher,
    (Six units of tutorial or independent study credit may count as one of these two courses) and three additional six-unit courses numbered 400 or higher. The Senior Experience requirement does not count toward these five courses.
  5. Complete the Senior Experience in economics requirement by taking ECON 601 or ECON 602 as described below.
  6. The grade-point average for the major will be computed from economics courses and from required mathematics courses. A C average is required.

Required for the interdisciplinary mathematics-economics major

  1. The mathematics component of the major is:
    • MATH 140, 150, 160, 240, 300, 310
    • Either MATH 435 or 445
    • 6 additional units in a mathematics course numbered 400 or above, with 435, 440, 445, or 560 recommended
  2. The economics component of the major is:
    • ECON 100
    • ECON 300, 320, and 380 (majors must take all three courses prior to completion of the junior year. The economics department must approve any exception.)
    • Any three six-unit courses numbered between 400 and 580
  3. The interdisciplinary component of the major is:
    • Completion of an independent study project that has been approved by both departments.
    • A major must have an advisor in each department.

Required for the economics minor

  1. ECON 100 or ECON 300
  2. Six additional six-unit courses, at least five of which must be economics courses numbered 200 or above and one that could be a mathematics course.
    (Only six units of tutorial or independent study credit may count as one of these six courses.)
  3. C average in the minor

Teacher Certification in Economics or Broad-Field Social Studies

Economics majors can seek certification to teach economics or broad-field social studies at the secondary level. For certification in broad-field social studies, students must complete the economics major and a minimum of two courses each in two other social studies (anthropology/sociology, government/political science, history, or psychology) and at least one course in each of the remaining social studies. Students are strongly encouraged to take a course in U.S. history and a course in global history. A course in environmental studies is also required. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Recommendations

ECON 100 and ECON 225 are excellent either as stand-alone courses or as gateways into the discipline.

For the economics or mathematics-economics major:

  • Speak to a professor in the department about the selection of a coherent set of electives.
  • Take MATH 140 or 120 and 130 as soon as possible. MATH 150 and MATH 240 are also recommended.
  • Take ECON 100, a 200-level economics course, and then ECON 300.
  • If you do not meet prerequisites for any course, talk with the instructor and explicitly obtain consent.
  • Students preparing for graduate work in economics, public policy, or business or those preparing for an M.B.A. in a quantitative field should plan to take a number of mathematics courses and should consult the economics faculty for advice. The mathematics-economics major is particularly well-suited for these students. Furthermore, students should take ECON 500 and ECON 520 as part of their preparation.

Course structure and numbering

ECON 100 is a survey course and is an excellent introduction to the discipline, even for those with high school courses.

The 200-level courses apply basic theory to particular fields of inquiry and should be accessible to students with a sound introductory course.

The 300-level courses are intermediate theory courses geared toward economics majors, while the 400-level courses are advanced applications classes. The 500-level courses are graduate-school preparatory courses.  600-level courses are for the Senior Experience.

Senior Experience in Economics

The economics curriculum culminates with a one-term three-unit Senior Experience course required for all majors. Each year, two sections of the course will be offered. In one section (ECON 601), in which the students read a monograph by a formidable economist or a piece of central interest to economists and engage in active discussion, each student produces a term paper in reaction to the reading. In the paper, each student must relate the reading to theories and applications he or she studied in economics courses. The monograph will be selected by the faculty member teaching the course. This Senior Experience option is designed to mirror the Freshman Studies experience at the end of the student’s career at Lawrence.

In the other section (ECON 602), each student is expected to produce a well-researched paper that stands up to the standards of the profession. To register for this section, students must already have a paper prepared in a 400-level course. Students must submit to the instructor a one-page proposal on how the previous paper will be improved, refined and polished in content and in form so that it stands up to the standards of the profession. The instructor’s approval of this proposal is a prerequisite for registration.

Interdisciplinary mathematics-economics (economics-mathematics) majors may choose to meet their Senior Experience requirement by taking one of the above workshop senior experience courses or by satisfying the requirement of the Department of Mathematics for interdisciplinary mathematics-economics majors’ requirement. In either case, they will need to demonstrate the ability to combine topics in both disciplines—bringing appropriate techniques of mathematics or statistics to bear on the study of economics, or learning mathematics or statistics suggested by models in economics. Students who plan to complete this interdisciplinary major must have their Senior Experience proposal approved by one advisor in the Department of Mathematics and one in the Department of Economics prior to the term in which they plan to complete the experience.

Education

While Lawrence does not offer a college major in education, the education department does prepare students to become licensed elementary and secondary school teachers in public and private schools.  Lawrence graduates who have completed the teacher education program are eligible to be certified for licensure in all states.  In addition to certification for licensure, the department introduces students to the study of education as an academic discipline within the liberal arts. An education studies minor is available. Courses in education studies (EDST) are open to all students and may be counted toward fulfilling the General Education Requirement (GER) in social sciences. The department also offers tutorial and independent-study opportunities for students interested in education policy, history of education, educational anthropology and psychology, philosophy of education, and the practical application of education methodology in a variety of settings.

Teacher certification for undergraduates

Students who seek certification to teach middle or senior high school (early adolescence through adolescence) may choose from nearly all majors, including the social sciences, history, the natural sciences, mathematics, mathematics-computer science, computer science, theatre arts, English, English as a second language, and environmental science. (Students planning to teach instrumental or vocal music must be admitted to the Conservatory. Please see the Conservatory of Music for more information.)

Students who want to teach art or foreign language (Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Latin, Russian and Spanish) and music (choral, general or instrumental) receive special-field certification for teaching early childhood through adolescence (K-12).

Lawrence offers certification for students interested in becoming elementary school teachers (early childhood through early adolescence). Open to all majors, college or conservatory, this innovative program is a post-baccalaureate, yearlong apprenticeship in an Appleton public elementary school, during which students learn to teach by working alongside a master veteran teacher. For that year there is a special, significantly reduced, tuition fee.  

For further information about required courses and other program requirements as well as costs, please contact Lawrence’s Director of Teacher Education.

For certification in social studies and the natural sciences, students elect a single discipline as their major—for example, history or chemistry—and may also pursue an interdisciplinary “broad fields” course of study.

Many academic subjects (e.g., English) permit a “minor” for certification purposes, thereby affording the student both major and minor teaching opportunities in the schools. In all subject areas, certification requires completing a Lawrence major or its equivalent with a minimum GPA of 2.75 in the major and cumulative. Please see “Major subject area requirements” for specific disciplinary requirements.

Students who wish to qualify for a teaching license should plan their schedule with the chair of the education department as early as possible in their Lawrence career. Students who enter Lawrence knowing that they want to become certified to teach can do so within the four-year undergraduate program. Before student teaching, which must occur in the senior year or in a 13th term, students must be admitted to the teacher education program. Graduation must precede certification for licensure.

Generally, all education courses except EDST 175 and EDST 180 require sophomore standing. EDUC 560, 563 and 555 and ART 585, methods of teaching, must be taken during the Term III that immediately precedes student teaching.

Student teaching assignments for 18-week public or private school semesters are contracted with local Fox Valley schools, in Chicago via the Chicago Center’s Urban Teaching Practicum or the ACM Urban Education Program, or in 17 different countries overseas through Lawrence's International Student Teaching Program. A 13th term of student teaching with greatly reduced tuition (see Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance) is available for Lawrence undergraduates who have completed all graduation requirements except the student teaching cluster of courses and wish to be certified. Elementary apprenticeships take place in the Appleton Public Schools. Ask the department chair for details and for information on additional requirements. The 18-week student teaching practicum must take place within one year of graduation; the elementary practicum follows graduation.

In some majors, students planning to student teach during the senior year may substitute student teaching for, or incorporate it into, their department’s Senior Experience. Interested students should consult with their major advisor as early as possible in the junior year.

Certification for graduates

Students who have graduated from college, whether they attended Lawrence or another college or university, can be certified for licensure through Lawrence. Typically, the certification program for graduates takes 1 1/2 years, which includes the required 18 weeks of student teaching. (Program length may vary depending on undergraduate major and coursework.) Graduates should consult the department chair for further information about the certification program.

Graduates seeking certification must attain qualifying scores on a standardized academic skills test (Praxis I PPST, Praxis Core, ACT, SAT or GRE) and pass the subject area test (Praxis II or ACTFL) in their certification area before they apply to be admitted to the teacher education program. Other requirements for admittance (e.g., 2.75 GPA) and certification are listed in Lawrence’s Teacher Certification Handbook, which is available from the education department.

Tuition for Lawrence graduates participating in this program is set at 50 percent of the current year’s tuition rate, and the student teaching fee is adjusted by 50 percent.

For non-Lawrence graduates, tuition for courses required for certification outside the degree-seeking student program is set at 75 percent of the current year’s tuition rate. A separate fee is charged for the student-teaching portion of the program, for which the student earns 18 units of credit.

Graduates who did not attend Lawrence and who wish to teach elementary school can also be certified for licensure through Lawrence.  There is a reduced tuition fee for the apprenticeship year and required education courses.  A 3.0 cumulative GPA is required.  Interested candidates should consult the department chair for further information.

General requirements, all students and subject areas (except elementary education)

In addition to the required education courses, all students seeking certification must complete a major (or its equivalent) in the subject they plan to teach. To receive a minor endorsement, students must complete a department-approved minor or a minimum of seven courses in the discipline. Students seeking licensure must also complete the Lawrence University General Education Requirements, including a course in a non-Western history or culture, a course in a physical science, a course in a biological or life science, and a mathematics course.

For Wisconsin licensure, social science majors need to take Cooperatives, which is an adjunct to Education 560. Natural science and social studies candidates are required to take an environmental studies course.

Students who want to become licensed must be admitted to Lawrence’s teacher education program. Please see the department chair or the department’s administrative assistant for the application form and list of requirements. Students seeking licensure should also consult Lawrence’s Teacher Certification Handbook, which is available from the education department, for further information and requirements.

A cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required for program admission as well as for certification for licensure. Before they may student teach, students must attain a 3.00 major GPA or a passing score on the subject area assessment (Praxis II Subject Assessment or ACTFL foreign language oral and writing proficiency tests) for each subject in which they intend to be licensed. As of September 1, 2015, all candidates must attain passing scores on the edTPA, a teacher performance assessment completed during student teaching, in order to be certified for licensure. Additional requirements are spelled out in the Teacher Certification Handbook and on the department website.

Students should be aware that certification requirements are subject to revision, and students must satisfy the requirements in force at the time of program completion. It is the student’s responsibility to confirm requirements with the chair of the education department.

Required education courses for certification in all academic areas at the middle, junior and senior high school levels

Please consult the Education Department Chair for the elementary course requirements.

Please see “Major subject area requirements” below and “The major in music education” for additional course requirements.

Course Lawrence course credit, in units Certification semester hours
EDST 180: Psychology of Learning 6 4
EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity and Education 6 4
EDUC 430: Educating All Learners (College only) 6 3
EDUC 431: Educating All Learners in Music (Conservatory only) 3 3
EDST 440: Sociology of Education 6 4

The appropriate teaching methods course for your certification area:

Course Lawrence course credit, in units Certification semester hours
EDUC 560: Methods in Middle and Secondary Teaching 6 4
EDUC 563: Elementary and Secondary Foreign Language Methods 6 4
EDUC 565: Methods, Materials and Assessment in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages†† 6 4
EDUC 585: Art in the Elementary and Secondary Schools††† 6 4
EDUC 650 or 655: Student Teaching 18 12
EDUC 660: Advanced Methods in Teaching 3 3

† Required for foreign language certification only
†† Required for ESL certification only
††† Required for art certification only

Major subject area requirements

Art
A major consists of the 11 courses required for a studio art major, plus ART 585. See Certification for Teaching K-12 for further information regarding studio requirements and recommendations for art education certification. ART 585 should be taken in the Term III immediately prior to student teaching (EDUC 650).
English
A major consists of a minimum of 10 courses. In addition to demonstrating a familiarity with contemporary literature of world scope, students must submit evidence of coursework in composition, linguistics or history of the English language, literature for adolescents and literature of minority groups in America. Adolescent literature may be fulfilled by taking three units of tutorial study in education (EDUC 390 or 590) devoted to literature for adolescents. A minor is available.
English as a second language (ESL/ELL)
A major endorsement is available in ESL/ELL and requires completion of the following: the education certification sequence (e.g., EDST 180, EDST 440, EDUC 650, etc.); the four course ESL/ELL sequence of Linguistics 150, Linguistics 360, Linguistics 530 and EDUC 565; and an academic major in any one of the liberal arts and sciences. Students may also add ESL/ELL certification to certification in another area (e.g., English, music education, biology, history, etc.).
Foreign languages
A major in Chinese, Classics, French, German, Japanese, Russian, or Spanish consists of 10 courses. Seven courses make up the minor option. It is required that students spend a term in a country studying its native language. To be certified, students must pass an oral and writing proficiency test.
Mathematics-computer science; computer science
A major consists of 10 courses.
Mathematics
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
Music
See the major in music education.
Natural sciences
Students are licensed in physical science (chemistry and/or physics), earth and space science (geology), or life and environmental science (biology and/or environmental science). Students must complete a Lawrence major in one science (e.g., biology) and take at least one course from each of the other sciences. A course in astronomy or space science or a course that includes either as a topic is also required. Please see the department chair for further information.
Biology
A major consists of 10 courses, plus courses in other science subjects; a minor is available.
Chemistry
A major consists of 10 courses, plus courses in other science subjects; a minor is available.
Geology/Earth science
A major consists of 10 courses, including astronomy and oceanography, plus courses in other science subjects; a minor is available.
Physics
A major consists of 10 courses, plus courses in other science subjects; a minor is available.
Environmental science
A major consists of 10 courses, plus courses in the other science subjects; a minor is available. Students must take Education/Environmental Studies 400 and should fulfill the science-track requirements of the environmental studies major. (Students are urged to major in one of the other sciences and minor in environmental studies if they plan to teach at the secondary level.)
Broad fields science
A broad-fields science license is available. To be eligible, students must complete the requirements to be certified in one of the science majors (biology, chemistry, environmental science, geology/earth science and physics), a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines and at least one course in each of the remaining sciences.
Social studies
Wisconsin licenses in the social sciences and history are grouped within the broad category of social studies. Students must complete a Lawrence major in any social science or history and take one course in each of the remaining social sciences (including history). An environmental studies course is also required. (Non-history majors are strongly urged to take a minimum of two history courses, one in U.S. history and one in global history.)
Anthropology/Sociology
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available. (Note: Wisconsin does not offer separate licensure in anthropology.)
Economics
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
History
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
Political science (Government)
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
Psychology
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.
Broad fields social studies
A broad-fields social studies license is available. To be eligible, students must complete the requirements to be certified in one of the social sciences (anthropology/sociology, economics, history, political science [government], or psychology), a minimum of two courses each in two of the other social studies, and at least one course in each of the remaining social studies. Instruction in consumer cooperatives and conservation is incorporated into the methodology course Education 560.
Theatre arts
A major consists of 10 courses; a minor is available.

Education Studies

The minor in education studies provides students in the college and conservatory with the opportunity to pursue focused inquiry into the philosophical, cultural, and social foundations of education; the historical and present-day relationship between school and society; the part formal education plays in human development; and/or contemporary issues of education policy and practice. The minor will help prepare students for graduate study or work in education-related fields.

Required for the education studies minor

  1. Three foundational courses:
    1. EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
    2. EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity and Education
    3. And one of the following:
      • EDST 310: Ethics and Education
      • EDST 315: Philosophy of Children
  2. Two (2) courses in education studies from among the following, at least one of which must be at the 400 level or above:
    • EDST 309: Hollywood Goes to High School
    • EDST 345: Distributed Cognition
    • EDST 380: Engaging in Action Research
    • EDST 400: The Environment, Community and Education
    • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
    • EDST 450: Topics in Education Studies (can be repeated as topics vary)
    • EDST 545: Gesture Studies
  3. One of the following:
    • An independent study (EDST 399/599)
    • An academic internship (EDST 395/595)
    • Either Developmental Psychology (PSYC 260/265) or Adolescent Psychology (PSYC 460).

Possible settings for internships include but are not limited to: public, private, or charter schools; school district offices; museum or arts organizations; other non-profit or community organizations; social services agencies; governmental bodies; policy or advocacy groups; and other approved sites. Students seeking teacher certification may also complete the education studies minor, but student teaching may not be used to fulfill the internship or independent study requirement, nor may the internship substitute for the classroom practicum hours required prior to student teaching.

English

The English Department at Lawrence offers students the opportunity to develop their skill at critical reading, writing, and analysis—skills that can be applied not only to "literary" texts but also to the texts and images produced by the cultures that surround us. Literature courses include analysis of British, American, African American, and postcolonial cultures. In creative writing, the department offers courses in fiction, poetry, and non-fiction.

Required for the English major

  1. ENG 150 or its equivalent
    After ENG 150, students majoring in English are required to complete eight six-unit courses, distributed as follows:
  2. Two courses from the intermediate group: ENG 230, 240, 250, 260, 280, 281
  3. Two courses focusing on periods before 1800: ENG 400, 420, 430, 435, 440, 443, 445, 446, 447, 448, 450, 470, 527, and either 425 or 170 (but not both together)
  4. One course focusing on the nineteenth century: ENG 455, 460, 465, 472, 473, 474, 476, 478
  5. One course focusing on the twentieth or twenty-first centuries: ENG 480, 481, 483, 485, 490, 495, 498, 500, 501, 503, 506, 510, 515, 516, 517, 518, 521, 522
  6. One additional course in English
  7. In completing requirements 2-6, students are required to take course-work representing a range of literary and cultural traditions. Students are required to take at least one course, at any level, from each of the following three categories: 1) British, 2) American, and 3) African American OR postcolonial. A course in African-American literature may satisfy either categories 2) or 3) but not both simultaneously. See the cultural traditions list below for which courses correspond to which group.
  8. Finally, majors are also required to complete the English department’s Senior Experience (see further explanation below).

Cultural traditions categories for the major

Students must take at least one course, at any level, from each of the following three categories:

  1. British: ENG 170 (London Centre course), 230, 240, 281, 400, 420, 425, 430, 435, 440, 445, 446, 447, 448, 450, 455, 460, 465, 480, 481, 515, 527
  2. American: ENG 250, 443, 470, 472, 473, 474, 476, 478, 483, 485, 495, 498, 500, 501, 503, 506, 510, 515, 522
  3. African American: ENG 260, 472, 478, 506, 510 OR postcolonial: ENG 280, 282, 517, 518, 521

Departmental advisors

When students officially declare themselves English majors, they should choose a departmental advisor who will be responsible for guiding them in planning and completing their major course of study. Questions about the advising of English majors should be addressed to the department chair.

Senior Experience in English

The English department’s Senior Experience may be fulfilled through one of several options:

  1. ENG 600: Senior Seminar in English: a seminar involving analysis of theoretical, historical, critical, and literary readings at an advanced level in conjunction with students' research and writing of an original, substantial paper (taken during the senior year or, in some cases, during spring term of the junior year);
  2. An advanced course in creative writing with additional work determined by the instructor (taken during the junior or senior year); students should plan ahead so that they complete the necessary prerequisite for the advanced course in creative writing;
  3. Student teaching in English, along with a paper co-directed by the student's academic advisor in English and a faculty member in the education department; or
  4. An honors project in English (or adequate progress toward completing an honors project as approved by departmental petition); Students pursuing double majors or double degrees are encouraged to consult with faculty from the English department and the other major department prior to taking ENG 600 if they wish to undertake a research topic that draws upon both of their majors. Students pursuing double majors or double degrees also have the option of doing an honors project that is interdisciplinary in nature, as long as one of the directors of the project is a professor in the English department.

Required for the English minor

Six six-unit courses in English, distributed as follows:

  1. Two courses from the following introductory and intermediate group: ENG 150, 230, 240, 250, 260, 280, 281
  2. One course focusing on periods before 1800: ENG 170 (London Centre course), 400, 420, 425, 430, 435, 440, 443, 445, 446, 447, 448, 450, 470, 527
  3. One course focusing on the nineteenth century: ENG 455, 460, 465, 472, 473, 474, 476, 478
  4. One course focusing on the twentieth or twenty-first centuries: ENG 480, 481, 483, 485, 490, 495, 498, 500, 501, 503, 506, 510, 515, 516, 517, 518, 521, 522
  5. One additional course in English

Required for the Creative Writing Minor

For students majoring in English, completing the creative writing minor requires taking a minimum of three courses in creative writing, including courses in at least two different literary genres. These courses can be at any level. THAR: 427 Playwrighting may also be used to fulfill one of the courses in the minor.

For students with majors outside of English, completing the creative writing minor requires taking a minimum of three courses in literary studies at any level in the English department as well as a minimum of three courses in creative writing. These creative writing courses need to include work in at least two different literary genres and can be at any level. Again, THAR: 427 Playwrighting may also be used to fulfill one of the courses in the minor.

Teacher Certification in English as a Second Language (K-12)

Students can seek certification to teach English as a second language at the elementary and secondary levels by completing the Teaching ESL minor in linguistics and other certification requirements. Interested students should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Teacher certification in English language arts

Students who major in English can seek certification to teach English language arts at the secondary level. Students seeking certification must satisfactorily complete at least one course in writing (e.g., ENG 350, 360, or 370), at least one course in linguistics (LING 150) or the English language, a tutorial in literature for adolescents, and a course in literature by writers of color in America (e.g., ENG 260, 506, or 510). Students can add an endorsement for a second area (such as English as a second language) by completing the appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Advanced Placement

All students who have earned a 4 or better in the Advanced Placement English Language and Composition Exam will be given credit for one course in English; for majors, this credit will fulfill the requirement of “one additional course in English.” All students who have earned a 4 or better in the Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition Exam will be given credit for one course in English and will receive advanced placement in courses at the intermediate level (ENG 230, 240, 250); for majors, this credit will fulfill the requirement of ENG 150. Questions about exemption and placement should be addressed to the department chair. The application of AP credit towards the general education requirements for either the B.A. or the B.Mus. degrees will be determined by university policy. Please see the following link for more information about university credit for AP Examinations.
AP Examination Information (PDF)

Graduate School

Students considering graduate work in English are advised that they should try to take two or more English department classes with at least two different members of the department. They will likely want to do more English coursework than the minimum that is required for the major. For the master's degree, most graduate schools require demonstrated proficiency in at least one modern language in addition to English. For the doctorate, the usual requirement is demonstrated proficiency in two modern languages, and, in some cases, also an ancient language. ENG 525: Contemporary Critical Theory is also an asset when preparing for graduate school. College work leading toward graduate study should be planned with these considerations in mind.

Environmental Studies

The field of environmental studies addresses some of the most critical and complicated issues of our time: those regarding environmental change and the future of humanity. The systems that make up planet Earth are simultaneously comprehensible and complex, predictable and chaotic, robust and fragile. Changes in one part of this system of systems may have far-reaching implications for other parts. As citizens of Earth, we cannot afford to remain ignorant of the global environmental consequences of our daily activities.

A degree in environmental studies prepares students for a wide spectrum of careers, including environmental law, consulting, policy making, technical innovation, wildlife management, teaching, natural resource management, and fundamental research. Students in the major share a common sequence of core courses, beginning with introductions to environmental science and policy through an intermediate level practicum and culminating with the senior capstone. Throughout the curriculum, majors are exposed to different perspectives on and tools for understanding the environment including those from the natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. In addition, all students are required to take advanced courses in one department to provide disciplinary depth. Students have considerable choice in their courses and work with their advisor to select courses that fit individual interests and career goals. The field experience requirement ensures that students get out of the classroom to put their academic work into practice.

The minor in environmental studies is designed to complement a major in any field.

Environmental Studies Major

  1. Required core courses (30 Units)
    1. ENST 150: Introduction to Environmental Science with Lab (6 units)
    2. ENST 151: Introduction to Environmental Policy (6 units)
    3. ENST 300: Symposium on Environmental Topics (6 units)
    4. ENST 650: Environmental Studies Senior Seminar (6 units)
    5. MATH 107, 117 or 207; Statistics or BIOL 170: Integrative Biology: Experimental Design and Analysis or ANTH 207: Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology (6 units)
  2. Perspectives from science (18 Units)
    Three additional natural science courses from at least two different departments, one of which must be lab-based and one of which must be 200 or above.
  3. Perspectives from policy (12 Units)
    1. ECON 280 or ECON 285
    2. GOVT 270 or GOVT 380
  4. Perspectives from history, society, and culture (6 Units)
    • HIST 355
    • EDST 400
    • PHIL 360
    • ANTH 310
  5. Disciplinary focus (18 units)
    Eighteen units from courses numbered 200 or above in a single department GOVT, ECON, CHEM, BIOL, GEOL, ANTH, and PHYS, selected in consultation with advisor.
  6. Field experience
    Not necessarily for credit; typically about 50 hours of work outside the classroom or participation in an ENST-related internship or off-campus program.

Environmental Studies Minor

  1. Required core courses (18 Units)
    1. ENST 150: Introduction to Environmental Science with Lab (6 units)
    2. ENST 151: Introduction to Environmental Policy (6 units)
    3. ENST 300: Symposium on Environmental Topics (6 units)
  2. Courses with significant emphasis on environmental topics (30 units)
    Any five environmental studies cross-listed courses. Environmental studies courses taken through Lawrence-sponsored off-campus programs, such as the Semester in Environmental Science may also fulfill this requirement, with approval of the Environmental Studies Steering Committee. Special note: No more than three courses may be applied simultaneously toward completion of this minor and a student's major.

Teacher Certification in Environmental Science or Broad-Field Science

Students can seek certification to teach environmental science at the secondary level. Students must take EDST/ENST 400 and should fulfill the science-track requirements of the environmental studies major or, preferably, major in one of the natural sciences and minor in environmental studies. Students also have the option of seeking broad-field science certification by completing the major and a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines and at least one course in each of the remaining sciences. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Environmental Studies

The Senior Seminar (ENST 650) is the culmination of the environmental studies major and serves as the program's Senior Experience. Through discussions of primary literature and guest lectures, students are engaged with cutting-edge scholarship in the natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. Students also complete individual projects, which consist of developing temporal or spatial models of environmentally relevant phenomena. In the course of modeling, students must find and acquire relevant data, determine functional relations between model elements, perform sensitivity analyses, and justify their choices and assumptions. Results and conclusions are presented orally and in a written document. The 6-unit course is offered once a year and has ENST 150, ENST 151 and ENST 300 as prerequisites. Students may elect, with the approval of their ENST advisor, to identify a different project, such as an independent research project, as their Senior Experience. Completion of ENST 650, however, is required for all environmental studies majors.

Ethnic Studies

Drawing upon its own interdisciplinary body of theory, concepts and methodological approaches, ethnic studies at Lawrence provides intellectual environments in which students can participate in meaningful dialogue about topics too often shrouded in silence. Ethnic studies appeals to students who want to explore the evolution of ethno-racial identities in both U.S. domestic and global contexts, and examine current issues pertaining to race and ethnicity. Students take ethnic studies courses to enhance their own ability to negotiate multi-ethnic and inter-racial relationships and to thrive in workplace diversity. Students broaden their own worldview when they study concepts of ethnicity and learn what it means to identify with an ethnic group on the basis of national origin, family heritage, shared historical experience, customs and traditions, and/or language. Students think critically about the concept of race when they explore how race is a recent human invention, how race is about culture and politics and not biology, and how race and racism are still embedded in institutions and everyday life.

The ethnic studies minor at Lawrence offers two core courses that introduce students to theory, concepts and approaches from the social sciences (ETST 200 Race and Ethnicity in the United States) and the arts and humanities (ETST 210 Expressions of Ethnicity). Students take at least one of the two core courses and four additional elective courses, at least one from each of two categories—domestic and global—to build a minor that reflects individual student interests in certain topics or current debates, specific ethno-racial communities, geographic areas, or historical time periods. In a senior capstone requirement, students may choose from a range of options designed to bring reflection and focus to their ethnic studies experience.

Required for the minor in ethnic studies

  1. One of the two core courses:
    • ETST 200: Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    • ETST 210: Expressions of Ethnicity
  2. Four additional courses, at least one from each of two categories—domestic and global—and representing course work from at least two different departments. No more than two courses may count toward the student's major. A student may choose to do the second core course as one of the electives.
    1. Domestic: courses that focus on the experience of a major ethnic group in the United States or on relations among ethnic groups in the United States. The following are just a few examples of courses that have met this requirement:
      • ETST 240: Sociology of Education
      • ETST 353: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
      • ETST 360: Survey of African American Literature
      • ETST 380/381: "Ideal Immigrants"? The German Experience in America
      • ETST 420: The American Civil War
      • ETST 425: Black, Brown and Queer on Film
      • ETST 561: Literature of the Harlem Renaissance
    2. Global: courses that focus on the experience of ethnicity and relations among ethnic groups outside the United States or comparative courses that include both the United States and other parts of the world. The following are just a few examples of courses that have met this requirement:
      • ETST 221: Europe in the Age of Nationalism, World War, and Totalitarianism, 1851-1990
      • ETST 226: Identity Politics and Ethnic Conflict
      • ETST 251: Immigration and Refugees: Changing the Face of Europe
      • ETST 325: Ethnicity in Latin America
      • ETST 382: The Literature and Culture of Ethnic Minorities in Germany
      • ETST 560: Contemporary British and Post-Colonial Fiction
      • ETST 583: Hispanic Issues
      • ETST 584: Black Cultural Nationalisms
      Courses cross-listed in ethnic studies will count toward completion of the minor whether students register for them using the program's designation (ETST) or an individual department's designation. A student may choose to do the second core course as one of the electives. No more than two courses used for the minor may count towards the student's major, and no more than two courses may be taken from one department.
  3. C average in the minor

Senior Experience in Ethnic Studies

A capstone experience mentored or approved by an ethnic studies advisor is required. Students may choose one of the following five options:

  • ETST 695: Ethnic Studies Field Experience accompanied by a written reflection
  • Upper-level independent studies in Ethnic Studies (ETST 599 or 699)
  • Participation in the ACM Urban Studies program accompanied by a written reflection
  • EDUC 595: Methods, Materials and Assessments in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
  • Student teaching in an ethnically diverse K–12 classroom or program

Film Studies

Film Studies regards visual culture as producing both vital art forms and cultural artifacts that can be rigorously analyzed. Although they draw on literary and other artistic traditions, cinematic texts have always had their own identifiable properties and conventions. Many of the courses listed below pay particular attention to the history, analysis, and interpretation of film as a key form of modern culture. Other courses specifically engage with the production of visual culture through filmmaking, animation and the production of digital media. All film studies courses provide students with background in the theory and criticism of moving images. Film studies invites interdisciplinary approaches, and the course offerings at Lawrence are drawn not only from the program’s core, but also from various language departments: Chinese, English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish; there are also film courses in the Departments of Anthropology, Art and Art History, Education, History, Theatre Arts, and the Conservatory of Music. Students taking courses in film studies have access to a wide range of interpretive methodologies, national cinemas, film styles and genres, and they can combine an interest in film studies with almost any discipline in the liberal arts.

Required for the film studies major

  1. A minimum of 10 film studies courses to include:
    1. FIST 100: Introduction to Film Studies
    2. Three additional designated courses, one in each category:
      1. Film History: FIST 210: Film History I, FIST 211: Film History II
      2. Film Theory: FIST 402: Film Theory and Criticism
      3. Filmmaking: FIST 370: Avant-Doc, FIST 371: Documentary Forms
    3. Six elective courses
    4. A Senior Experience capstone project that allows students to create either a film or a research paper as a final project

Required for the film studies minor

  1. A minimum of six film studies courses to include:
    1. FIST 100: Introduction to Film Studies
    2. One course in each of two categories:
      1. Film History: FIST 210: Film History I, FIST 211: Film History II
      2. Film Theory: FIST 402: Film Theory and Criticism, or a designated theory course
    3. Filmmaking: FIST 370: Avant-Doc, FIST 371: Documentary Forms
    4. Three electives

French

Goals of the beginning and intermediate sequences in French are comprehension of both the oral and written language beyond an elementary level, development of the capacity to express reasonably complicated thought both orally and in writing, and an introduction to French and Francophone literatures and cultures.

At the advanced level, the student is expected to reach competence in use and knowledge of the French language and to become conversant with French and Francophone literatures and cultures. Students will not only familiarize themselves but also engage critically with important intellectual ideas from the French-speaking world as they have evolved across time and space.

From the beginning, French is used extensively, if not totally, in the classroom. Except where specified, all class discussion, essays, and examinations are conducted in French.

Required for the French major

Students complete a French major by taking a minimum of 60 units beyond FREN 202, including 12 to 18 units at the 300 level, at least 12 units at the 400 level, and at least 12 units at the 500 level, plus the Senior Seminar. At least 18 of the 400- or 500-level units must be taken on the Lawrence campus.

French majors will be required to attend at least one Björklunden French language immersion weekend in either their junior or senior year. Participation in the immersion experience will allow department members to evaluate majors’ levels of proficiency in listening and speaking in a free and unstructured linguistic environment. Students who major in French are also required to attend at least six meetings of the French Table; for one of the Tables they will serve as discussion leader.

Finally, all French majors will be required to assemble a portfolio of a selection of their work in the French program. The portfolio is designed to keep a record of progress over the course of a French major’s career in terms of linguistic proficiency, mastery of specific literary and cultural content, and sophistication of ideas.

Portfolios must be submitted by the second week of Term III of the student’s senior or super-senior year. The French and Francophone Studies department will receive and approve only completed portfolios, and the portfolio submissions must be in PDF format.

The French portfolio must include:

  1. A list of all courses taken for the major
  2. A list of works included in the portfolio
    1. A two- to three-page essay in French that captures the concept of “la francophonie” through discussion of one aspect of cultural production (cinema, literature, media, music, etc.) that distinguishes and yet relates French and Francophone identity
  3. Samples of students' work will be drawn from each of the following categories:
    1. One sample essay from each of the following levels: French 300, French 400, and French 500. At least one of the essays should discuss a Francophone topic.
    2. The student's senior capstone project.

A student may request permission to submit a video recording of an oral presentation in place of one essay.

Required for the French minor

Students complete a French minor by taking a minimum of 36 units beyond FREN 202, which will include 12 units at the 300 level and at least 6 units at the 400 level and 6 units at the 500 level. A C or above average in the minor also is required.

French minors will be required to attend at least one Björklunden immersion weekend in either their junior or senior year. Participation in the immersion experience will allow department members to evaluate minors’ levels of proficiency in listening and speaking in a free and unstructured linguistic environment. Students who minor in French are also required to attend at least six meetings of the French Table and complete a short project based on work pre-approved by the department. There will be an oral presentation of the project before at least two members of the department.

Finally, students must declare their intent to minor in French in writing to the department chair in their junior year.

Teacher Ceritification in French (K-12)

French majors can seek certification to teach French at the elementary and secondary levels. To be certified, students must spend a term in a French-speaking country studying the language and culture and must pass an oral and writing proficiency test. Students can add an endorsement in a second area (such as another language or English as a second language) by completing the appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Concerning study abroad

The department urges students to take advantage of the international study programs in France, Senegal or Quebec.

Placement Examination

The placement examination for students taking French at Lawrence for the first time is available online at the department’s home page. To take the exam, go to Placement Exams and follow the instructions. The exam may be taken on or off campus. Students wishing to place out of the language requirement by proficiency examination should sign up through the department chair for an oral proficiency interview and writing exam in addition to the placement test.

At the beginning and intermediate levels, courses are numbered to indicate relative difficulty, the lowest numbers identifying those that require the least proficiency in French. At the level of FREN 400 and above, however, students should consult a French instructor.

At whatever level students place, they should plan to begin their study of French in the freshman or sophomore year.

Senior Experience in French and Francophone Studies

French and Francophone studies requires a Senior Experience that consists of a one-term senior seminar (winter) in which possible research topics are defined and outlined, culminating in a written thesis and an oral, in-class presentation of the student's work. Other types of research projects and interdisciplinary capstones in French may meet the requirement; the possibility of an alternative project must be discussed with the department chair and the student's advisor.

Students pursuing double majors, double degrees, or teacher certification are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall Senior Experience as early as possible. It is imperative that students interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in both majors consult with the department chair by fall of the senior or super-senior year.

Freshman Studies

Freshman Studies has been the cornerstone of the Lawrence curriculum for over 60 years. Designed by Nathan Pusey, who left Lawrence for the presidency at Harvard, it was first taught in 1945 and is still best understood as an introduction to liberal learning.

Students take Freshman Studies in their first two terms on campus. Each section of the course includes about fifteen students, allowing for close relationships between students and teachers. Because each section uses the same reading list, Freshman Studies also helps students to join in the life of a larger intellectual community, one that now includes generations of Lawrentians.

In keeping with such goals, Freshman Studies is expansive and inclusive. Instead of endorsing a single point of view, the course embraces works from many different traditions. Every division of the curriculum is represented on the syllabus, and recent versions of the course have included writings by Plato and Zhuangzi, short stories by Jorge Luis Borges, Elizabeth Bishop's poetry, lectures by Richard Feynman, Stanley Milgram's experiments, Dorothea Lange’s photography, and the music of Miles Davis.

Through their encounters with such works, students gain an appreciation of different approaches to knowledge. They also join each other in exploring a host of important questions: What is the best sort of life for human beings? Are there limits to human knowledge? How should we respond to injustice and suffering? In addition to raising these questions, Freshman Studies serves more immediate and practical goals. The course encourages lively discussion and introduces students to the conventions of academic writing. In the first term, for example, students learn that a paper must serve the needs of an intelligent, curious reader. They also learn that a good paper should be organized around a central claim or thesis and supported with evidence from the text.

In the second term, students build on these foundations, moving on to more complex forms of argument. Students may be asked to assess the interpretations of earlier scholars or to contrast the treatment of a crucial theme in two very different texts. Through their work in Freshman Studies, then, students begin to develop the skills needed for success in more advanced courses.

Gender Studies

Gender is a fundamental aspect of personal and social identity and a biological, psychological, and cultural category of paramount importance for people everywhere. In addition, gender is often a criterion for social stratification and different political treatment, as well as a favored symbol for expressing values and beliefs. Gender studies offers students an opportunity for focused study of such varied issues, in both contemporary and past societies, as human reproduction, gender roles in the family and society, the psychology of identity, sexual orientation, and representations of women and men in literature, music, and art.

Required for the major in gender studies

  1. Two core courses (interdisciplinary in nature):
    1. GEST 100: Introduction to Gender Studies
    2. GEST 200: Introduction to Feminist Theory and Practice
  2. Two additional cross-listed six-unit courses, cross-listed and offered within various disciplines that focus primarily on gender. These courses must be distributed as follows:
    1. One must be either GEST 110 or GEST 350.
    2. One must be either GEST 180 or GEST 270.
  3. At least six additional six-unit courses in either gender studies or cross-listed, and some may be gender-component courses, as described below. The six courses must be distributed as follows:
    1. At least two courses must be at the level of 200 or above.
    2. At least one course must be at the level of 400 or above.
    3. Up to 6 units of independent study in gender studies may be substituted for one course.
    4. One of the six courses must be a Senior Experience of at least six units.
    Courses cross-listed in gender studies will count toward completion of the major whether students register for them using the program's designation (GEST) or an individual department's designation.

Required for the minor in gender studies

  1. Two core courses:
    1. GEST 100: Introduction to Gender Studies
    2. GEST 200: Introduction to Feminist Theory and Practice
  2. Four additional six-unit courses that focus primarily on gender. The four courses must be distributed as follows:
    1. Three must be cross-listed in gender studies; the one remaining course may be a gender-component course. For a gender-component course, students must complete a form (to be signed by the instructor and their gender studies advisor) that outlines which course requirements will be fulfilled with work applicable to gender studies. This form must be completed and submitted to the gender studies advisor by the end of the second week of the term. Forms may be downloaded from the gender studies web page.
    2. At least two courses must be at the level of 200 or above.
    3. Completion of an independent study in gender studies can be substituted for one course.
    Courses cross-listed in gender studies will count toward completion of the minor whether students register for them using the program's designation (GEST) or an individual department's designation.

Senior Experience in Gender Studies

Students majoring in gender studies will enroll in a Senior Experience that is approved by the gender studies advisory board and mentored by a gender studies faculty member.

The Senior Experience will be at least one term, but may be more depending on the route the student pursues. The experience may be an independent study, an internship/practicum accompanied by an independent study, or an approved project in an advanced course. The Senior Experience will culminate in a senior thesis about the project, and an oral presentation of the student's work. A variety of artistic or research projects, interdisciplinary projects, and projects based on social service or activist initiatives may be appropriate Senior Experiences, but must be approved in consultation with the student's advisor and the advisory board.

Students interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in gender studies with another major or student teaching, are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall Senior Experience as early as possible.

Geology

If “geology” makes you think of dusty collections of rocks, minerals and old bones, visit the Lawrence geology department. You will discover a thriving group of faculty members and students who consider geology to be a way of seeing the Earth, a lens through which the planet’s past and present come simultaneously into focus.

Lawrence geology students have an exceptional range of research experiences, comparable to what students from larger universities would first encounter at graduate school. In a single academic term, you could find yourself sampling ice-age lake sediments with the department’s portable drill rig, mapping the roots of an ancient mountain belt in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, instrumenting a watershed in eastern Wisconsin, examining microscopic rock structures with image-analysis software, and conducting geochemical and crystallographic studies with research equipment shared with the chemistry and physics departments. All geology majors complete a research project as part of their Senior Experience, and many present results of their research at professional meetings.

Field-based studies are at the heart of the Lawrence geology program. Recent destinations for the annual all-department field trip have included Hawaii, the Adirondacks, Wyoming, Ontario, Scotland and Puerto Rico. Shorter trips are integrated into academic-year courses, and there also are opportunities for summer field courses, internships, and research projects. Appleton is within a few hours’ drive of classical geological localities, including iron ore deposits and ancient volcanoes in northern Wisconsin and Michigan, a fossil forest preserved in glacial sediments on the shores of Lake Michigan, and the world-renowned glacial landscape of the Kettle Moraine. Local environmental issues related to surface and groundwater protection also provide the basis for student field projects.

In many ways, geology is the ideal liberal arts degree. It is a discipline that draws not only upon one’s observational and analytical abilities but also upon one’s aesthetic and creative instincts.

Required for the geology major

  1. Required core courses
    1. GEOL 110: Introductory Geology
    2. GEOL 210: History of Earth and Life
    3. GEOL 240: Chemistry of the Earth: Low-Temperature Environments
    4. GEOL 245: Mineralogical Analysis
    5. GEOL 250: Chemistry of the Earth: High-Temperature Environments
    6. GEOL 360: Physics of the Earth: Surface Processes
    7. GEOL 370: Physics of the Earth: Subsurface Processes
    8. GEOL 580: Junior Seminar
    9. GEOL 620: Senior Capstone
  2. An additional twelve units in geology courses numbered 200 or higher
  3. Courses in other sciences and mathematics
    • CHEM 116 (may be waived by placement exam)
    • MATH 107 or 117 or 120 or 140 or 207
    • PHYS 141 or 151

Required for the geology minor

  1. Required core courses
    1. GEOL 110: Introductory Geology
    2. GEOL 210: History of Earth and Life
    3. Any two of the following:
      • GEOL 240: Chemistry of the Earth: Low-Temperature Environments
      • GEOL 250: Chemistry of the Earth: High-Temperature Environments
      • GEOL 360: Physics of the Earth: Surface Processes
      • GEOL 370: Physics of the Earth: Subsurface Processes
  2. An additional twelve units in geology courses numbered 200 or higher
  3. C average in the minor

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in geology and a secondary discipline

  1. GEOL 110 and GEOL 210
  2. PHYS 150 and 160 or, with the permission of the secondary department, PHYS 120 and 130.
  3. Either:
    • BIOL 110 and 120 or BIOL 110 and 140, or
    • CHEM 115 and 116 or equivalent chosen to include the secondary interest
  4. At least 10 additional six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, and physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in geology and at least three in the secondary discipline
  5. GEOL 580 and 620

Teacher certification in geology/earth science or broad-field science

Students can seek teacher certification to teach geology/earth science at the secondary level. Certification requires a major in geology with courses in astronomy and oceanography and other science subjects. Students also have the option of seeking broad-field science certification by completing a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines and at least one course in each of the remaining sciences. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Geology

The Senior Experience in geology comprises two 3-unit courses (GEOL 580 and 620), typically offered in the in spring term of the junior year and the winter term of the senior year respectively.

The junior seminar (GEOL 580) helps students begin to acquire an “insider's view” of the geosciences. In the first part of the course, students explore the philosophical and historical underpinnings of the discipline and develop strategies for finding and reading technical literature. Then, working with at least one member of the geology faculty, each student identifies a substantive research question and designs a plan by which to investigate that question.

In the senior capstone (GEOL 620), students work with faculty mentors to carry out these research plans (sometimes building upon work that they conducted during summer study on campus, in the field, or through programs at other universities as well as Independent Study work). By the end of GEOL 620, each student presents his or her research results and analyses to the department as a whole. Some students opt to continue their capstone research throughout their senior year as senior thesis or honors thesis projects.

German

German has long been a key language of culture, the arts, philosophy, and the social and natural sciences. For better and for worse, Germany has played a significant role in European and world history, while united Germany is one of the driving forces behind European integration and economic development. As a result, German is an important language—not just in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland—but also as a second language throughout the continent. Germany itself is changing in ways that shatter old prejudices and make German an exciting culture to explore. Not only has Döner Kebab become Germans' favorite fast food, but with at least 20 percent of Germans having migrant backgrounds, it is no wonder that some of the most interesting literature and film has been produced by people who do not fit the stereotypical image of Germans.

The German department at Lawrence University assists students not just in learning the German language, but also becoming familiar with Germany’s literature, history, and culture, including popular culture—film, television and popular literature. German courses also encourage students to develop analytical and interpretive skills. This mix of information, analysis and interpretation helps them understand an increasingly dynamic, diverse and interdependent international community, a global community in which Germany is an ever more important player. The knowledge and abilities that German students acquire can help them in a wide variety of careers and give them a lifetime of cultural pleasure.

The study of German begins with the language, but the Lawrence German program insists that language is always part of a cultural nexus. Lawrence’s German program is designed to help students develop proficiency in all four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Since it only makes sense to learn German in courses with significant cultural content, beginning and intermediate instruction always integrates pertinent cultural material and provides an opportunity for comparisons between German and American experiences. Most classes, even at the elementary level, are conducted in German, and the program insists that every course, at all levels, is both a language and cultural course. Knowledge of a second language in its cultural context makes students aware of their own language and culture; they are less likely to take things for granted. Of course, the best way to experience difference is to live in another culture, and the German department strongly encourages students to take advantage of opportunities for study in the German-speaking world through our affiliated programs in Berlin, Freiburg, and Vienna. We also offer a short-term trip to Berlin in conjunction with a course called Berlin: Experiencing a Great City. On campus they can maintain a connection to things German through the department’s lunch and dinner tables, which are all facilitated by our language assistants.

Once the cultural and linguistic foundations have been laid, students embark on a deeper exploration of German culture, history, and society. The German department at Lawrence embraces the notion of German studies. Although works of great literature offer unparalleled access to German culture, students will also be exposed to a wider variety of cultural artifacts—film, television, nonfiction texts, popular narratives, etc.—than might be the case in more traditional German programs.

Required for the German major

  1. Sixty units beyond GER 202, including GER 285 and 312. At least 36 of these units must be taken at Lawrence. Only 12 units taught in English may count toward the major, but tutorials taken in conjunction with English courses may count as German credit.
  2. Students usually complete a capstone project in the senior seminar or in conjunction with a departmental course taken during the senior year.
  3. Students who expect to graduate present a portfolio by the second week of their final term. The student's advisor will review a portfolio consisting of the following materials submitted electronically:
    1. a brief statement in which students evaluate their development as German majors
    2. a list of courses taken for the major
    3. sample pages of Lesejournale from all German courses numbered 300 and above taken at Lawrence
    4. four papers from upper-level courses, two of which may be from courses taken abroad
    5. a copy of the capstone paper

Required for the German minor

  1. Thirty-six units beyond GER 202, including GER 285 and 312. At least 24 of these units must be taken at Lawrence. Only six units taught in English may count toward the minor, but tutorials taken in conjunction with English courses may count as German credits.
  2. A C average in the minor is also required.

Teacher certification in German (K-12)

German majors can seek certification to teach German at the elementary and secondary levels. To be certified, students must spend a term in a German-speaking country studying the language and culture and must pass an oral and writing proficiency test. Students can add an endorsement in a second area (such as another language or English as a second language) by completing the appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in German

The German department's revised Senior Experience consists of a longer, research paper to be completed either through an independent study or the senior seminar. Students should develop individual paper topics by the end of Fall Term. The capstone project may be completed during Winter Term, or it may spill over into an independent study during Spring Term.

In either case, the senior seminar allows students to help each other develop their ideas and arguments; they will also present their findings to the entire senior cohort.
Students who are pursuing a double major or teacher certification should work with all concerned departments to assess the feasibility of an interdisciplinary capstone.

Global Studies

Global studies is an interdisciplinary major that investigates the broad range of cultural, political, social and economic forces at play historically and today. Global studies majors will understand the global influences on the lives of individuals and will be sensitive to different identities, practices, thought systems, institutions and structures, particularly their roots, scope and linkages. They will recognize their place in the global community, including their impact—for good or ill—on cultural, political, economic and environmental issues. Global studies majors will possess the foundation necessary to lead responsible, meaningful, engaged lives in a connected, diverse and ever-changing world.

The global studies curriculum is designed to give students a structure in which to explore a range of interests. An introductory course introduces students to the diverse perspectives on globalization and models of interdisciplinary investigation. Global studies majors will choose a set of electives from one of four thematic groupings, all of which include approaches from multiple disciplines. In order to maintain a dynamic, up-to-date listing, electives that will count toward each of the tracks in the global studies major will be listed on the departmental website. This structure balances the breadth and depth of students’ academic training and ensures that global studies majors will develop the ability to ask interconnected, interdisciplinary questions. Students may, in close consultation with their academic advisor, self-design a thematic track.

Required for the major in global studies

  1. GLST 100: Intro to Global Studies (6 units)
  2. The equivalent of a minor in one additional language (~30 to 66 units, depending on incoming students’ initial proficiency, i.e., where they begin their minor, and on the requirements of the chosen language.)
    Alternatively, some students may choose to fulfill the language requirement through the completion of GER+5 courses in one language plus three terms (or the equivalent of one year) in either a second language or mathematics/statistics/modeling. The combination of languages must clearly contribute to a particular project or career ambition, be approved by an advisor in global studies and demonstrate coherence with respect to the chosen track. Languages acquired during an off-campus experience are acceptable as long as the student achieves linguistic and cultural competency equivalent to the GER requirement.
  3. In consultation with a global studies faculty advisor, students must choose a set of eight six-unit thematically connected electives that meet the goals of one track listed below. Students and advisors should consult the departmental website carefully when selecting courses that count toward their track in the global studies major. All electives must satisfy the following requirements.
    1. Three six-unit courses from the arts, humanities or musicology at the introductory or intermediate level (course numbers 100-300 or above); (18 units)
    2. Three six-unit courses from the social sciences at the introductory or intermediate level (course numbers 100-300 or above); (18 units)
    3. Two six-unit courses at the advanced level (course number 400+). One course must be from the social sciences; the other comes from the fields of arts, humanities or musicology.
    4. Note: No more than two 100-level courses may count toward the elective requirements, and no more than two upper-level language department courses may be double-counted for the track and the language minor (or minor equivalent).
    5. Note: The core courses normally count within this portion of the requirements.
  4. Required global experience at an off-campus site (local, domestic or abroad)
    Global studies students are required to participate in a globally engaged off-campus experience. Most students will fulfill this requirement through an approved Lawrence study abroad program. However, we recognize study abroad is not feasible for all students. Therefore, the off-campus global experience may also include local projects with global connections. Examples include working with the Fox Valley Refugee Resettlement Agency, the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, the Hmong-American Partnership of the Fox Cities, the Northeast Wisconsin Chinese Association or with the City of Appleton’s Office of Diversity & Inclusion. These projects must include 10 weeks of engagement, be connected to either the global studies primary language or track, and be pre-approved by a global studies advisor.

Global studies tracks

  1. Nations and Identities: Nations remain a central form of organization in the global world. Nations lie at the center of our interlocking system of political and economic institutions, and they also provide the organizing principle behind national languages and cultures, ethnic identities and even sporting events. Although nations claim to be ancient, modern nations only began to develop in the 18th century, and their future is by no means assured. This track seeks to approach global studies through an emphasis on the construction and function of nation, with attention given as well to newer, transnational forms of identity. Since the study of the nation requires a broad sense of the history of the nation, the reasons it developed and the variety of forms it has taken, there is a significant history component to this track, along with an emphasis on classes offered in government. In addition, classes in literature, culture and the arts will enrich students’ understanding of how national identities are constructed and become emotionally compelling, as well as how they are contested through migration and integration, through devolution into smaller units, and by institutions and practices that transcend national boundaries. Students who choose the nations and identities track must take at least two of the following four courses:
    • GOVT 226: Identity Politics and Ethnic Conflict
    • GOVT 260: European Democracies
    • HIST 295: Nationalism in Modern History
    • HIST 315: Empire and Nation in Russian History
  2. Global Cities: One of the central signs for globalization and even modernity is the importance of cities. Much of what is most exciting and new in our world stems from the cultural and ethnic mixing that takes place in global cities. Many Lawrence students aim to work in American cities that cater to the “creative class”—that is, young people who seek to participate in the new opportunities opened up by education and technology. This cities track will prepare students for thinking about the history of urbanization and our interconnected world by understanding the socio-cultural, economic and political complexities of the nature and evolution of major cities. Depending on course content, examined cities may include (but are not limited to): Algiers, Athens, Beijing, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Dakar, Paris, Istanbul, Moscow, Istanbul, Jerusalem, Johannesburg, Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Seoul, Shanghai and Tokyo. Students who choose the cities track must take at least two of the following four courses:
    • GOVT 245: Comparative Politics of Developing Countries
    • RLST 365: Faith and Power in the Mediterranean
    • GER 290/388: Berlin: Experiencing a Great City
    • GLST TBD: Understanding Colonialism
  3. Human Security: Human security is the study of global violence through the lens of the individual, with particular emphasis on vulnerable and marginalized communities. It includes multiple forms of vulnerability and structural violence, including discrimination, displacement, genocide, disease, poverty and environmental stress. This track offers students the opportunity to understand human security and vulnerable populations through an interdisciplinary lens, including narratives and other representations of human agency and social scientific analysis of the policies and institutions designed to address these challenges. Students who choose the human security track must take at least two of the following four courses:
    • GOVT 248: Social Entrepreneurship
    • ECON 200: Development Economics
    • MUCO 493: Music and Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective
    • ENG 516: Literature and Human Rights
  4. Arts and Exchange: One path to understanding our global world is in the artistic expressions (including literature, performing arts, visual arts and film) through which identities are staked out and claimed. This track offers students the opportunity to think about the arts from the perspective of global systems, exchanges and regulations. Students will be encouraged to consider how economic systems, international organizations, the movement of people and the commodification and commercialization of cultural practices affect artistic production, notions of ownership and meaning across borders. Students who choose the arts and exchange track must take at least two of the following four courses:
    • HIST 105: Cross-Cultural Interactions Along the Silk Road
    • ECON 205: International Economics
    • ENG 280: Postcolonial Writers
    • GOV 480: International Organization

Senior Experience in Global Studies

The global studies major culminates in a Senior Experience consisting of a six-unit senior seminar. The seminar brings together students from all tracks, and it includes a set of common readings that revisit important theoretical issues in the field global studies. The readings will also highlight disciplinary differences in the objects of inquiry available to scholars of global studies and show again how interdisciplinary inquiry produces deeper understanding. Students’ work in the seminar culminates with a portfolio showcasing their work in the major, and they will present that work to other members of the seminar. The portfolio will consist of the two components listed below. Together, the Senior Experience components will demonstrate that a student has developed interdisciplinary and intercultural proficiency.

  1. A written, critical reflection on the student’s off-campus global experience, with particular emphasis on curricular connections and personal development.
  2. A revised version of a substantial (10–15 pages) paper written on a global topic and in an advanced (400+ level) course counting toward the global studies major.

Government

Instruction in the government department responds to an intensely political age and its intellectual challenges. Our main objective is to help students learn how to explain, interpret, and evaluate political institutions, policies, behaviors, and beliefs. Majors learn how to employ a variety of methods to analyze political phenomena, as well as how to defend their analyses with rigorous, evidence-based arguments.

The introductory course (GOVT 110) provides an introduction to the analysis of the contemporary political system primarily through an examination of the theory and practice of American government. Students proceeding further are introduced to the major problems of political analysis and to the interplay of theory and data before going on to advanced courses in American politics and policy, comparative politics, constitutional law, international politics, and political theory.

A major in government prepares students for success in a wide variety of careers including politics, law, business, teaching, or non-profit work. Those who pursued advanced degrees have done so in political science, business, law, international relations, public policy, history, medicine, education, urban planning, development studies, and many other fields.

Required for the government major

Government majors must complete either of the following two tracks:

Required for the government major general track

  1. GOVT 110: Introduction to Political Science
  2. GOVT 271: Research Methods in Political Science
  3. One of the following courses in American politics:
    • GOVT 211: Flexibility and Freedom: American Federalism in Transition
    • GOVT 220: American Elections, Candidates, and Political Parties
    • GOVT 360: The American Presidency
    • GOVT 370: Congressional Politics
    • GOVT 375: American Political Development
    • GOVT 380: Introduction to Public Policy
  4. One of the following courses in comparative politics:
    • GOVT 215: Democracy in Comparative Perspective
    • GOVT 245: Comparative Politics of Developing Countries
  5. One of the following courses in international politics:
    • GOVT 140: Introduction to International Relations
    • GOVT 340: International Politics
  6. One of the following courses in political theory:
    • GOVT 200: Politics and Human Nature
    • GOVT 235: American Political Thought
    • GOVT 315: Founding the Just Regime
    • GOVT 405: Individuality and Community in Modern Politics
  7. One six-unit course numbered 400 or above
  8. Senior Experience: one six-unit course numbered 500 or above. Students may satisfy this requirement by completing a 500 or higher-level seminar, independent study, tutorial, directed study, or internship.
  9. At least eleven six-unit courses total
  10. C average in the major
  11. At most two 100-level courses may count toward the major.
  12. Students may count one cross-listed course in economics toward the major.

Required for the government major international relations track

  1. GOVT 110: Introduction to Political Science
  2. GOVT 140: Introduction to International Relations
  3. GOVT 340: International Politics
  4. GOVT 271: Research Methods in Political Science
  5. One of the following courses in comparative politics:
    • GOVT 215: Democracy in Comparative Perspective
    • GOVT 245: Comparative Politics of Developing Countries
  6. One of the following courses in political theory:
    • GOVT 200: Politics and Human Nature
    • GOVT 315: Founding the Just Regime
    • GOVT 405: Individuality and Community in Modern Politics
  7. One six-unit course numbered 400 or above in international or comparative politics
  8. Senior Experience: one six-unit course numbered 500 or above, with an international or comparative focus. Students may satisfy this requirement by completing a 500 or higher-level seminar, independent study, tutorial, directed study, or internship.
  9. Three additional six-unit elective courses
  10. At least eleven six-unit courses total
  11. C average in the major
  12. At most three 100-level courses may count toward the major.
  13. One of the electives must be a course with a comparative or international focus offered by a department outside of government. Students must clear their choices with their advisors in advance. Foreign language courses may only satisfy this requirement if they exceed the level required for the B.A. degree.
  14. Students may count one cross-listed course in economics, in addition to the above course, toward the major.
  15. Students may count Government 211, 220, 360, 370, 375, or 380 instead of Government 110 if they secure permission from the relevant course instructor or if they have received credit for AP Government.

Required for the government minor

  1. GOV 110: Introduction to Political Science
  2. One six-unit course in American politics
  3. One six-unit course in political theory
  4. Two six-unit courses from the fields of comparative politics and international relations
  5. One six-unit course at the advanced level numbered 400 or above, excluding tutorials and independent studies
  6. A total of at least six six-unit courses, four of which must be numbered 200 or above
  7. C average in the minor

Teacher Ceritifcation in Government/Political Science or Broad-Field Social Studies

Government majors can seek certification to teach government/political science or broad-field social studies at the secondary level. For certification in broad-field social studies, students must complete the government major and a minimum of two courses each in two other social studies (anthropology/sociology, economics, history, or psychology) and at least one course in each of the remaining social studies. Students are strongly encouraged to take a course in U.S. history and a course in global history. A course in environmental studies is also required. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Off-campus study

Senior Experience in Government

The Senior Experience in Government will allow seniors to pursue a capstone research project, an academic internship in government or politics, or other culminating work chosen in consultation with faculty advisors. Capstone research projects may be pursued through a senior seminar, in approved upper-level courses or independent studies, or through work toward an honors thesis.

History

Consciously or not, all of us operate as historians. We make judgments and decisions based on our knowledge, however inadequate, of what has gone before. Furthermore, we make sense of our own position in the present by composing and telling stories about where we have been in the past. The formal study of history—the critical examination of human accomplishments and failures—does likewise, and it greatly enhances our ability to judge and decide about both private matters and public issues. Although historical awareness does not offer immediate solutions to contemporary problems, it does lead to a better understanding of them. Studying what was remote in time and space provides important perspectives on politics, society, and culture.

Required for the history major

  1. The minimal requirement for the major is 10 six unit courses.
  2. Students must complete a sequence of three courses specifically designed to promote the skills and method of disciplined historical inquiry and to culminate in the production of an original and substantial piece of historical research. These courses must be taken in order and at specified times, so students must take special care when planning their advancement through the major.
    1. Students are required to take HIST 101: Introduction to Historical Methods, during their freshman or sophomore year.
    2. Students are required to take HIST 620: Historiography, during their junior year.
    3. Students are required to take HIST 650: The Practice of History, during their senior year. Exceptions may be granted, however, for majors who petition to complete a piece of advanced and original historical research in suitable off-campus programs.
  3. Students must complete seven additional courses that will serve both to broaden and to deepen their historical knowledge. One of the seven courses must be a seminar or independent study in which students will begin a research project to be completed in HIST 650.
    1. Students are required to take at least one six-unit course from each of the following three categories: North America (NA), Europe (E), and Global and Comparative (G&C).
    2. Students are required to take at least one course that covers materials up to the year 1750.
    3. Students are required to take at least one course designated as a seminar (numbered between 400 and 599) or one designated as an independent study (numbered between 400 and 599), during their junior year or during the Fall Term of their senior year.
    4. Students are encouraged to take as many additional courses focusing on their own areas of interest as they and their advisors deem appropriate for the completion of the major.
  4. Students must have a C average in the major.

Required for the history minor

  1. The minimal requirement for the minor is 6 six-unit courses.
  2. Students must take at least one introductory course (numbered between 100 and 199).
  3. Students must take at least five additional courses.
    1. No more than one may be an introductory course.
    2. At least one must be a seminar or independent study (numbered between 400 and 599).
  4. Students must have a C average in the minor.

Teacher Certification in History or Broad-Field Social Studies

History majors can seek certification to teach history or broad-field social studies at the secondary level. For certification in broad-field social studies, students must complete the history major and a minimum of two courses each in two other social studies (anthropology/sociology, economics, government/political science, or psychology) and at least one course in each of the remaining social studies. A course in environmental studies is also required. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Off-campus Study

The history department encourages majors, whenever possible, to participate in one of the off-campus programs offered either by Lawrence or under the auspices of the Associated Colleges of the Midwest or other consortial arrangements. The Lawrence London Centre and the ACM Newberry Library Program have proven to be of particular interest to history majors, though majors have benefited from participation in numerous others—especially those that match up with students’ area interests (see Off-Campus Programs).

Graduate School

Students who are considering graduate studies in history should know that most doctoral programs require one or more (usually two) languages in addition to English and should work closely with their advisors to plan their schedules accordingly.

Advanced Placement

Students who have earned a 4 or better in the Advanced Placement Examinations in American History, European History, or World History will receive six units of credit in history and may use that credit in partial fulfillment of the major. (History majors should consult with their advisors to determine which departmental introductory course their AP credit might replace.) These same students are strongly encouraged to consult with any member of the department about appropriate placement in courses above the introductory level.

Senior Experience in History

The Senior Experience in the history department consists of a collaborative one-term seminar, The Practice of History, culminating in an original and substantial piece of historical research. Students will be introduced to the standards of research and writing common to the historical profession and will be guided through their own individual projects. The Practice of History represents the culmination of a course sequence that includes Introduction to Historical Methods and Historiography. It is open to history majors who have completed an advanced seminar, tutorial, or independent study and have outlined a research topic that they are prepared to pursue intensively.

Innovation & Entrepreneurship

Program Description

The mission of the Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E) interdisciplinary area is to enable students to further pursue their passion through innovative and entrepreneurial ventures in courses and co-curricular activities. It is important to note that we use the word “innovative” in a particular sense, referring to creative, original thinking that leads to new ideas, products, or services that create value for society. Similarly, we use “entrepreneurial” in a specific way, referring to taking initiative and creating positive change in the world. Finally, our use of the word “venture” includes both for-profit and non-profit ventures, and more broadly any initiative to deliver a product or service in a sustainable way.

Innovation and entrepreneurship, understood in this sense, fit naturally into a liberal education. The cultivation of innovative, entrepreneurial thought and action requires one to approach problems from multiple perspectives, to think creatively beyond the status quo, to create and deliver coherent, persuasive arguments. These are essential skills that a liberal education aims to impart to its recipients. The I&E program is one place among many where Lawrence’s curriculum attempts to develop the ability to create what did not exist before. I&E courses attempt to enhance the ability to generate new ideas or processes. Certainly other courses do this in other ways. Graduates who embrace innovative and entrepreneurial attitudes will be better equipped to create fulfilling lives for themselves—lives that extend their liberal arts experience.

Required for the I&E interdisciplinary area

  1. Three core courses:
    1. I-E 100: In Pursuit of Innovation
    2. I-E 110: Financial Literacy
    3. I-E 300: Entrepreneurial Ventures
  2. At least one elective from:
    • MUEP 280: The Entrepreneurial Musician
    • GOVT 248: Social Entrepreneurship
    • ECON 405: Economics of Innovation and Entrepreneurship
    • ECON 400: Industrial Organization
    • I-E 212: Corporate Finance
    • Other courses in which aspects of innovation or entrepreneurship are central, such as Topics in Education Studies (EDST 450: Educating for Creativity); CMSC 410: Systems Analysis and Design
  3. A second course from 2. above, or an additional course that is directly relevant to innovation and entrepreneurship. At this time these include:
    • ART 600: Studio Art Senior Seminar
    • RLST 245: Apple, Google, Facebook
    • ENG 503: Contemporary American Poetry
    • ANTH 210: Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology
    • ART 245: Interarts: New Media Projects
    • ART 320: Intermediate Printmaking or ART 520: Advanced Printmaking
    • PHYS 340: Optics
  4. Practicum: A 3-unit course or internship such as Start-Up Theatre, Rabbit Gallery, or KidsGive; Internship in Studio Art (ART 395, 595, or 695), or others, including the option of a 400-level IS to continue a project started in a course. Alternatively, participation in the ACM Chicago Program with a focus on entrepreneurship.

Latin American Studies

Latin America is the product of one of the most dramatic intersections of human societies in world history. Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans began a process that has created a politically, socially, and economically complex region. Latin America and its peoples have played a vital role in the development of the modern world, and that role is only increasing at the start the 21st century. The minor in Latin American studies provides students an opportunity to study this field from a variety of disciplinary angles. By employing the tools of various disciplines, including anthropology, Spanish, economics, government, history, and others, students can begin the process of understanding this vast mosaic of peoples and nations.

Required for the minor in Latin American studies

Students must take six courses (at least 36 units), including:

  1. Core requirements: 2 courses (normally 12 units), from the following list:
    • HIST 178: Colonial Latin American History
    • HIST 179: Modern Latin American History 1821-Present
    • HIST 371: The Rise and Fall of American Empires
    • HIST 374/SPAN 570: Visions of the Conquest
    • HIST 378/ETST 325: Ethnicity in Latin America
    • HIST 422: Revolt and Revolution in Latin America
    • SPAN 320: Introduction to Literary Texts
    • SPAN 425, 426/ARHI 270, 271: Latin American Visual Art
    • SPAN 430: Introduction to Film
    • SPAN 466: Latin@ Studies
    • SPAN 521: Latin American Literature
    • SPAN 577: Space as Text
    • SPAN 580: Dis(re)membering the Nation: Contemporary Film & Fiction of Spain and Latin America
    • SPAN 585: Buenos Aires
  2. Electives: 4 courses (normally 24 units). Elective courses from other disciplines must allow students to focus their individual work on Latin America, and such work must count for at least 25 percent of the final grade for the course. Course content can change from term to term; therefore, when choosing electives, it is the responsibility of the student to speak to the professor to confirm that 25 percent of the graded work can be based on Latin American themes. Courses not included on this list may be used as electives provided they meet the above requirements.
    • Conservatory courses with consent of the instructor and of one of the Program co-chairs.
    • Up to one internship.
  3. Limitations:
    • Only up to six units can be from an independent study or tutorial (550 level).
    • Only up to a maximum of 18 units can be from any single discipline (including cross-listed courses).
    • Only up to a maximum of 18 units can be from the student's major/minor.
    • Only up to two courses can be from under the 200 level.
    • A C average in the minor is required.
    • At least 60 percent of the units must be taken on the Appleton campus.

Linguistics

The goal of linguistics is the enrichment of knowledge about the nature, grammar, and history of human language. Linguistics is a theoretical and applied discipline, akin to philosophy, anthropology, and cognitive psychology.

The core areas of linguistic theory are phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. A grammar is a system of rules that characterize the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of a natural language. The properties of grammars are the central focus of linguistic theory.

Because language is central to all humanistic disciplines, as well as to several social science areas, it is studied from many points of view. Linguistics itself cannot be said to recognize a single optimal approach to the subject; hence the courses provide a variety of approaches that reflect the diversity of the field.

Required for the linguistics major

  1. LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
  2. Two of the following courses:
    • LING 335: Introduction to Lexical Semantics
    • LING 340: Introduction to Syntax
    • LING 350: Introduction to Phonology
    • LING 380: Introduction to Morphology
  3. Two of the following courses:
    • LING 400: Philosophy of Language
    • LING 405: How to Do Things With Words
    • LING 420: Topics in Logic
    • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
  4. Four elective courses chosen from either #2 and #3 above, or from the following list:
    • CMSC 105: WWII Codebreaking
    • CMSC 106: Web Client Programming
    • CMSC 150: Introduction to Computer Science
    • CMSC 210: Introduction to Scientific Programming
    • LING 120: Language and Discrimination
    • LING 210: Language and the Law
    • LING 255: Introduction to Chinese Language and Culture
    • LING 265: Introduction to Japanese Language and Culture
    • LING 310: Introduction to East Asian Linguistics
    • LING 320: Historical Linguistics
    • LING 325: Introduction to Sociolinguistics
    • LING 330: Language and Culture
    • LING 360: Second Language Acquisition
    • LING 370: Phonetics
    • LING 374: Advanced Grammar Studies (Spanish)
    • LING 375/376: Spanish Phonetics
    • LING 430: Methods in Linguistic Anthropology
    • LING 450: Psycholinguistics
    • LING 531: Semiotics
    • LING 532: Topics in Linguistic Anthropology
    • LING 545: Gesture Studies
    • LING 190, 390, 590, 690: Tutorial Studies in Linguistics
    • PHIL 150: Symbolic Logic
  5. One of the following:
    • Study of two languages other than English, each for three terms (i.e. first-year level)
    • Completion of the fifth term of one language other than English (i.e. second-year level)
    • Study of one language other than English for four terms and the completion of an off-campus language program
  6. LING 650: Senior Seminar

Required for the linguistics minor

  1. LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
  2. Two of the following core courses:
    • LING 335: Introduction to Lexical Semantics
    • LING 340: Introduction to Syntax
    • LING 350: Introduction to Phonology
    • LING 380: Introduction to Morphology
    • LING 400: Philosophy of Language
    • LING 405: How to Do Things With Words
    • LING 420: Topics in Logic
    • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
  3. Two courses selected from the list of electives, or from the list of core courses (#2 and #3 above).
  4. C average in the minor

Required for the minor in teaching ESL

  1. Three courses in linguistics:
    1. LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
    2. LING 360: Second Language Acquisition
    3. 3-unit Directed Study (LING 391) on the structure of English
  2. Two courses in education:
    1. EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
    2. EDUC 565: Methods, Materials, and Assessment in ESL
  3. C average in the minor

Senior Experience in Linguistics

The Senior Experience in the linguistics program consists of LING 650 and an independent study that may be carried out over one, two, or three terms. Students choose an area of interest and work with a faculty member who does work in that field, or closely related to that field. The independent study culminates in a research paper and an oral presentation to faculty and students in the linguistics program.

Possible venues for presentation include the annual linguistics Björklunden weekend, the Linguistics Tea, or the Richard A. Harrison Symposium.

Students pursuing double majors are encouraged to find a topic that combines their interests in both fields.

Mathematics

Pattern and form surround us—from the branching angles of our blood vessels and the complexity of computer algorithms to inventory scheduling and the four-dimensional geometry of our universe. As the pure expression of pattern and form, mathematics provides the language for science. In the past 100 years, many disciplines have been virtually transformed by the infusion of mathematics, so that alongside the traditional field of mathematical physics, one now finds new disciplines such as mathematical biology, mathematical ecology, mathematical economics, mathematical linguistics and mathematical psychology.

But mathematics is so much more than its applications. As the study of formal structures, mathematics offers a supreme beauty, an abstract forest of pattern and form, at once deep, intricate, logical, and surprising, a forest holding wonders both known and unknown. The search for these wonders is no game, for mathematics bears on eternal truth: Primes—such as 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, ...—cannot be written as the product of two smaller integers. How many primes are there? Infinitely many. This is a well-known wonder proved by Euclid. Twin primes—such as 3 and 5, 5 and 7, 11 and 13, 17 and 19, ...—are “consecutive” primes. How many twin primes are there? No one knows. Mathematicians have unleashed their most sophisticated weapons on this problem, but the question remains unanswered. It is an unknown wonder. Will you be the first to find the answer? Whatever the answer, it is an eternal and universal truth: true for all time, in all places, to every intellect.

To reflect the diversity of modern mathematics and its applications, the department, alone or in conjunction with the economics department, offers three separate majors:

  • Mathematics
  • Mathematics-computer science
  • Mathematics-economics

Our core sophomore sequence provides majors with a firm foundation in two pillars of mathematics (Abstract Algebra and Real Analysis), paving the way for exploration of diverse elective offerings at the junior and senior level. We offer courses in many areas of pure and applied mathematics, elementary and advanced statistics, and computer science. Majors engage in a one-term independent study during their senior year, working on a topic of their choice under the guidance of a faculty member. This transforming experience demonstrates a student’s ability to learn mathematics with little supervision and to clearly and cogently express this knowledge both verbally and in writing.

The department offers a number of elementary- and intermediate-level courses designed to meet the needs of students who wish to continue the study of mathematics or to complete required work in another major.

Lawrentians majoring in mathematics and/or computer science prepare themselves for a wide variety of interesting careers, but wherever life takes them, they have one thing in common—the logical and precise, yet intuitive and creative, habit of mind instilled by the serious study of abstract mathematics.

For a full description of Lawrence’s computer facilities and for descriptions of the computer science courses visit the Computer Science website.

Required for the mathematics major

  1. Complete or place out of the calculus sequence: MATH 140, 150, and 160
  2. One of the following:
    • MATH 210
    • MATH 220
    • MATH 240
  3. One computer science course numbered 110 or above (excluding 170)
  4. MATH 300 and 310
  5. 24 additional units in mathematics courses numbered 400 or above
  6. Completion of a 6-unit independent study project in at least one term of the senior year.
  7. A C average in the major.

Course suggestions

In choosing courses beyond the core sequence, students should note that certain advanced courses may be particularly relevant to majors with specific interests or career goals. These lists offer suggestions; students are not expected to take all the courses in a given list.

  • Pure mathematics: 410, 525, 530, 535, 545, 550, 555, 560, 565, and 600
  • Computer science: 420, 435, 525, 555, and 565
  • Operations research: 410, 420, 435, 440, 445, 525, and 550
  • Applied mathematics: 410, 420, 435, 440, 445, 535, and 550
  • Statistics and actuarial science: 410, 420, 435, 440, 445, and 550
  • Engineering: 410, 420, 435, 440, 535, and 550
  • Secondary teaching: 410, 525, 530, 535, 545, 550, and 600

Required for the mathematics minor

  1. Calculus through MATH 160
  2. One of the following:
    • MATH 210
    • MATH 220
    • MATH 240
  3. MATH 300 and MATH 310
  4. 6 units in any one upper-level mathematics course numbered from 400 to 600
  5. C average in the minor.

Teacher Certification in Mathematics or Computer Science

Mathematics or mathematics-computer science majors can seek certification to teach math or computer science at the secondary level. Students can add an endorsement in a second area by completing an appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Required for the interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science major

  1. The core sequence: MATH 140, 150, 160 and CMSC 150, 250, 270
  2. MATH 220 and 300
  3. CMSC 460, 510, 515
  4. 6 additional units in mathematics courses selected from:
    • MATH 310
    • MATH 420
    • MATH 525
  5. 6 additional units in a computer science course numbered 400 or above
  6. 6 additional units in a computer science course numbered 400 or above or selected from among MATH 310, 420, 525
  7. Completion of an independent study project prior to the Spring Term of the senior year
  8. CMSC 600 in the senior year

Required for the interdisciplinary mathematics-economics major

  1. The mathematics component of the major is:
    • MATH 140, 150, 160, 240, 300, 310
    • Either MATH 435 or 445
    • 6 additional units in a mathematics course numbered 400 or above, with 435, 440, 445, or 560 recommended
  2. The economics component of the major is:
    • ECON 100
    • ECON 300, 320, and 380 (majors must take all three courses prior to completion of the junior year. The economics department must approve any exception.)
    • Any three six-unit courses numbered between 400 and 580
  3. The interdisciplinary component of the major is:
    • Completion of an independent study project that has been approved by both departments.
    • A major must have an advisor in each department.

Tutorials

The department views tutorials as opportunities to enhance its usual course offerings, not duplicate them. In order to reserve tutorials for this purpose, no tutorials are given for courses routinely offered, and the department does not normally permit a tutorial to be used to satisfy any requirement for the major.

First-year courses

The department offers two calculus sequences: MATH 140, 150, 160 (Calculus I, II, III) and MATH 120, 130 (Applied Calculus I, II). Students intending to major in mathematics, mathematics-computer science, mathematics-economics, physics, or chemistry, or any student intending to take advanced mathematics courses, must complete the Calculus I, II, III sequence. Properly prepared students should enter this calculus sequence their freshman year. Proper preparation means strong high school mathematics, including a pre-calculus or elementary functions course. Strong scores in a standard college preparatory exam offer good evidence, as well. Students who lack this preparation yet need the three-course sequence should consult their advisor and the mathematics department as soon as possible.

The Applied Calculus I, II sequence is designed to introduce students to the mathematics used in the social and life sciences. This sequence demands less technical proficiency than does the Calculus I, II, III sequence. Good performance in high school mathematics through the junior year should be adequate preparation.

Advanced Placement

Advanced placement in the Calculus I, II, III sequence and up to 12 Lawrence units may be obtained by presenting a score of 4 or 5 on the AB or BC calculus exams administered by the College Board. Consult the department for proper placement. 

Advanced placement and six Lawrence units (for CMSC 150) may be obtained by scoring 4 or 5 on the A or AB College Board computer science exam. Consult the department for proper placement.

Six Lawrence units (for MATH 107) may be obtained by scoring 4 or 5 on the College Board statistics exam. Consult the department for proper placement.

Off-campus and cooperative programs

Students wishing to combine a liberal arts degree with engineering should consider the 3-2 program in engineering.

The department encourages students to apply to the many Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs funded by the National Science Foundation; in these summer programs, students receive a stipend and participate in research teams at various campuses throughout the country. Students may also be interested in the Budapest Semester in Mathematics or in one of several other off-campus study options. Department faculty members can provide details.

Course numbering

Typically, courses numbered below 400 are offered each year, while courses numbered 400 or higher are offered every other year.

Senior Experience in Mathematics

The mathematics department's Senior Experience consists of a 6-unit (typically one-term) independent study project completed in the senior year. The project must demonstrate the capacity to learn mathematics (or statistics) independently or to utilize mathematics or mathematical technique as an innovative or substantive part of a larger project.

Interdisciplinary mathematics-economics majors must demonstrate the ability to combine topics in both disciplines—bringing appropriate techniques of mathematics or statistics to bear on the study of economics, or learning mathematics or statistics suggested by economic models

Interdisciplinary mathematics-computer science majors must complete their independent study project in two parts: an independent study in the Fall or Winter Term of the senior year (usually 3 units), followed by a presentation of their results in the Winter Term Computer Science Senior Seminar (3 units).

For mathematics and mathematics-computer science majors, the project must be approved and supervised by a faculty member in the mathematics department. For mathematics-economics majors, the project must be approved by a faculty member of each department and supervised by a member of one of the departments. Students should consult with departmental members in the spring before their senior year, in order to plan appropriately for their Senior Experience.

Museum Studies

As centers of research and education, and as repositories for cultural heritage, museums play an important role in our society. The museum studies interdisciplinary area provides students with a structure through which to learn about museums as a complement to both their major and the liberal arts as a whole. In addition, museums and related institutions provide career opportunities that take full advantage of a liberal arts degree. Museum professionals must be able to gain expertise in diverse areas, they must enjoy both independent research and interaction with the public, they must be both creative and analytical, and they must be able to operate within (and even to run) complex and often under-funded organizations.

The museum studies interdisciplinary area is designed to introduce students to the historical and theoretical foundations of museums and other preservation and research institutions, as well as to provide them with the practical skills and knowledge needed to work in such institutions. It is intended to be a supplement to a major in any area. This IA will have a clear use for students in such fields as anthropology, art, art history, natural sciences, and history, but students across the divisions will find the interdisciplinary area useful if they have an interest in pursuing a career in the museum field.

Required for the interdisciplinary area in museum studies

  1. Two core courses:
    1. ANTH 222: Historic Preservation Theory and Practice
    2. ARHI 315: Introduction to the Art Museum
  2. Three additional six-unit courses with significant museum studies content, selected in consultation with museum studies faculty. See the following list for suggested courses that would fulfill this requirement. Students are strongly encouraged to take at least one course that emphasizes visual analysis.
  3. At least one from:
    1. Six units of ANTH 422: Archaeological Collections Management
    2. Six units of independent study working in the Wriston Art Gallery or the University Archives
    3. A six-unit internship at a museum, historic site, or similar institution, from an appropriate academic department

Music

Students in the Bachelor of Arts degree program may major or minor in music (see below). The Conservatory of Music section of this catalog lists courses for all programs in music. Opportunities for the study of music and for participation in Lawrence University ensembles are available to qualified university students regardless of major.

Required for the music major

90 units in music, to include:

  1. Music theory: 30 units
    1. MUTH 151, 161, and 171 or MUTH 201, 211, and 221
    2. MUTH 152, 162, and 172 or MUTH 202, 212, and 222
    3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
    4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
    5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
  2. Musicology: 18 units
    1. MUCO 201, 202 (12 units)
    2. 6 units in courses numbered 400 or above
  3. Performance:
    1. 18 units minimum of applied individual instruction. 6 consecutive terms of study are required
    2. 5 units: MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 for students whose primary instrument is voice
    3. Students must complete a qualifying examination
    4. Students must participate in either individual or ensemble performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus
  4. Ensemble: 6 units minimum of ensemble performance study. A maximum of 9 units of ensemble performance study may apply to the major
  5. Keyboard skills: 3 units MURP 201, 202, 203 or 2 units MURP 301, 302 or demonstrated proficiency
  6. Additional electives in music to total 90 units
  7. An approved lecture, lecture/recital, or senior project must be presented during the last three terms of study at Lawrence

Please refer to the Conservatory Handbook and departmental handbooks for other regulations and information on the major in music. In addition to the 90 units in music, students must complete 126 units in disciplines other than music, including all requirements for the B.A. degree (see "Degree and General Education Requirements").

Required for the music minor

  1. Music theory: 18 units
    1. MUTH 151, 161, and 171 or MUTH 201, 211, and 221
    2. MUTH 152, 162, and 172 or MUTH 202, 212, and 222
    3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
  2. Musicology: 12 units: MUCO 201, 202
  3. Performance: MUIN (Applied Individual Instruction) 9 units and 3 terms of study
  4. Ensemble: MUEN (Ensemble Performance Study): 3 units and 3 terms participation
  5. Keyboard skills: 3 units: MURP 201, 202, 203 or 2 units: MURP 301, 302 or demonstrated proficiency
  6. C average or higher in the minor

Senior Experience in Music

Candidates for the Bachelor of Arts with a major in music are required to present a lecture, lecture/recital, recital, or senior project during the last three terms at Lawrence. Students in this program are encouraged to consult their advisers early in the junior year. If a recital is performed, it is subject to the regulations administered by individual applied areas as described above. For other projects, a proposal must be submitted and approved by the B.A. in Music Committee.

The following are guidelines to apply to the other projects that must be approved by the B.A. in Music Committee.

  1. The proposal for the project should be submitted in writing.
  2. The initial proposal should be submitted no later than week 8 of the term prior to the one during which the project will be completed.
  3. The project proposal should state in specific detail exactly what the project entails and exactly what the student will do to complete it. The proposal should also briefly indicate how such a project builds on the student’s prior experiences at Lawrence, and why it may be a logical conclusion to his or her music major.
  4. In general, this project should not simply comprise work the student has done for any course, but instead it should involve some work done beyond and outside of the prescribed curriculum for the music major. In some instances, work done for an elective independent study (e.g., not one used to satisfy a curricular requirement) may be acceptable.
  5. Final approval of the proposal should be obtained by the end of the term prior to the one during which the project will be completed.
  6. All projects must include some formally written component. This may, in some instances, simply serve as a relatively brief context for projects that do not essentially comprise written work (e.g., recordings, radio or television broadcasts, films or videos, multi-media installations, manufacture of musical instruments, etc.).
  7. Though interdisciplinary projects are encouraged, the theory, history, or practice of music still should be a major focus of all acceptable proposals. For example, “the effects of performance anxiety on the human digestive system” would be a biology project, and would not be acceptable; on the other hand, “effective strategies for coping with performance anxiety” could be perfectly acceptable (even if it deals largely with discussions of what one should or should not ingest prior to a performance).
  8. Once the project has been completed, a Lawrence Conservatory faculty member should certify that the project has met a minimum satisfactory standard of quality.

Other opportunities

All courses in music may be elected by any qualified Lawrence student. Ensembles are open to university students by audition. Private instruction (Applied Music Individual Instruction) is available by permission of the instructor, based on audition or interview and faculty schedules. A per-term fee for private lessons and the use of practice facilities is charged to non-music majors (see Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance). For students who drop private instruction prior to the end of the second week of the term, a refund will be given for the remainder of the term provided the registrar and the conservatory office are officially notified of the change in registration. Refunds are not provided after the second week of the term.

Natural Sciences (Interdisciplinary Major)

The interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences enables students to construct science majors around subject areas that bridge two or more disciplines in the natural sciences, leading to graduate work and/or careers in many of the rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields developing along interfaces between the traditional natural sciences.

The interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences requires a primary concentration in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics and a secondary concentration in another of these sciences. Students interested in this major should seek advice from the department of primary interest in order to design a major consistent with both their interests and the requirements of the major. Interdisciplinary combinations of biology and chemistry have been replaced by the biochemistry major.

Requirements for the Interdisciplinary Major in the Natural Sciences in a Primary Discipline and a Secondary Discipline

  1. Introductory requirement: An introductory sequence in physics and two additional introductory sequences chosen from those in biology, chemistry, and geology so that sequences in both the primary and the secondary disciplines are included. The introductory sequences are:
    • Biology: BIOL 130, 150, and 170
    • Chemistry: CHEM 115 and 116 or equivalent
    • Geology: GEOL 110 (any section) and GEOL 210
    • Physics: PHYS 151 and 160 or, with the permission of both the primary and the secondary departments, PHYS 141 and 151
  2. Intermediate/advanced requirement: At least ten six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in the primary discipline and at least three in the secondary discipline. More specific course and/or laboratory requirements may apply in specific departments.
  3. Participation in a Senior Experience as defined by the department of the primary discipline.

Neuroscience

Neuroscience

The field of neuroscience uses an interdisciplinary approach to study the brain and nervous system. Humans and animals rely on the nervous system in order to process environmental stimuli, integrate this information and produce an adaptive response (motor, hormonal, behavioral). A response may be as straightforward as a knee reflex or as complicated as understanding Plato.

The fields of biology, chemistry and psychology provide much of the core knowledge needed to pursue study in neuroscience, and the major will prepare students for graduate study in neuroscience or allied health areas. However, knowledge from neuroscience may inform creative and scholarly endeavors in many areas including literature, music and art. Therefore, it is an advantage for a neuroscience major to be in a liberal arts setting that can provide exposure to a wide spectrum of interests.

Required for the neuroscience major

  1. The following core courses:
    1. BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms
    2. BIOL 150: Integrative Biology: Organisms to Ecosystems
    3. BIOL 242: Comparative Physiology
    4. BIOL 340/PSYC 580: Topics in Neuroscience
    5. CHEM 116: Principles of Chemistry: Energetics and Dynamics
    6. PSYC 350: Psychopharmacology and Behavior
    7. PSYC 360: Brain and Behavior I
    8. PSYC 420: Clinical and Affective Neuroscience
  2. Two courses from the following group:
    • BIOL 325: Cell Biology
    • BIOL 354: Molecular Biology
    • BIOL 444 or CHEM 340: Biochemistry I
    • BIOL 453: Developmental Biology
  3. Two courses from the following group:
    • BIOL 200: Animal Behavior
    • BIOL 240: Morphogenesis of the Vertebrates
    • PSYC 290: Developmental Psychopathology
    • PSYC 370: Perception
    • PSYC 380: Learning and Conditioning
  4. A statistics-based class from one of the following:
    • BIOL 170: Integrative Biology: Experimental Design and Statistics
    • MATH 107: Elementary Statistics
    • MATH 217: Applied Statistical Methods
  5. Senior Experience: Students majoring in neuroscience will work closely with neuroscience program faculty to develop a Senior Experience. Students may develop a Senior Experience from the psychology senior capstone or the biology senior capstone. Departmental and instructor approval are required to take a senior capstone.  Alternatively, a student may elect to conduct a neuroscience independent study as their Senior Experience. This option requires a student to complete the following:
  • 12 units of IS, OR 6 units of IS and a summer research experience, on the same project.
  • A 15-20 page research paper on the project submitted by the Wednesday before midterm reading period in Spring Term of senior year.
  • An oral presentation and exam with neuroscience faculty, to be scheduled by the first day of Spring Term, senior year.
  • Presentation of the project at an appropriate research conference approved by the research advisor.

Students must formally declare which option they will chose for their Senior Experience no later than the first day of Spring Term in their junior year.  If choosing the biology or psychology Senior Experience option, a contract will be signed with the academic advisor. If choosing the neuroscience IS option, a contract will be signed with the research advisor.

Required for the neuroscience minor

  1. The following core courses:
    1. BIOL 130: Integrative Biology: Cells to Organisms
    2. BIOL 150: Integrative Biology: Organisms to Ecosystems
    3. BIOL 242: Comparative Physiology
    4. *BIOL 340/PSYC 580: Topics in Neuroscience
    5. CHEM 116: Principles of Chemistry
    6. PSYC 360: Brain and Behavior I
    7. PSYC 420: Clinical and Affective Neuroscience
  2. A statistics-based class from one of the following:
    • BIOL 170: Integrative Biology: Experimental Design and Statistics
    • MATH 107: Elementary Statistics
    • MATH 217: Applied Statistical Methods

*Pre-requisite for BIOL 340/PSYC 580 will be either:

  • BIOL 242 and one PSYC course
  • PSYC 360 and one BIOL course
    or
  • consent of the instructor

Philosophy

Courses in philosophy develop skills in reading analytically, thinking critically, and arguing cogently. In addition, they provide students with valuable insights into many of the major issues confronting us in a rapidly changing world.

Students tend to find that taking two or three philosophy courses significantly enhances the quality of their work in their own fields. We urge students to discuss the relationship between philosophy and other disciplines with any member of the philosophy department and with their own major advisors.

Philosophy department faculty members will gladly discuss with majors and potential majors the specific ways in which their work can best prepare them for careers in academe, business, government, law, and medicine, among others.

Note that, with the consent of the instructor, students may take an intermediate course in philosophy without having taken an introductory course. (Intermediate courses are numbered 200 through 440. Courses numbered above 440 are advanced courses.)

The philosophy major

Students are introduced to philosophy through a study of logic or through a course in which substantive problems are raised by an examination of selected writings of important philosophers. Students may continue their study through a variety of courses in the history of philosophy, in the systematic study of traditional problem areas within philosophy, and in the philosophical examination of other disciplines.

The historical courses enable students to become familiar with the thinking of the most influential philosophers in our tradition and with the historical contexts in which they worked. The systematic courses encourage students to confront contemporary statements of central philosophical questions and to investigate some of the more promising answers to them. The courses engaged in the philosophical examination of other areas encourage students to bring methods of philosophical analysis to bear on the methods and presuppositions of other areas of inquiry.

Required for the philosophy major

  1. PHIL 150 or 420 (majors are strongly encouraged to satisfy this requirement early in their careers)
  2. At least two core courses in the history of philosophy (from PHIL 200, 210, 220, 227, 230, 275)
  3. One course in epistemology (from PHIL 300, 305, 330, 332, 405)
  4. One course in metaphysics (from PHIL 310, 340, 400, 410)
  5. One course in ethics (from PHIL 280, 320, 325, 347, 350, 360, 365, 370, 375, 380, 385, 430, 440)
  6. PHIL 600
  7. Four additional six-unit courses in philosophy, or a second major and two additional six-unit courses in philosophy.
    1. Two of these additional courses may be numbered 149 or below.
    2. Philosophy majors who do not prefer a second major may, in consultation with their advisor and subject to the approval of the Department of Philosophy, substitute selected courses not offered by the department for no more than two of the four additional courses.
  8. One Philosophy Dimensions of Diversity course (this may also satisfy one of the above requirements)

Required for the philosophy minor

  1. Six six-unit courses in philosophy
    1. At least two courses in the history of philosophy (PHIL 200, 210, 220, 227, 230, 275)
    2. At least three courses outside the history of philosophy numbered 250 or above
  2. C average in the minor

Students pursuing a minor in philosophy are encouraged to choose a member of the philosophy department as an informal advisor.

 

Senior Experience in Philosophy

The Department of Philosophy's Senior Experience is PHIL 600: Studies in Philosophy. This is an advanced seminar, the topic for which varies from year to year, in which students critically analyze each other's original research.

Physics

Physics represents an inquiry, both theoretical and experimental, into the nature of the physical universe. The theoretical approach involves constructing and exploring abstract models of nature, while the experimental approach involves investigations of physical systems that provide avenues for evaluating theories and for suggesting new theories. Taken together, theory and experiment aim at the construction of a single, compact, and far-reaching conceptual framework that accounts for all properties of the physical universe.

The physics curriculum at Lawrence is structured to help the student develop a firm grasp of the important theories and a secure competence in contemporary experimental techniques. Requirements for the major reflect this structure. On the theoretical side, the major moves from a general survey to more detailed intermediate courses to advanced electives, culminating in a theoretical Senior Experience project. On the experimental side, the major moves from a study of standard techniques of data analysis to an intermediate laboratory in electronics to a project-oriented advanced laboratory, possibly culminating in an experimental Senior Experience project. Throughout the curriculum, contemporary computational approaches to problems in physics play a significant role alongside the traditional approaches.

Prospective engineers will find that a major in physics automatically fulfills nearly all of the requirements for Lawrence’s 3-2 engineering program.

Students who have strong secondary interests in biology, chemistry, or geology may construct majors involving physics and one of the other three natural sciences, using the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences.

In addition, a minor in physics offers an opportunity for those who wish to supplement a major in another discipline with a significant exposure to physics.

Required for the physics major

  1. PHYS 220, 225, 230, 310, 320, and 330
  2. Two additional six-unit courses chosen from PHYS 340 and above, excluding directed study, tutorial, and independent study courses taken as part of the Senior Experience or for other reasons
  3. Senior Experience in physics

Physics majors without advanced placement should start with PHYS 141, 151 and 160. Majors who do not intend to pursue graduate study in physics may petition the department to substitute appropriate upper-level offerings in other departments for up to two of the required physics electives.

The following program is typical:

  • Freshman: PHYS 151, 160; MATH 140, 150, 160
  • Sophomore: PHYS 220, 225, 230; MATH 210
  • Junior: PHYS 310, 320, 330; physics electives
  • Senior: PHYS 699: Independent Study in Physics, PHYS 650: Senior Seminar in Physics; physics electives

Additional courses in mathematics, chemistry, computer science biology, and geology are often elected. The prospective major should consult early and regularly with the faculty in the department.

Required for the interdisciplinary major in the natural sciences in physics and a secondary discipline

  1. PHYS 151 and 160
  2. Any two of the following, chosen to include the secondary discipline:
    • BIOL 130, 150, and 170
    • CHEM 115 and 116 or equivalent
    • GEOL 110 (any section) and GEOL 210
  3. At least 10 six-unit courses in the sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, physics) numbered 200 or above, with at least five in physics and at least three in the secondary discipline. The five courses in physics must include PHYS 225, 230, 310, and 330.

Required for the physics minor

  1. PHYS 151 and 160
  2. PHYS 225
  3. Three additional six-unit courses in physics, at least two of which must be chosen from physics courses numbered 220 and above, excluding independent studies and capstone courses, and no more than one of which can be chosen from PHYS 103–115 and PHYS 205
  4. C average in the minor

A student pursuing a minor in physics must consult with a member of the department early and often to plan and monitor progress in the minor.

Opportunities for non-majors

The physics curriculum offers non-majors the opportunity to take one or more terms of physics as part of their liberal education. Although every course is open to all suitably prepared students, PHYS 107, 110, 112, 115, 141, 151, 160, and 220 have traditionally attracted non-majors.

The laboratory science General Education Requirement

The following courses in the physics department satisfy the university’s degree requirement of one laboratory course in natural science: PHYS 107, 110, 141, 151, 160, 220, 330, 340.

Graduate School

Majors preparing for graduate school in physics will probably take more courses in physics than the required minimum. PHYS 425, 430, 440, and 460 are recommended for all such students. Other departmental offerings (PHYS 340, 500-570) are appropriate for students with particular interests in the topics of those courses. All students contemplating graduate studies in physics should seek opportunities at Lawrence or elsewhere for full-time research during the summer after the junior year (or earlier). Students contemplating graduate studies in physics should discuss their plans early and often with members of the department.

Teacher certification in physics or broad-field science

Students can seek teacher certification to teach physics at the secondary level. Certification requires a major in physics with courses in other science subjects, and students may petition to substitute physics courses numbered below 199 for the two required physics electives. Students also have the option of seeking broad-field science certification by completing a minimum of two courses in each of two other science disciplines and at least one course in each of the remaining sciences. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Recommended courses outside the department

Courses in mathematics, chemistry, and computer science are frequently elected to support a major in physics, but courses in geology, biology, economics, philosophy, anthropology, and other areas have occasionally been chosen by physics majors whose post-graduation objectives have an interdisciplinary dimension. With departmental approval, up to two upper-level courses in other departments may be substituted for required physics electives.

Advanced Placement

Students with strong backgrounds should seek advanced placement and credit, normally by submitting scores on the Physics Advanced Placement Examination of the Educational Testing Service. Advanced placement without credit is awarded to students who submit satisfactory evidence that they both understand most of PHYS 141 or 151 and are able to remedy weaknesses on their own initiative.

International and off-campus study

The Associated Colleges of the Midwest program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is available to majors in physics. Further, with careful advance planning, physics majors at Lawrence can arrange to be off campus for a term—typically the Winter or Spring Term of the junior year or the Fall Term of the senior year—without jeopardizing progress in the major. Thus, physics majors can participate in off-campus programs, even if those programs contain no scientific components. The Lawrence London Centre, among others, has been a popular destination for physics majors.

Course Numbering

Courses of general interest requiring minimal or no prerequisite are numbered 107-115. The introductory courses, 141, 151, and 160, require elementary calculus. PHYS 141 introduces ideas in calculus together with concepts in physics. The calculus introduced in PHYS 141 will not replace any mathematics prerequisites in courses numbered 160 and higher. Intermediate courses are numbered between 200 and 300 and typically list calculus and differential equations as prerequisites. Advanced courses, many of which list one or more intermediate courses as prerequisites, are intended for juniors and seniors and are numbered above 300. Tutorial studies in physics and independent study in physics also are offered.

Senior Experience in Physics

The Senior Experience in the Department of Physics consists of an independent investigation tailored to the individual student’s goals in physics. The process consists of a formal project proposal to the department followed by one or two six-unit independent study courses under faculty supervision and culminating in a capstone thesis paper.

All seniors will participate in a two-unit senior seminar, PHYS 650, in which they present their work orally. Students with double majors or degrees may propose initiatives that span multiple departments but both departments must approve such proposals before the project goes forward.

Psychology

Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. The psychology curriculum is well balanced to represent the breadth of the core areas of psychology (clinical, cognitive, developmental, health, neuroscience, personality, and social psychology) and provide opportunity for the in-depth study of specific topics (e.g., psychopharmacology, music, language, psychopathology, adolescent development, prejudice, emotion). Research, through which psychological theories are developed and tested, is emphasized throughout the curriculum.

Required for the psychology major

  1. PSYC 100, 280, 281, and MATH 107 or 207†
  2. Two courses from Group I and two courses from Group II:
    1. Group I: PSYC 240, 250 or 290, 260 or 265, 270 or 272
    2. Group II: PSYC 340 or 342 or 380, PSYC 350 or 360, 370
  3. One of the following advanced courses in psychology requiring an APA-style literature review, which should be taken before PSYC 610: PSYC 335, 420, 460, 480, 540, 560, 570, 575, or 580.*   *If the course is cross-listed with another department and being taught by an instructor outside the psychology department, then check with the instructor prior to taking the course as to whether it would be acceptable to write the literature review using APA style. For the course to count as fulfilling this requirement, the literature review must be written in APA style.
  4. PSYC 610: Senior Capstone
  5. 10 courses (typically 60 units) in psychology and 1 statistics course
  6. One of the courses must have a lab (viz., PSYC 265, 335, 340, 355, 380, 530).
  7. One of the courses must have a D or G (diversity) designation (i.e., 220, 272, 285, 310, 560, 570).
  8. C average in the major

†For students also majoring in anthropology, ANTH 207 can fulfill the MATH 107 or 207 requirement; for students also majoring in biology or neuroscience, BIOL 170 can fulfill the MATH 107 or 207 requirement.

Structure and Goals of the Major Curriculum

Requirements for the psychology major are structured so that students gain a broad knowledge of psychology while also completing a core course sequence that systematically develops skills relevant to understanding and producing psychological advances.

The core courses begin with Principles of Psychology (PSYC 100), typically taken in the freshman year, a broad introduction to psychological science that provides a framework (of key theories, terminology, methods, and findings in the core areas of psychology) on which all later courses build. Majors are encouraged to take Statistics (MATH 107) and the two-term Research Methods in Psychology (PSYC 280 and 281) sequence in the sophomore year and certainly no later than the junior year. The methods sequence teaches students to think like research psychologists, from “what constitutes a worthwhile and testable hypothesis?,” to designing, running, analyzing, and reporting an original empirical project. In the junior year, students select an advanced course in which they not only explore a topic in greater depth, but also learn how to write a synthetic, integrative, and critical review of a research area. The skills developed throughout the core courses are brought together in Senior Capstone (PSYC 610), in which each student chooses his or her own topic to explore, culminating in a project that is presented both in a senior thesis and a public oral presentation. The project may involve a critical review of past theory and research, a proposal for an original empirical study, an original empirical study report, a theory development paper, or a paper that integrates a student’s applied work with its wider scholarly context.

Together, the core courses are aimed at systematically developing key skills related to general learning outcomes, including the abilities to: think critically (e.g., construct a thesis, supported by appropriate arguments and evidence), write and communicate effectively, synthesize current knowledge, and test novel hypotheses.

To ensure that majors are also exposed to the breadth of psychological science, they must also complete two courses in the cognitive/experimental/biological areas of psychology as well as two courses in the developmental/health/social/clinical areas of psychology.

Majors should complete Research Methods before taking laboratory courses numbered 335 or above or courses numbered 380 or above. Concurrent enrollment in MATH 107 with PSYC 280: Research Methods I is preferred. Alternatively, MATH 107 or 207 may be taken prior to Research Methods I.

Research Opportunities

Majors complete empirical research projects in Research Methods, but are also encouraged to do so in laboratory and topics courses, and in close collaboration with faculty members in independent study. Students have access to the department’s extensive laboratory facilities for research in neuroscience, acoustical analysis, child development, animal and human learning, social, personality, and clinical psychology. We highly recommend that students who wish to pursue honors projects or empirical projects for PSYC 610 begin them in their junior year.

Applied Opportunities

Several opportunities to receive course credit for work within applied settings (e.g., working in a clinical setting in the community) are regularly available—see PSYC 451. Other practica that similarly combine academic and applied components may be arranged. This includes various opportunities for placement at non-profit human services programs in the local community. For information on such practica, contact career services (920-832-6561), Beth Haines (920-832-6708), or Lori Hilt (920-832-7050).

Required for the psychology minor

  1. PSYC 100 and MATH 107 or 207†
  2. One course from Group I and one course from Group II:
    1. Group I: PSYC 245, 250, 260, 265, 270, 272, 290
    2. Group II: PSYC 340, 342, 350, 360, 370, 380
  3. An additional 12 units in psychology, one of which (6 units) must be numbered 300 or higher (not including 610).
  4. One course must have a lab (viz., PSYC 265, 280/281††, 335, 340, 355, 380, 530).
  5. C average in the minor

† For students also majoring in anthropology, ANTH 207 can fulfill the MATH 107 or 207 requirement; for students also majoring in biology or neuroscience, BIOL 170 can fulfill the MATH 107 or 207 requirement.

††Must complete both terms of PSYC 280, 281 to meet this lab requirement.

Teacher Certification in Psychology or Broad-Field Social Studies

Psychology majors can seek certification to teach psychology or broad-field social studies at the secondary level. For certification in broad-field social studies, students must complete the psychology major and a minimum of two courses each in two other social studies (anthropology/sociology, economics, government/political science, or history) and at least one course in each of the remaining social studies. Students are strongly encouraged to take a course in U.S. history and a course in global history. A course in environmental studies is also required. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Preparation for graduate school

The major program prepares students well for graduate study in psychology or related fields. Students interested in graduate study should consider conducting research with a faculty member, consider taking PSYC 480, and fully utilize career services and alumni who have gone to graduate school. Names and contact information for alumni can be obtained through the alumni and constituency engagement office. For those who pursue other careers, the research skills learned by majors are widely applicable. Students who are interested in the major program or curious about what kind of career opportunities exist in the field of psychology are urged to visit career services for more information. Students interested in mental health careers should pay particular attention to the department’s clinical psychology sequence: PSYC 250 or 290, PSYC 335 or 355, and PSYC 451. Students are encouraged, but not required, to take PSYC 335 or 355 and PSYC 451 (Field Experience in Clinical Psychology) in consecutive terms. PSYC 451 allows students to gain supervised practical experience at a local mental health facility. Students interested in graduate study should speak to their advisors and take a topics course related to their area of interest.

Off-campus study

The London Centre, Netherlands program, and Urban Studies in Chicago have provided excellent opportunities for psychology majors (see Off-Campus Programs).

Advanced Placement

Students who score 4 or better on the Psychology Advanced Placement Examination of the College Entrance Examination Board are given credit for PSYC 100 (which fulfills one of the major requirements). Students who plan to major in psychology and place out of PSYC 100 are advised to take one or two courses in Group I during their freshman year. A score of 4 or better in AP Statistics can substitute for the MATH 107 requirement.

Senior Experience in Psychology

In the Psychology department’s senior capstone (PSYC 610), small groups of students meet in independent seminar sections supervised by a faculty mentor. Sections meet to discuss common readings, provide constructive criticism of each other’s work, and to allow students to present work in progress. Discussions, papers, and presentations enhance students’ abilities to conceptualize important questions within the context of the discipline, formulate ways to answer those questions, and present ideas clearly and cogently in both written and oral form. Students pursue their project over the academic term, culminating in a senior thesis and a public senior oral presentation.

The centerpiece of the capstone experience is an original senior project, allowing students to pursue their own interests in depth, encouraging autonomy and creativity. In consultation with the faculty mentor, students will choose one of the following types of papers: a critical review of past theory and research, an original empirical study report, a theory development paper, or a paper that integrates a student’s applied work (e.g., in an internship) with its wider scholarly context. Students pursuing double degrees, double majors, or teacher certification are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant department chairs to plan and negotiate their overall Senior Experience as early as possible, especially if they are interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone that integrates their interests in both majors, or combines their student teaching with a project in their major.

Religious Studies

Courses in Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam form the core offerings in the department. Students examine cultural and social expressions of those religions (sacred texts, rituals, spiritual and legal writings, institutions) at a particular period, over time, and in relation to broader historical, philosophical, and ethical issues. In addition, a number of elective courses are offered that focus on a particular theme, issue, or tradition not covered in the core offerings. Such courses include Gandhi, Rationality and Religious Beliefs and Hebrew Prophets and Religion of Ancient Egypt.

Required for the religious studies major

The major in RLST comprises the following courses:

  1. RLST 100: Intro to Religious Studies
  2. Three 200 level courses on religious traditions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Ancient Egypt)
  3. Two 300-level theory courses (Rationality and Religious Belief, Faith and Power in the Mediterranean, Nietzsche/Freud, and Colonialism and Global Structures)
  4. One 400- or 500-level seminar
  5. RLST 610: Senior Projects
  6. Two electives

Independent studies/tutorials can be used to fulfill only the elective requirements.

For graduation majors must complete a senior capstone project, which includes taking the Senior Projects course and presenting at the RLST symposium at the end of spring term of their senior year.

Required for the religious studies minor

The minor in religious studies is intended to enable students to concentrate on a religious tradition connected to their area of interest. The requirement of both an introductory course and at least one course outside their chosen tradition ensures that religious studies minors develop some expertise in the overall study of religion. The minor requires a minimum of five courses (30 units), which include:

  1. RLST 100: Introduction to Religious Studies
  2. Two courses (12 units) in one of the following areas: Buddhism, Islam, Christianity
  3. A seminar-level course (6 units)
  4. One additional six-unit course outside the chosen area

A C average in the minor is also required.

Graduate School

Students considering graduate work in religious studies should note that completion of a graduate degree typically requires demonstrated proficiency in at least one modern foreign language (normally French or German) as well as one or more additional languages (depending on the area of concentration). College work leading toward graduate study should be planned with these requirements in mind.

Senior Experience in Religious Studies

The Senior Experience for Religious Studies consists of a one-term seminar (taught in the winter term) that gives students the opportunity to complete a project (usually a paper, but other formats are possible) that builds upon the previous course work and academic experiences of the student. The class also offers students an introduction to several theoretical perspectives that will enable them to see their project from a broadly comparative perspective. Additionally, students are required to participate in a departmental symposium, in which student work is presented and discussed by majors, minors, and faculty. Students pursuing double majors, double degrees, or teacher certification are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and relevant departments to plan and negotiate their overall Senior Experience as early as possible.

Russian

Lawrence offers a major in Russian studies, a major in Russian language and literature, and a minor in Russian. Requirements for each program are outlined below.

Russian is one of the world’s most important and widely spoken languages. Knowledge of the Russian language helps broaden students’ career opportunities and options in a variety of fields, including business and government service. Students who achieve a high level of language proficiency may wish to pursue internship opportunities available as a result of Lawrence’s connections with Appleton’s sister city in Russia.

In addition, Russian culture, music, art, and literature are extraordinarily rich. While the culture may be best appreciated by those who know the language, those who have no knowledge of Russian can also find much of value and interest in the study of Russian culture.

Students taking Russian at the beginning and intermediate levels concentrate on acquiring skills in speaking, listening comprehension, reading, and writing. Majors are strongly encouraged to spend a term studying in Russia. Back on campus, upper-level courses and tutorials enable students to improve their critical and analytical skills, learn more about Russia’s rich literary and cultural traditions, and gain additional speaking practice. At all levels, students have the opportunity to work with tutors who are native speakers and to take advantage of extracurricular activities, such as weekly Russian Table, film showings, and immersion weekends.

Culture and literature courses taught in translation are designed not only for those studying Russian but for all students. These courses have no prerequisites, and they fulfill a number of general education requirements.

Required for the Russian studies major

  1. First-year: RUSS 101, 102, 201 (or the equivalent)
  2. Second-year: RUSS 211, 212, 250
  3. Two courses in literature and culture, 300-level or above
  4. Two courses in history
  5. One course that allows students to understand Russia in a larger context, either by studying the literature or history of a neighboring country or countries or by placing Russia in a broader political and economic context as an important participant in international affairs. Consult faculty for approval of specific courses.
  6. A senior-level independent study that results in the completion of a substantial research paper. Students with sufficiently advanced Russian language skills are encouraged to use some Russian language sources in conducting their research. Topics for this capstone experience are to be derived from work done in one of the following courses: RUSS 300, 305, 330, 335; HIST 315, 320, 325; GOVT 330. Other topics could be approved through consultation with program faculty.

In addition to the requirements listed above, majors are encouraged to further strengthen their Russian-language skills either by taking RUSS 280, 281 and 287 or by studying in Russia and/or in an intensive summer language program offered in the U.S.

Students with prior background in Russian who place out of the first-year sequence are required to complete additional language study for the major.

Required for the Russian language and literature major

  1. First-year: RUSS 101, 102, 201 (or the equivalent)
  2. Second-year: RUSS 211, 212, 250
  3. Two courses in Russian literature taught in translation, level 300 or above
  4. Two courses in Russian literature, taught in the original, level 300 or above
  5. A senior-level independent study that results in the completion of a substantial research paper. Students would be required to analyze some work or works of Russian literature, to be read in the original.

In addition to the requirements listed above, majors are strongly encouraged to further strengthen their Russian language skills by studying in Russia and/or in an intensive summer language program offered in the U.S.

Students with prior background in Russian who place out of the first-year sequence are required to complete additional language study for the major.

Required for the Russian minor

  1. First-year: RUSS 101, 102, 201 (or the equivalent)
  2. Second-year: RUSS 211, 212, 250
  3. Two courses in Russian literature, culture, or history, 300-level or above
  4. C average in the minor

Teacher Certification in Russian (K-12)

Russian majors can seek certification to teach Russian at the elementary and secondary levels. To be certified, students must spend a term in a Russian-speaking country studying the language and culture and must pass an oral and writing proficiency test. Students can add an endorsement in a second area (such as another language or English as a second language) by completing the appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

International and off-campus study

After two years of language study on campus, majors are strongly encouraged to spend a term studying in Russia. Study abroad provides an unparalleled opportunity to make gains in language proficiency and to become familiar with Russian life and culture.

Most Russian majors and minors who choose to study abroad do so through the Lawrence affiliated Bardy-Smolny exchange. This Bard College program partners with Smolny College in St. Petersburg to offer students a comprehensive Russian as a Second Language program in combination with Russian-taught elective courses. The elective courses are integrative and taken with Russian students who are regular degree-seeking students at Smolny.

Students are also encouraged to participate in intensive summer language programs offered in the United States, especially immediately prior to spending a fall term in Russia.

Senior Experience in Russian

The Russian department’s Senior Experience consists of a senior-level independent study that further develops work done in another course.

The independent study is intended to help students prepare their capstone project, normally a research paper that makes use of some Russian-language source material. In addition, students will submit a portfolio in the second week of their final term. The portfolio consists of a list of courses and brief statement in which students evaluate their development as Russian majors.

In addition to a copy of the capstone project and the Russian language portfolio, the senior portfolio should contain four course papers, including at least one from a history course and one from a literature course. The complete portfolio will be reviewed and approved or returned for revisions before the end of the term.

Students who are pursuing a double major or teacher certification should work with all concerned departments to assess the feasibility of an interdisciplinary capstone.

Spanish

Introduction

Offerings in the Spanish department include a wide range of courses on the Spanish language and the cultures and literatures of Spain, Latin America, and the Latino population of the United States. All readings, audiovisual materials, class discussions, and written work are in Spanish, unless specified otherwise. At the advanced level (SPAN 300/400/500), students examine significant linguistic and cultural topics through an integrated and interdisciplinary curriculum. The rigorous academic work involves intensive reading, writing, discussing and presenting in Spanish about each subject. The Spanish program has historically prepared students for successful careers in education, government, health, business, advertising, communications and a variety of positions in the U.S. and global marketplace. Some alumni pursue graduate study in the humanities, law, medicine, psychology, international relations, public policy and social work, among other fields. Spanish is already the second language of business in the United States. The advanced communication and critical thinking skills and intercultural competence developed by Spanish majors prepares them for fruitful careers and develops their awareness as global citizens.

Goals

Students who graduate with a major in Spanish acquire the following skills and knowledge:

  • Advanced communicative ability in Spanish.
  • Deep knowledge of different Spanish-speaking cultures through their literatures, visual arts, films and other cultural artifacts.
  • The capability to establish connections with additional bodies of knowledge, cultures and peoples.
  • The ability to make comparisons between Spanish and their native language, as well as between various Spanish-speaking cultures and their own.
  • In short, the capacity to communicate expertly and participate critically in multilingual communities.

These goals represent what are known as the 5cs in national standards, which Spanish majors attain through the study of Latin American, Spanish Peninsular, and U.S. Latino cultures, literatures, cinema, arts and other forms of contemporary media, as well as linguistics and literary translation. This program of study requires an appropriately high competency in the Spanish language. To this end, all class discussions, assignments, and examinations are conducted in Spanish, except where specified.

Placement

All students who will take Spanish at Lawrence are required to take a placement examination. Students will be placed in courses according to their score in the placement test. At the course level of 300 and above, students should be mindful of the prerequisites to take a particular course and need to consult with a Spanish instructor before registering for the course. At whatever level students place, they should plan to begin their study of Spanish in the freshman year.

Meeting the language competency general education requirement

As part of its general education requirements, Lawrence requires all students to attain competency in a language other than English at the minimum level equivalent to three college terms of study (i.e. equivalent to successful completion of SPAN 201). Students can satisfy this requirement with one of the following options:

  • Passing a SPAN 200-level class. Beginners can take SPAN 101, 102 and 201 in sequence (or the 18-unit intensive summer course, SPAN 200). Students must follow the recommendation accompanying your online placement score.
  • Taking a written and oral competency examination in Spanish. Contact the Spanish department for scheduling this exam.
  • A score equivalent to the second-year level on the CLEP examination in Spanish (63 and above). A CLEP score at the one-year level of competency is sufficient for Bachelor of Music students (52-63).
  • A score of 630 or higher on the SAT Subject Spanish or Spanish with Listening exam.
  • A score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) examination in Spanish Language and Culture exam. Credit equivalent to one 6-unit course at the SPAN 202 level.
  • A score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement (AP) examination in Spanish Literature. Credit equivalent to one 6-unit course at the SPAN 300 level and it fulfills one course requirement toward the Spanish major or minor.
  • A score of 6 or higher on the Spanish International Baccalaureate Examination at the advanced level. Carries credit equivalent to one 6-unit course at the SPAN 202 level.
  • Providing documented proof (e.g., high school diploma) that the student’s high school program was conducted in Spanish. This option satisfies the language requirement but carries no academic credit.

Note: Lawrence University does not conduct the AP, IB, SAT II, or CLEP examinations. They can be taken at authorized test centers on a fee basis.

Required for the Spanish major

  1. Ten standard courses (or a minimum of 60 units) including one 300-level course, one 400-level course, four 500-level courses, and four electives. These can include a second 300-level course. The remaining electives must be taken at the 400-level and above. They may include up to six units of internship and up to six units from approved courses outside the department, chosen from the following offerings:
    • ARHI 230: Baroque Art
    • ARHI 270/271: Latin American Visual Art
    • EDUC 563: Foreign Language Methods
    • HIST 155: Gender in Latin American History 1490-1800
    • HIST 178: Colonial Latin American History
    • HIST 179: Modern Latin American History
    • HIST 260: Culture and Power in Renaissance Europe
    • HIST 261: Rebellion and Discipline in Reformation Europe
    • HIST 371: The Rise and Fall of American Empires
    • HIST 374: Visions of the Conquest
    • HIST 378: Ethnicity in Latin America
    • HIST 422: Revolt and Revolution in Latin America
    • LING 150: Introduction to Linguistics
    • ENG 150: Literary Analysis
  2. Approval of the completed Senior Experience: Spanish Multimedia Portfolio.
  3. A grade average of C is required for the major. At least four of the advanced Spanish courses (400-level and up) must be taken on the Appleton campus.

Required for the Spanish minor

  1. Six standard courses (or a minimum of 36 units) including one 300-level course, one 400-level course, two 500-level courses, and two electives. These can include a second 300-level course. The remaining electives must be taken at the 400-level and above. They may include up to six units of internship or up to six units from approved courses outside the department.
  2. A grade average of C is required for the minor. At least three of the advanced Spanish courses must be taken on the Appleton campus.

Teacher certification in Spanish (K-12)

Spanish majors can seek certification to teach Spanish at the elementary and secondary levels. To be certified, students must spend a term in a Spanish-speaking country studying the language and culture and must pass an oral and writing proficiency test. Students can add an endorsement for a second area (such as another language or English as a second language) by completing the appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Study abroad

The Spanish department strongly advises majors and minors to participate in off-campus programs in Spain or Latin America to fulfill program requirements and complement departmental offerings. Non-majors with sufficient linguistic preparation are also encouraged to participate. Off-campus offerings include a variety of disciplines taught in Spanish, such as biology, psychology, government, economics, history, art history, music history, etc. Please contact the specific department, the Registrar and the Director of Off-Campus Programs for information on credit transfer toward requirements outside of the Spanish program.

Numbering

Courses numbered 101-201 are primarily language and general culture courses. They introduce students to the most important linguistic skills until they reach an intermediate level of competency. Any SPAN 200-level class satisfies the general education requirement in language competency. SPAN 202 is a gateway course to the major but it does not count as one of the requirements. It provides intensive practice in the linguistic and analytic skills that students will need to succeed in subsequent classes. Courses numbered in the 300s provide communicative and intellectual development through the study of specific knowledge areas (literature, film, news media, linguistics). The 400-level courses provide more advanced exploration of cultural, socio-political, artistic, filmic and literary topics. Courses at the 500-level are seminars for advanced majors that delve into specific and sophisticated academic topics pertinent to our faculty’s fields of research and expertise. Students are expected to participate fluently in high-level academic discussions and produce superior scholarly work appropriate for this final stage in their college education.

Tutorial studies and independent projects can be pursued in courses numbered in the 390s and 590s, subject to faculty availability. Some internships are eligible to become a 595 course, subject to approval by the chair of the department and the availability of a faculty supervisor who will evaluate the corresponding academic project.

The one-unit capstone course (699) allows students to connect, reflect on, and expertly demonstrate all the areas of knowledge and proficiency achieved in the major. SPAN 699 can only be taken S/U.

Native and heritage speakers of Spanish are strongly encouraged to take the online placement exam and take Spanish courses at the recommended level for each student. 

Note: The department does not offer tutorials, independent study, or directed study below the 300-level.

Senior Experience in Spanish

The Spanish department's Senior Experience consists of a multimedia portfolio that provides measurable evidence of the academic work, cultural competence, and communication skills required of Spanish majors. The portfolio is a requirement for completion of the major. It presents a collection of evidence that demonstrates a student's attainment of the learning goals established by the program. The portfolio also serves as a measure of students' steady progress towards those goals by allowing comparisons between early and recent academic work. Students are encouraged to provide a title for their portfolio that is appropriate and descriptive of its content.

Students pursuing double majors, double degrees or teacher certification are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors and department chairs to plan their senior experiences as early as possible, especially if they are interested in pursuing an interdisciplinary capstone.

Spanish majors are required to submit their multimedia portfolio in the required format to the Spanish department by the third Friday of their final term at Lawrence. Spanish faculty members will assess the portfolio and communicate the outcome of their evaluation to the students by the seventh week of the term. Unapproved portfolios must be revised and resubmitted before the last day of classes in order for students to graduate.

The portfolio must include the following components:

  1. A cover letter*, in Spanish, which will specify the following:
    1. An Individualized Portfolio Theme
    2. A description of the content of the portfolio
    3. A reflective statement (in Spanish) of at least two pages, in which the student:
      1. Evaluates his/her development during the years as Spanish majors
      2. Justifies the selection of materials for the portfolio
      3. Links the samples to their interests
      4. Reflects on the improvement gained throughout their careers at Lawrence
    *This part of the portfolio is expected to be error-free
  2. A list of the courses completed for the major.
  3. A minimum of 15 pages written in Spanish from 3 different courses of the student's choice at the 300-level and above. One of the three samples must be in the condition in which it was originally submitted and also revised, while the other two must be revised and thoroughly edited in order to reflect the student's current level of proficiency.
  4. Two spoken samples (two-minutes each) prepared and recorded independently by the student in a computer lab.
    1. Audio Sample 1: A reading of a text in Spanish
    2. Audio Sample 2: A presentation with the recommended multimedia software (see Moodle site). This presentation must be about an off-campus experience such as a study abroad, internship or immersion program away from the Appleton campus (at a Spanish-speaking location or internship assignment). It should include no fewer than 5 student-taken photos, accompanied by a recorded, voice-over commentary in Spanish done by the student. Students will use their own visuals (photos or short video clips). No copyrighted or third-party visual materials (e.g., photos from commercial guidebooks, or other people's photos from Flickr or Facebook) may be used as part of the project. After the presentation is submitted and approved, it will become part of a rotating showcase of students' experiences made available to on- and off- campus communities through departmental or Senior Experience websites.

The entire portfolio must be presented in electronic format through the required channels. Students should familiarize themselves with these departmental requirements at the time of declaring the major.

Important: Students must register to take an Independent Study (SPAN 699) for one (1) unit (S/U) with their assigned faculty evaluator during the term when they will submit their Portfolio.

Theatre Arts

Since 1930, the Department of Theatre Arts provides an environment of academic exploration and production experiences in the innovative and collaborative tradition of theatre making throughout history. A broad knowledge of theater history and its literary heritage combines with the mastery of skills in performance, design, and production leading to clear and nuanced expression from our stages. Our close relationship with the Conservatory of Music benefits their opera offerings, as they support various aspects of our musical and play production. Our faculty instills a professional standard in each main stage production as we constantly encourage students to integrate their whole education at each stage of development as young artists and scholars. If students engage in our brand of serious and joyful theatre-making in close collaboration with their peers and faculty mentors, they will be ready to enter the profession or graduate training with the best our discipline offers. Our decades long tradition of senior projects provides a platform where students mark their development with research, performances, and production designs that rise to the level of enthusiastic young professionals. We are equally pleased when our graduates bring the skills and methods they learn in our department to other professions. As life-long learners, the passion for theatre they explored during their years with us will inspire them to contribute as audience members and supporters of the theatre community.

Because the study of dramatic art requires a grounding in the study of production methods, past and present, and must be intimately connected to and supported by the study of theatre history and dramatic literature of various periods, the department has developed a core curriculum in those areas.

Additionally, students are invited to further explore an area of concentration or to continue a generalist’s study of dramatic art. Areas of concentration include performance; design and technical theatre; and dramatic theory, history, and literature. We expect our majors to contribute to each area of the curriculum, to integrate their whole liberal arts exploration into their theatre studies, and to consistently participate in production—on stage, backstage, and in dramaturgical preparation.

Typically, majors complete most of their studies in the core curriculum early in their junior year. At that time, students begin to work toward a finalizing senior project in that area. The senior project is required of all majors and is designed to exhibit the student’s strengths in the area in which he or she hopes to continue studies or seek employment. Students anticipating graduate study in an area of concentration should consult with their advisor to ensure that their auditions, résumés, or portfolio presentations are appropriately prepared. In addition, students are strongly encouraged to participate in one or more off-campus programs, such as the Lawrence London Centre, the Gaiety School of Acting in Dublin, or the ACM Chicago Arts Program, to deepen their understanding of the various areas of concentration prior to designing their senior projects.

Core curriculum — required of all theatre arts majors

  1. THAR 187: Acting I
  2. THAR 135: Stagecraft or THAR 137: Costume Crafts and Technology
  3. THAR 212: Theatre Traditions I: Greeks through the 18th Century
  4. THAR 224: Theatre Traditions II: Romanticism through the Present
  5. THAR 231: Introduction to Design for the Theatre
  6. THAR 327: Playscript Analysis
  7. Six terms of participation in either THAR 355: Theatre Production Laboratory or THAR 357: Musical Theatre Production Laboratory. Normally granted at one unit per term of participation.
  8. Three additional courses (18 units) in a focus area or courses across focus areas or continue a generalist approach. No more than twelve (12) units of tutorials may be counted in the theatre arts major.
  9. Senior project including enrollment in THAR 687 (1 unit)

Performance

Additional courses in performance study include Acting II, Play Directing, and 12 additional units in performance-related courses, including voice and dance.

Design and Technical Theatre

Additional production-related courses include Costume Design, Set Design, or Lighting Design, Advanced Design Studio, and courses in theater technology.

Dramatic Theory, History, and Literature

Dramatic Theory and Criticism and an additional course in theatre history are required. Then students will take an additional 12 units of dramatic literature in the Departments of Theatre Arts or English or in a language department. We urge students who intend to pursue graduate studies in this area to continue their language studies to the level of advanced proficiency.

Required for the theatre arts minor

  1. THAR 111: Introduction to the Theatre
  2. THAR 135: Stagecraft or THAR 137: Costume Crafts and Technology
  3. THAR 187: Acting I
  4. THAR 212 or 224: Theatre Traditions
  5. THAR 327: Playscript Analysis
  6. THAR 477: Acting II or THAR 231: Introduction to Design for Theatre
  7. An additional course in performance, design, or theatre history/literature
  8. THAR 355 or 357: Theatre Production Laboratory (3 terms of participation, normally granted at one unit per term of participation)
  9. C average in the minor

Teacher Certification in Theatre Arts

Theatre arts majors can seek certification to teach theatre arts at the secondary level. Students can add an endorsement in a second area (such as English as a second language) by completing the appropriate minor. Students who plan to seek teacher certification should review the requirements in the Education section of the catalog and meet with the director of teacher education, preferably before the end of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Theatre Arts

The required senior project is a cumulative project that reflects each student's specific interests, and the wide range of activity in our department. While majors often begin the planning process for their senior project with their advisor during sophomore year, proposals to the department are due at the end of Winter Term junior year. A wide variety of options are available as valid senior projects. They include:

  • Creating a major acting role and documenting your efforts
  • Directing a one-act play (up to 70 minutes, department pays for license and scripts)
  • Set, lighting, costume, or sound design for a main stage or senior project production
  • Technical direction or stage management for a production
  • Creating and teaching curriculum for primary or secondary students in cooperation with Appleton area schools
  • Writing a play and producing an initial reading of it for a general audience. Preparation for an initial reading consists of 2–3 rehearsals. In performance stage directions are read and actors present from music stands.
  • Scholarly activities such as writing on an aspect of theatre history for presentation or publication.
  • Present a staged reading of a play. Preparation for staged-readings usually consist of 4–6 rehearsals. In performance actors should be at music stands and occasionally use key props and/or costume accessories to clarify action. Lighting is general. We encourage the use of sounds elements to establish setting, set mood, and clarify action.

Proposals for projects must address the following:

  1. The requirements and challenges of the project including impact on and intersection with the department's ongoing activity
  2. The course and production work and internship experiences that have prepared you to successfully complete the project
  3. The scholarly, artistic, and personal goals you hope to achieve with your project
  4. Request for space including preferred term and special production needs

As theatre is a collaborative art form, the senior project is often a shared experience with other seniors; the department encourages groups of rising seniors to propose joint efforts.

The department welcomes project proposals involving shared experiences with other departments. The senior project can be tailored to fit the needs of a student seeking secondary certification.

University Courses

University courses (listed with the prefix UNIC) deal with subjects of interest and importance that are outside the purview of any given department. These include courses in additional languages, academic skills, or personal development, as well as interdisciplinary courses on contemporary concerns that cross traditional academic boundaries. Students from all disciplines may enroll in university courses.

Conservatory of Music

Conservatory of Music

Music has been a prominent feature of life at Lawrence University since its founding in1847; the first Bachelor of Music degree was conferred in 1892. Today, the conservatory curriculum affords students a unique blend of professional education in music and a liberal education, a combination that has produced outstanding composers, performers, scholars, and educators. Conservatory students are active in the academic and extracurricular life of the college, and college students avail themselves of the rich opportunities for music study and appreciation in the conservatory. The conservatory is an accredited institutional member of the National Association of Schools of Music.

Four separate courses of study lead to a degree in music: the Bachelor of Music degree with majors in performance, music education, music composition, or music theory; the five-year program that combines the Bachelor of Music degree with a Bachelor of Arts degree in a major other than music; and the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in music (Please see the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements and the major and minor in music). All degrees in music offer the possibility of a student-designed major. Students interested in a student-designed major should consult the associate dean of the conservatory.

General Information

All students are expected to be familiar with the policies and procedures set forth in departmental handbooks and guidelines and the Conservatory Student Handbook, all of which contain important information about recitals and departmental examinations and other rules governing student academic life within the conservatory.

Students who wish to pursue two music majors must petition the Conservatory Committee on Administration.

Studio assignments and course placement will be determined upon matriculation. Students are expected to meet with their faculty advisors on a regular basis to discuss progress and course selections. Regular consultation with faculty advisors is essential for students who wish to attend an off-campus program or are planning to complete both the Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Arts degrees.

Students must consult their studio teachers in regard to all public performances, including appearances not scheduled by Lawrence University. Conservatory rehearsals and performances take precedence in the case of a conflict with external activities. Students may not teach on campus unless employed by the Lawrence Academy of Music.

Bachelor of Music Degree

The Bachelor of Music is a professional degree. Courses in music represent approximately two-thirds of the curriculum, while one-third is devoted to Freshman Studies and general education requirements.

In addition to academic policies and regulations, students in the conservatory are subject to policies and procedures detailed in conservatory department guidelines and the Conservatory Student Handbook.

Admission to the Degree

An entrance audition is required of all applicants for admission to the Bachelor of Music degree. Bachelor of Arts students who wish to become Bachelor of Music students must petition the Conservatory Committee on Administration for admission. Bachelor of Music students who wish to become Bachelor of Arts students must petition the University Faculty Subcommittee on Administration for acceptance into the Bachelor of Arts degree program. Such changes are not normally allowed before the end of the freshman year nor later than the beginning of the junior year.

Degree Requirements

  1. Completion of a minimum of 216 units. The following music courses are used in the computation of the degree grade-point average but are excluded from the total of 216 units required for the degree: MURP 201, 202, 203, 301, 302 and MUTH 161, 162, 171, 172.
  2. Of the 216 units required to complete the degree, a student must present:
    1. a minimum of 144 units in music
    2. a minimum of 60 units in courses other than music
    3. no more than 18 units in ESL courses
    4. no more than 12 units from academic internships
    The additional 12 units may be selected from any department.
  3. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies
  4. Completion of the general education requirements:
    1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive
    2. International diversity. One of the following:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States
      2. 12 units selected from courses numbered below 200 in a single language other than English. The language competency requirement may be satisfied in other ways described under Academic Procedures and Regulations.
      3. Participation for one term in a Lawrence or affiliated off-campus study program held outside the United States
      Note: While some music courses may satisfy general education requirements, a minimum of 60 units in courses other than music is required for the degree.
  5. Completion of music core requirements:
    1. Music theory
      1. MUTH 151, 161, 171 or MUTH 201, 211, 221
      2. MUTH 152, 162, 172 or MUTH 202, 212, 222
      3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
      4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
      5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
    2. Musicology
      1. MUCO 201 and 202
      2. 12 units selected from courses in musicology numbered 400 or above
    3. Keyboard skills: MURP 201, 202, 203 or MURP 301, 302
    4. Applied music individual instruction as specified under requirements for the major and areas of emphasis
    5. Ensemble study: a minimum of 12 units. Students are required to participate in an ensemble every term in which they are attending classes on the Appleton campus. Requirements for specific types of ensemble study (MUEN) are specified under requirements for majors and areas of emphasis.
  6. Completion of a major in music—performance, music education, theory/composition, or student-designed—including all course and non-course requirements, such as recitals, qualifying examinations, etc.
  7. An academic record that meets the following standards:
    1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses
    2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the music major (all music courses and non-music courses required for the major) unless otherwise specified under the major requirements
  8. Completion of required terms and units in residence as specified by the residence requirements.

Stipulations pertaining to the general education requirements

A single course may be used to satisfy both requirement a. (writing intensive) and b. (international diversity) above. Credits granted pursuant to university policy for advanced placement or for transfer work may be used to fulfill general education requirement (see also Evaluation of Credit for Transfer Students).

Music Repertoire - Performance Study

Piano

  1. Piano performance: 54 units
    1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 301
    2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Supporting courses for the major: 18 units
    1. MURP 451, 452: Literature of the Piano I, II (12 units)
    2. MUEP 301, 302: Piano Pedagogy I, II (6 units)
  3. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors I, II
  4. Ensemble: 12 units
    1. 3 units in major ensemble
    2. 3 units in chamber music
    3. 6 units in MUEN 250: Supervised Accompanying

Organ

  1. Organ performance: 54 units
    1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 302
    2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Supporting courses for the major: 9 units
    1. MURP 390: Tutorial Survey of Organ Literature, Design, Pedagogy and Performance Practice (3 units)
    2. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors
    3. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
  3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
  4. Ensemble: 12 units
    1. 3 units in major ensemble
    2. 3 units in chamber music
    3. 6 units in major ensemble, chamber music, or supervised accompanying

Harpsichord

  1. Harpsichord performance: 54 units
    1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 319
    2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Supporting courses for the major: 7 units
    1. MURP 390: Tutorial Harpsichord Accompaniment (1 unit)
    2. Keyboard skills: MURP 301, 302: Functional Skills for Keyboard Majors I, II
    3. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    4. MUEP 390: Tutorial Harpsichord Pedagogy (1 unit)
  3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
  4. Ensemble: 12 units
    1. 3 units in major ensemble
    2. 3 units in chamber music
    3. 6 units in major ensemble, chamber music, or supervised accompanying
  5. General education: French or German must be taken to fulfill the international diversity requirement

Voice

  1. Voice performance: 54 units
    1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 303
    2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Supporting courses for the major: 22 units
    1. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276: vocal diction and technique series (6 units)
    2. MURP 455: Vocal Literature (3 units)
    3. MUEP 371, 372: Vocal Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units)
    4. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
    5. MURP 361, 362: Acting for Singers 1, 2 (6 units)
  3. Ensemble: 18 units
    1. 6 units in MUEN 272/275
    2. 6 additional units in a major choral ensemble
    3. 6 units in opera theatre
  4. General education:
    1. 12 units each of courses taught in two of the following languages (or placement at the intermediate level): French, German, or Italian. Must be taken for a grade.
    2. 2 units selected from: THAR 355: Theatre Production, THAR 357: Musical Theatre Production

Strings: violin, viola, violoncello, doublebass

  1. String performance: 60 units
    1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 304, 305, 306, or 307
    2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Pedagogy: One course selected from MUEP 245, 250, 252, 333, or 334 (1–3 units)
  3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
  4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
  5. Ensemble: 18 units
    1. 12 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra
    2. Chamber music: 6 units, 3 units of which must be completed after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major

Classical guitar

  1. Guitar performance: 60 units
    1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 308
    2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Supporting courses for the major: 9 units
    1. MURP 315: Fretboard Harmony for the Classical Guitarist (1 unit)
    2. MUEP 304: Guitar Pedagogy (1 unit)
    3. MURP 317: History and Literature of the Guitar (1 unit)
    4. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
  3. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
  4. Ensemble: 12 units
    1. 3 units in major ensemble,
    2. 3 units in chamber music, and
    3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music

Winds: flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, bassoon, horn, trumpet, trombone, euphonium, tuba

  1. Wind performance: 60 units
    1. A minimum of 60 units in MUIN 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, or 318
    2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Pedagogy: One course selected from MUEP 245, 259, 260, or 261 (3 units)
  3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
  4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
  5. Ensemble: 15 units
    1. 6 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble, 3 units of which must be taken after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major
    2. 6 units in a major instrumental ensemble
    3. 3 units of chamber music

Percussion

  1. Percussion performance: 54 units
    1. A minimum of 54 units in MUIN 320
    2. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Pedagogy: MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  3. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
  4. MUCA/MUCO/MUTH: 6 units from courses numbered 300 or above beyond degree requirements
  5. Ensemble: 16 units
    1. 12 units in a major instrumental ensemble, including
      1. 3 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble
      2. 3 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra (A minimum of 3 units in MUEN 285 or MUEN 290 must be completed after the student has passed the qualifying examination for the major)
    2. 4 units of MUEN 230: Percussion Ensemble (one term each year for four years)

Senior Experience in Music Performance

The required senior recital is considered the standard Senior Experience for students in the performance major. Students have the option of proposing enhancements to the senior recital or alternative performance projects as their Senior Experience with the approval of the applied teacher, advisor, and department chair. Alternative Senior Experience projects do not replace the senior recital requirement.

Emphasis in jazz and improvisational music

Admission to the Bachelor of Music performance major with an emphasis in jazz and improvisational music may be granted to a limited number of students upon completion of qualifying examinations and with the approval of a candidate selection committee. For detailed information on admission and scheduling of requirements, students are referred to the chair of the jazz and improvisational music department.

Note: Before admission to the jazz emphasis, Bachelor of Music performance candidates are required to study with the respective classical applied instructors but may elect added applied study with the respective jazz applied instructor. After admission to the jazz emphasis, candidates are required to study with the respective jazz applied instructors but may elect to continue with the respective classical instructor.

  1. Performance: 54 units
    1. 36 units of applied individual instruction (MUIN) in piano, strings, winds, or percussion numbered 301-320 during the freshman and sophomore years (before admission to the jazz emphasis)
    2. 18 units of MUIN 329 after admission to the jazz emphasis (candidates may elect more than 18 units)
    3. Presentation of a half recital during junior year and a full recital during senior year
  2. Supporting courses for the emphasis:
    1. MUTH 240: Jazz Theory and Aural Training (3 units)
    2. MUCA 220, 221: Jazz Improvisation I, II (6 units)
    3. MUCA 230: Small Group Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
    4. MUCA 330: Large Ensemble Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
    5. MUCA 530: Advance Jazz Writing Skills (3 units)
    6. MUIN 329: Jazz Studies - one term of applied individual study in jazz piano (3 units)
    7. MUCO 455: Jazz History (6 units)
    8. MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit)
    9. MUEP 120: Basic Audio Recording (1 unit)
  3. Piano majors must complete either MURP 451 and 452: Literature of the Piano I and II or MUEP 301 and 302: Piano Pedagogy I and II
  4. Ensemble: completion of the requirement must include:
    1. 5 terms of MUEN 248: Jazz Small Group Studies after admission to the jazz emphasis (5 units)
    2. 6 terms of MUEN 295: Jazz Ensemble or MUEN 293: Jazz Band, after admission to the jazz emphasis (6 units)
    3. Additional ensembles, specific to primary instrument, as follows:
      • Winds/Percussion: 6 terms wind ensemble/symphonic band; 3 terms chamber music
      • Strings: 9 terms symphony orchestra (3 terms required participation after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies); 3 terms chamber music
      • Piano: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, or chorale; 3 terms supervised accompanying
      • Guitar: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, chorale, or chamber music
  5. Required projects:
    1. DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards Application: By December 31 of the senior year, all candidates are required to submit an application and compact-disc recording (a minimum of 10 minutes or 3 selections) for the Jazz Soloist category in the annual DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards. Repertoire will be chosen by the coordinator of jazz performance practice in consultation with the applied jazz studio teacher.
    2. Assembly of self-promotional CD and/or web site: Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations must be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.
    3. Jazz Small Group Coaching: All candidates will direct or co-direct a jazz small group for a minimum of one term after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies (one 60-minute rehearsal per week). Each candidate must submit (in writing to the jazz faculty) a repertoire list and rehearsal plan for the term by the end of the third week. Each candidate must arrange for one group rehearsal observation by a jazz faculty member before the mid-term reading period.
    4. Jazz Big Band Conducting: All candidates will conduct designated rehearsals and sectionals of Jazz Band or Jazz Workshop after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies.
    5. Jazz “Tune of the Week” Tutoring: All admitted jazz emphasis candidates will serve as co-tutors for jazz “Tune of the Week” study/rehearsal sessions once each term. Tutors will organize and lead a single session (2–3 hours in duration, time and date TBA) at the end of each term for freshmen and sophomores contemplating admission to the jazz emphasis. Each session will serve as an “organized jam session” covering the 10 “Tune of the Week” selections assigned in each given term.

Note: Before admission to the jazz emphasis, Bachelor of Music performance candidates are required to study with the respective classical applied instructors but may elect added applied study with the respective jazz applied instructor. After admission to the jazz emphasis, candidates are required to study with the respective jazz applied instructors but may elect to continue with the respective classical instructor.

Senior Experience in Music - Jazz Emphasis

The senior recital and media project (assembly of a self-promotional CD and/or personal web site) are designated as the official Senior Experiences for jazz emphasis candidates in both performance and composition and arranging. Students have the option of proposing enhancements to this Senior Experience with the approval of the applied teacher, advisor, and department chair.

Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations will be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.

Emphasis in collaborative piano

In addition to all requirements for the major in piano performance, the following are required:

  1. Supporting courses for the emphasis: 12 units
    1. MURP 420: Piano Accompaniment: Vocal (3 units)
    2. MURP 425: Piano Accompaniment: Instrumental (3 units)
    3. MURP 420 or 425—repetition of one course (3 units)
    4. MURP 272 English Singing Diction (1 unit); must be fulfilled before requirement 1.e. below
    5. Two of the following in a language not used to satisfy requirement 3: general education language requirement below (2 units):
      • MURP 273 Italian and Latin Singing Diction
      • MURP 274 German Singing Diction
      • MURP 275 French Singing Diction
    6. One term of the supervised accompanying requirement must be fulfilled with Opera Scenes.
  2. Recitals: in addition to required solo degree recitals, accompany one half vocal recital and one half instrumental recital; must be prepared under supervision of keyboard faculty member(s) through registration in an accompanying class, supervised accompanying, or chamber music.
  3. General education: completion of the degree requirements must include 12 units of one of the following (or placement at the intermediate level): French, German, or Italian, taken for a grade.

Minor in pedagogy

Keyboard

  1. MUEP 301, 302, 303: Piano Pedagogy I, II, III (9 units)
  2. Two of the following (6 units total):
    • MUEP 502: Early Advanced Piano Pedagogy
    • MUEP 503: Group Piano Pedagogy
    • MUEP 505: Internship in Piano Pedagogy
  3. MUEP 581, 582: Student Teaching in Piano I, II (6 units)
  4. MURP 451, 452: Literature of the Piano I, II (12 units)
  5. Completion of the general education requirement must include PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology or PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology (6 units)
  6. Presentation of a half recital.
  7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

Voice

  1. MUEP 371, 372: Voice Science and Pedagogy I, II (4 units)
  2. MUEP 373: The Brain, Music, and Optimal Performance (3 units)
  3. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
  4. Additional Guided Independent Study in Historic Pedagogy, Acoustics, and/or Body/Mind Research (3 units)
  5. MURP 223: Educators' Keyboard Skills (1 unit)
  6. Completion of the general education requirement must include one of the following (6 units):
    • PSYC 180: Psychology of Learning
    • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
    • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
  7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

Strings

  1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  3. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques I, II (6 units)
  4. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
  5. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
    • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
    • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
    • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
    • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
    • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
  6. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

Brass

  1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  3. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
  4. MUEP 259: Brass Pedagogy (3 units)
  5. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
  6. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
    • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
    • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
    • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
    • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
    • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
  7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

Percussion

  1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  3. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques (3 units)
  4. MUEP 390: Tutorial in Music Pedagogy-Percussion (3 units)
  5. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
  6. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
    • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
    • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
    • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
    • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
    • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
  7. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

Woodwinds

  1. MUEP 245: Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  2. MUEP 345: Applied Instrumental Pedagogy (3 units)
  3. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques I, II (6 units)
  4. MUEP 395: Internship in Music Pedagogy (3 units)
  5. Completion of the general education requirements must include one of the following (6 units):
    • EDST 180: Psychology of Learning
    • PSYC 260: Developmental Psychology
    • PSYC 340: Cognitive Psychology
    • EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education
    • EDST 440: Sociology of Education
  6. Students must participate in individual performance study in each term in which they are in residence on the Appleton campus.

Music Education and Pedagogy

The Bachelor of Music degree with a major in music education is subject to revision. It is the student’s responsibility to confirm requirements with the chair of the music education department. A cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required for admission to music education and for certification to teach music, and students must demonstrate content knowledge through either a 3.00 major GPA or a passing score on the Praxis II: Music Content Knowledge test before they may student teach. A passing score on the edTPA, a teacher performance assessment completed during student teaching, is required for certification for licensure. Students seeking licensure should consult the Music Education Student Teaching Handbook for further information and requirements.

Students in the Bachelor of Music degree program may qualify for a 13th-term tuition waiver for student teaching, paying only a registration fee (see Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance). Students must have completed all graduation requirements except student teaching, and this term must immediately follow the 12th term. For students in the five-year double-degree program, a 16th term of student teaching is available under the same policy; this term must immediately follow the 15th term.

Common requirements for the major in music education

In addition to degree requirements and those of specific areas below, the following are required of all music education majors:

  1. Education: 21 units
    1. EDST 180: Psychology of Learning (6 units)
    2. EDST 350: Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, and Education (6 units)
    3. EDST 440: Sociology of Education (6 units)
    4. EDUC 431: Educating All Learners - Music (3 units)
  2. Music education: 9 units
    1. MUEP 201: Introduction to Music Education (3 units)
    2. MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
  3. Student teaching: 21 units
    1. MUEP 660: Advanced Methods in Teaching Music (3 units)
    2. MUEP 680: Student Teaching (18 units)
  4. Performance: 36 units
    1. Minimum of 36 units in applied individual instruction, required every term in which the student is in residence on the Appleton campus with the exception of the student-teaching semester
    2. Presentation of a half recital during the junior or senior year
  5. Non-music courses, which must include the following:
    1. 6 units of biological science or ANTH 140 and 6 units of physical science; or 6 units of BIOL 103, BIOL 230, or ENST 150
    2. 6 units in mathematics
    3. A total of 60 units in courses other than music
  6. Participation in a major ensemble is required every term in residence on the Appleton campus, as specified in the following requirements for each track: general, choral/general, instrumental, and instrumental/general.
  7. Completion of major requirements for one of the areas as outlined below.

Senior Experience in Music Education

Student teaching is the culminating experience for students in music education. This experience places Lawrence seniors in schools for a period of 18 weeks. During this time, student teachers work closely with a mentor teacher at the secondary and/or elementary level to gain the professional knowledge and skills that will prepare them for certification and licensure in Wisconsin and other states. A variety of projects, tasks, and events comprise the student teaching Senior Experience at Lawrence. As they work with their mentor teacher, students observe classroom teaching as they prepare to take responsibility for planning and executing classes, rehearsals, and lessons under the expert guidance of master teachers.

In addition to working with a mentor teacher in the schools, students also work with Lawrence faculty during student teaching, both as mentors and in a weekly seminar meeting. Seminar topics include examination of practical issues related to the classroom, (such as classroom management, lesson planning and execution, and working with young learners), broad matters related to functioning professionally in schools and the profession (licensure, administration, and community), and philosophical issues. One of the mechanisms for facilitating discourse in the seminar is the videotape that student teachers bring in to the seminar. These brief episodes facilitate group discussion of their concerns, questions, and wonderments while providing a glimpse into their distinct student teaching environment.

During student teaching, students engage the complete range of their Lawrence studies, including but not limited to the musical, pedagogical and technical coursework in the program. A culminating product of the student teaching experience is a final teaching portfolio that includes a teacher performance assessment (edTPA), reflective essay, and final student teaching evaluations, which together provide evidence that the student has met Lawrence's teacher education standards.

General music

In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (above), the following are required for the general music emphasis:

  1. Music education and pedagogy: 28-30 units
    1. MUEP 371 and 372: Voice Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units) or MUEP 231 and 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units). Students whose principal performance instrument is other than voice must complete MUEP 231 and 232.
    2. MUEP 240, 350: General Music Methods (12 units)
    3. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
    4. MUEP 340/THAR 340: Musical Theatre Production Overview (1 unit)
    5. MUEP 402: Choral Techniques I (6 units)
    6. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
  2. Keyboard skills: MURP 223: Educators' Keyboard Skills (1 unit) in addition to degree requirement in keyboard skills
  3. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 for students whose primary instrument is voice
  4. Ensemble: 12 units. Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus. The requirement is based on the student’s principal instrument, as follows:
    1. Voice and keyboard:
      1. 9 units in a major choral ensemble
      2. 3 units in any major ensemble
    2. Winds and percussion:
      1. 6 units in Wind Ensemble or Symphonic Band
      2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble
      3. 3 units in any major ensemble.
    3. Strings:
      1. 6 units in Symphony Orchestra
      2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble
      3. 3 units in any major ensemble

Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

Choral/general

In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the choral/general emphasis:

  1. Music education and pedagogy: 34-36 units
    1. MUEP 371 and 372: Voice Science & Pedagogy I, II (4 units) or MUEP 231 and 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units).
      (Students whose principal performance instrument is other than voice must complete MUEP 231 and 232.)
    2. MUEP 240, 350: General Music Methods (12 units)
    3. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
    4. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
    5. MUEP 340/THAR 340: Musical Theatre Production Overview (1 unit)
    6. MUEP 402: Choral Techniques I (6 units)
    7. MUEP 442: Choral Techniques II (6 units)
  2. Keyboard skills: MURP 223: Educators' Keyboard Skills (1 unit) in addition to degree requirement in keyboard skills
  3. Performance: 5-6 units
    1. MURP 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 for students whose primary instrument is voice
    2. A minimum of 2 terms of MUIN 303 for students whose primary instrument is other than voice and satisfactory completion of the vocal proficiency examination
  4. Ensemble: 12 units in a major choral ensemble. Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus.

Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

Instrumental

In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the instrumental emphasis:

  1. Music education and pedagogy: 33 units
    1. MUEP 230: Voice for Instrumental Music Educators (1 units)
    2. One of the following: MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit), MUEP 333 String Pedagogy: Pedagogues and Methods (1 unit), or MUEP 334 String Pedagogy: Editing Orchestral String Parts (1 unit)
    3. MUEP 401: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques I (6 units)
    4. MUEP 451: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques II (6 units)
    5. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
    6. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
    7. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques (3 units)
    8. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques I, II (6 units)
    9. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques I, II (6 units)
  2. Ensemble: 12 units
    1. Winds and percussion:
      1. 9 units in MUEN 285: Wind Ensemble or MUEN 287: Symphonic Band
      2. an additional 3 units in any major ensemble
    2. Strings:
      1. 9 units in MUEN 290: Symphony Orchestra
      2. 3 additional units in any major ensemble

Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

Instrumental/general

In addition to degree requirements and common requirements for all music education majors (top), the following are required for the instrumental/general emphasis:

  1. Music education and pedagogy: 50 units
    1. One of the following: MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit), MUEP 333 String Pedagogy: Pedagogues and Methods (1 unit), or MUEP 334 String Pedagogy: Editing Orchestral String Parts (1 unit)
    2. MUEP 231, 232: Vocal Proficiency and Pedagogy I, II (2 units)
    3. MUEP 240, 350: General Music Methods (12 units)
    4. MUEP 336: Guitar and Recorder for the Music Educator (1 unit)
    5. MUEP 401: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques I (6 units)
    6. MUEP 451: Instrumental Methods and Rehearsal Techniques II (6 units)
    7. MUEP 307: Orchestration for the Music Educator (1 unit)
    8. MUEP 310: Brass Techniques (3 units)
    9. MUEP 315: Percussion Techniques ( 3 units)
    10. MUEP 321, 322: Woodwind Techniques (6 units)
    11. MUEP 331, 332: String Techniques (6 units)
  2. Keyboard skills:
    1. MURP 223: Educators' Keyboard Skills (1 unit) in addition to degree requirements in keyboard skills.
  3. Ensemble: 12 units. Participation in major ensemble required every term in residence on the Appleton campus. The requirement is based on the student’s primary instrument, as follows:
    1. Winds and percussion:
      1. 6 units in Wind Ensemble or Symphonic Band
      2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble
      3. 3 additional units in any major ensemble
    2. Strings:
      1. 6 units in Symphony Orchestra
      2. 3 units in any major choral ensemble
      3. 3 units in any major ensemble

Note: B.Mus. students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for four and one-half years; double degree students earning this major should expect to attend Lawrence for five and one-half years.

Music Composition & Arranging

The major in Composition

  1. Music composition: 45 units
    1. MUCA 100: Fundamentals of Composition (6 units)
    2. MUCA 345: Composition (27 units; 9 terms, 3 units per term)
    3. MUCA 300: Techniques of the Contemporary Composer (6 units)
    4. MUCA 400: Topics in Electronic Music (6 units)
  2. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree: 12 units
    1. One course in counterpoint (6 units), either:
      • MUTH 400: Renaissance Counterpoint (6 units) or
      • MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units)
    2. One course in analysis (6 units) selected from the following:
      • MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units)
      • MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
      • MUTH 550: Topics in Music Theory and Analysis (6 units); topic must concern music composed since 1900
  3. Orchestration: MUCA 411, 412: Orchestration I, II (12 units)
  4. Conducting: MUEP 380: Conducting Principles (6 units)
  5. Performance: A minimum of 18 units in applied individual instruction
  6. Ensemble: 12 units
    1. 3 units in major ensemble
    2. 3 units in chamber music
    3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music

The Qualifying Examination in Composition

The qualifying examination in composition comprises a portfolio of compositions that is submitted to and adjudicated by a committee of composition faculty members. The examination must be completed no later than the end of the first term of the sophomore year.

Senior Experience in Composition

For students majoring in composition, the Senior Experience consists of a recital of original compositions and a portfolio of scores and recordings of works composed while at Lawrence. The composition recital, which is normally held during the winter or spring term of the senior year, must include approximately 35–40 minutes of original music composed while at Lawrence (e.g., 5 to 6 works for various chamber ensembles, possibly including a solo work or two), showing variety in musical style, compositional technique, and artistic conception. The compositions should represent the student's finest work at Lawrence, and they should be prepared, rehearsed, and performed at the highest possible level.

The student, in consultation with his or her principal composition instructor, is responsible for all aspects of production (assembling personnel, preparation of scores and parts, preparation of the concert program and program notes, organizing rehearsals, and, where appropriate, coaching). The senior portfolio consists of professional-quality scores prepared by the student along with recordings of works performed at Lawrence, and must be submitted by the end of the tenth week of the term in which the senior recital occurs.

The senior recital and portfolio is not normally subject to consideration for honors in independent study. Students wishing to undertake an honors project distinct from the senior recital may do so, but the honors project may not substitute for the senior recital and portfolio.

Emphasis in jazz and improvisational music

Admission to the Bachelor of Music in composition with an emphasis in jazz and improvisational music may be granted to a limited number of students upon successful completion of qualifying examinations and with the approval of a candidate selection committee. For detailed information on admission and scheduling of requirements, students are referred to the chair of the jazz and improvisational music department.
Specific courses required for the emphasis are as follows:

  1. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree (6 units):
    • MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units)
    • MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
  2. Music composition and arranging
    1. MUCA 230: Small Group Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
    2. MUCA 330: Large Ensemble Jazz Composition and Arranging (3 units)
    3. MUCA 411: Orchestration I (6 units)
    4. MUCA 530: Advanced Jazz Writing Skills (3 units)
    5. MUCA 530: Advanced Jazz Composition (9 units at 3 units per term)
    6. MUCA 300: Techniques of the Contemporary Composer (6 units)
    7. 6 units from MUCA 345: Composition
  3. Supporting courses for the emphasis:
    1. MUCA 220, 221: Jazz Improvisation I, II (6 units)
    2. MUTH 240: Jazz Theory and Aural Training (3 units)
    3. MUIN 329: Jazz Studies - one term of applied individual study in jazz piano (3 units)
    4. MUCO 455: Jazz History (3 units)
    5. MUEP 305: Jazz Pedagogy (1 unit)
    6. MUEP 120: Basic Audio Recording (1 unit)
  4. Performance: A minimum of 24 units in applied individual instruction and 6 terms on the major instrument or voice
  5. Ensemble: Completion of the requirement must include:
    1. 3 terms of MUEN 248: Jazz Small Group Studies, after admission to jazz emphasis (3 units)
    2. 3 terms of MUEN 295: Jazz Ensemble or MUEN 293: Jazz Band, after admission to the jazz emphasis (3 units)
    3. Additional ensembles, specific to primary instrument, as follows:
      • Winds/Percussion: 6 terms wind ensemble/ symphonic band; 3 terms chamber music
      • Strings: 9 terms symphony orchestra (3 terms required participation after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies); 3 terms chamber music
      • Piano: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, or chorale; 3 terms supervised accompanying
      • Guitar: 3 terms symphony orchestra, wind ensemble, symphonic band, concert choir, women’s choir, chorale, or chamber music
      • Voice: 6 terms concert choir or women’s choir
  6. Required projects:
    1. Recitals: Half recital (30 minutes maximum stage time) during junior year, full recital (60 minutes maximum stage time) during senior year.
    2. DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards Application: By December 31 of the senior year, all candidates are required to submit an application and CD recording (a minimum of 10 minutes or 3 selections) for the Jazz Soloist category in the annual DownBeat Magazine Student Music Awards. Repertoire will be chosen by the coordinator of jazz performance practice in consultation with the applied jazz studio teacher
    3. Assembly of self-promotional CD and/or web site: Over the course of the candidate’s two years in the jazz emphasis, a media project documenting the student’s jazz performances, compositions, arrangements, and teaching/pedagogical demonstrations must be assembled. Candidates may choose to create an audio CD, audio/visual DVD, or personal web site containing a minimum of 30 minutes of recorded work by the candidate. The selected project(s) must be presented to the jazz and improvisational music faculty before the conclusion of the final term of study.
    4. Jazz Small Group Coaching: All candidates will direct or co-direct a jazz small group for a minimum of one term after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies (one 60-minute rehearsal per week). Each candidate must submit (in writing to the jazz faculty) a repertoire list and rehearsal plan for the term by the end of the third week. Each candidate must arrange for one group rehearsal observation by a jazz faculty member before the mid-term reading period.
    5. Jazz Big Band Conducting: All candidates will conduct designated rehearsals and sectionals of Jazz Band or Jazz Workshop after admission to the emphasis in jazz studies.
    6. Jazz “Tune of the Week” Tutoring: All admitted jazz emphasis candidates will serve as co-tutors for jazz “Tune of the Week” study/rehearsal sessions once each term. Tutors will organize and lead a single session (2–3 hours in duration, time and date TBA) at the end of each term for freshmen and sophomores contemplating admission to the jazz emphasis. Each session will serve as an “organized jam session” covering the 10 “Tune of the Week” selections assigned in each given term.

Note: Before admission to the jazz emphasis, students are required to study with the respective classical applied instructors but may elect added applied study with the respective jazz applied instructor. After admission to the jazz emphasis, candidates are required to study with the respective jazz applied instructors but may elect to continue applied study with the respective classical instructor.

Music Theory

The major in Music Theory

  1. Music theory in addition to the core courses required for the B.Mus. degree: 42 units
    1. Two courses in counterpoint (12 units), either:
      • MUTH 400: Renaissance Counterpoint (6 units) and MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units), or
      • MUTH 401: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach I (6 units) and MUTH 402: Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach II (6 units)
    2. Two 400-level courses in theory and analysis (12 units):
      1. MUTH 421: Theory and Analysis of Music from 1900-1945 (6 units)
      2. MUTH 422: Theory and Analysis of Music since 1945 (6 units)
    3. MUTH 520: Schenkerian Analysis (6 units)
    4. Two different iterations of MUTH 550: Topics in Music Theory and Analysis (12 units)
  2. Music composition and arranging (12 units):
    1. MUCA 100: Fundamentals of Composition (6 units)
    2. Two terms of MUCA 345: Composition (6 units; 3 units per term)
  3. Any two of the following courses: (12 units)
    • ANTH 531/LING 531: Semiotics
    • EDST 545/LING 545/PSYC 545: Gesture Studies
    • LING 470: Cognitive Linguistics
    • MUCO 411: Aesthetics of Music
    • PHYS 107: Physics of Music
    • PSYC 230: Psychology of Music
  4. Performance: A minimum of 24 units in applied individual instruction
  5. Ensemble: 12 units
    1. 3 units in major ensemble
    2. 3 units in chamber music
    3. 6 units in major ensemble or chamber music
  6. Language: 6 units in languages other than English taken from courses numbered 200 or above (German is strongly encouraged because of its prevalence in music theoretical scholarship)
  7. Required project: One public performance of a work for small ensemble that the student has composed in MUCA 345: Composition and rehearsed and prepared under faculty supervision.

Senior Experience in Music Theory

The topic of the Senior Experience in music theory will arise from the student’s encounter, in upper-level courses, with advanced theoretical and analytical concepts, methods, and techniques. Topics may take one of the following forms, subject to approval by the music theory faculty:

  1. an original essay, of substantive length and publishable quality, on a theoretical or analytic topic
  2. a critical exegesis of a monograph by a contemporary or historical music theorist or of a series of interrelated essays
  3. a lecture-recital
  4. a software application for music theory pedagogy or analysis

Ensemble performance study

Note: A maximum of 12 units of major ensemble may apply toward the Bachelor of Music degree, except when required by the major. Major ensembles are Concert Choir, Cantala Women’s Choir, Viking Chorale, Music Theatre, Wind Ensemble, Symphonic Band, Symphony Orchestra, Jazz Ensemble, and Jazz Band.

Students may not register for ensemble study by using Voyager; registration will be handled by ensemble directors at the beginning of each term.

Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Music Degree

Professional study in music and study in the liberal arts may be combined in a five-year program leading to both Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Arts degrees, the latter with a major other than music. Both degrees are awarded at the conclusion of the five-year program. Interested students should discuss this possibility with their advisors as early as possible.

Approximately half of the curriculum is devoted to the study of music—completion of the music core and requirements for a major in performance, music education, or theory/composition. The other half of the curriculum mirrors that of the Bachelor of Arts program, emphasizing breadth of study central to a liberal arts education, focused study in the college major, and elective study to complement other work or explore other fields of interest.

Certain majors in the Bachelor of Arts degree program (for example, some laboratory sciences) may be difficult to combine with the Bachelor of Music degree program into a five-year double-degree program, especially if the student’s objective is to maintain serious options for graduate or professional work in both areas after graduation. Such combinations may require that course overloads be taken to complete minimum requirements in each major in a timely and satisfactory manner. Early and regular consultation with advisors in both the college and the conservatory is imperative. Further, students who seek certification for purposes of teaching a subject other than music are urged to see the associate dean of the conservatory and the director of teacher education.

In addition to academic policies and regulations, students in the conservatory are subject to policies and procedures detailed in conservatory department guidelines and the conservatory student handbook.

Requirements for the five-year Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Music Degrees

  1. Completion of a minimum of 15 terms of study and 270 units. December Term does not count as a term toward this requirement. Of the 270 units required, a student must present:
    1. a minimum of 144 units in music, exclusive of MURP 201, 202, 203, 301, 302 and MUTH 161, 162, 171, 172
    2. a minimum of 114 units selected from courses other than music
    3. no more than 42 units from courses in education
    4. no more than 18 units in ESL courses
    5. a minimum of 72 units from courses numbered 200 and above
    6. no more than 90 units from a single department outside of music, except that in the art department a student may present no more than 126 units, no more than 90 of which may be in art and no more than 90 of which may be in art history
    7. no more than 12 units from academic internships
  2. In the freshman year, 12 units of Freshman Studies.
  3. Completion of the general education requirements:
    1. Distribution, in order to gain exposure to a range of disciplines, subjects, and perspectives within the liberal arts:
      1. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of humanities. All courses in the humanities taught in English will count toward this requirement. Humanities courses taught in a language other than English and numbered 300 and above also will count toward this requirement, except as noted in the course catalog.
      2. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of fine arts
      3. 6 units selected from departments and courses listed within the division of social sciences
      4. 6 units selected from laboratory courses in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics in the division of natural sciences
      See divisions within the university under Structure of the Curriculum.
    2. Diversity, in order to prepare students for a more global world and a more diverse America:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as either emphasizing global and comparative perspectives on the world or focusing on areas outside Europe and the United States
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as focusing on dimensions of diversity, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, that are of particular importance in understanding contemporary society in the United States
    3. Competency, in order to improve and reinforce those fundamental abilities central to a liberal arts education:
      1. 6 units selected from courses designated as writing intensive or 6 units selected from courses designated as speaking intensive
      2. 6 units selected from courses designated as emphasizing mathematical reasoning or quantitative analysis
      3. 6 units in a language other than English taken from courses numbered 200 or above and taught primarily in a language other than English. The language competency requirement may be satisfied in other ways described under Academic Procedures and Regulations.
  4. Completion of a college major—departmental, interdisciplinary, or student-designed—exclusive of music, including all course and non-course requirements, such as departmental examinations, research projects and presentations, portfolios, etc. Students are required to declare a major by the beginning of the junior year.
  5. Completion of music core requirements:
    1. Music Theory
      1. MUTH 151, 161, 171 or MUTH 201, 211, 221
      2. MUTH 152, 162, 172 or MUTH 202, 212, 222
      3. MUTH 251, 261, and 271
      4. MUTH 252, 262, and 272
      5. MUTH 301, 311, and 321
    2. Musicology
      1. MUCO 201 and 202
      2. 12 units selected from courses in musicology numbered 400 or above
    3. Keyboard skills: MURP 201, 202, 203 or MURP 301, 302
    4. Applied music individual instruction as specified under requirements for the major and areas of emphasis
    5. Ensemble study: a minimum of 12 units. Students are required to participate in an ensemble every term in which they are attending classes on the Appleton campus. Requirements for specific types of ensemble study (MUEN) are specified under requirements for majors and areas of emphasis.
    6. Completion of a major in music—performance, music education, theory/composition, or student-designed—including all course and non-course requirements, such as recitals, qualifying examinations, etc.
    7. Completion of a designated Senior Experience course or activity within the chosen majors for each degree.
    8. An academic record that meets the following standards:
      1. A 2.000 grade-point average in all Lawrence courses
      2. A 2.000 grade-point average in the music major (all music courses and non-music courses required for the major) unless otherwise specified under the major requirements
    9. Completion of required terms and units in residence as specified by the university residence requirements.

Stipulations pertaining to the general education requirements

Qualified courses may count toward the requirements in any two of the categories above (distribution, diversity, and competency). Some courses may meet two requirements within a category. No single course can be used to fulfill more than two requirements. Credits granted pursuant to university policy for examinations (Lawrence Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), or A-levels) may be used as appropriate to fulfill diversity or competency requirements only.

December Term

December Term

December Term (D-Term) is an optional two-week session of academic enrichment during the break between fall and winter terms.

In the first two weeks of December, Lawrence offers brief, intensive courses that can be taken for 3 units of credit toward a Lawrence degree. These are enrichment courses that are not offered during the academic year and are not required of any student. On-campus courses include workshops, fieldwork, or travel to sites or activities within a day’s drive of Lawrence. Travel courses take students to locations around the world for hands-on learning in an immersive setting. All offer focused, experiential learning in a small class of interested students led by a Lawrence faculty member.

D-Term courses have separate tuition plus room and board if the course is on campus. On-campus courses may also charge a small course fee for travel or supplies. Travel courses charge a program fee for lodging, meals, museums/tours, and insurance; students are responsible for their own airfare to the course location. Tuition is significantly discounted to make D-Term courses affordable, so no additional financial aid is available.

D-Term courses are listed in the course schedule with a DECM prefix, and registration is through the Voyager system in the late spring or early fall. Students may register for one D-Term course. Any course that does not have five students will be canceled, and students will be given the opportunity to enroll in another course. Registration for D-Term courses closes at fall midterm reading period.

Academic performance in December Term will not change a student’s academic standing, though the December term course grade will be included in a student’s grade point average, which could affect academic standing in subsequent terms.  December Term does not count as a term of residency in meeting degree requirements.

Student-Initiated Courses and Programs

Individualized Learning

Students may customize their learning through student-initiated courses and student-designed majors as described below.

Student-initiated courses

Students may pursue in-depth learning in areas of interest through tutorials, independent study, or academic internships.  Students may also pursue directed study or writing-for-credit under the direction of a Lawrence faculty member.  Non-music majors may request private music lessons by audition or interview and with an additional fee.

Tutorials

A tutorial is a primarily student-driven course of study undertaken by an individual student or small group of students in collaboration with one or more faculty members. The primary goal of a tutorial is expansion, refinement, and synthesis of knowledge and abilities through in-depth exploration of a specific topic. Tutorials supplement regular course offerings, especially in the junior and senior years, by extending the curriculum in depth or breadth according to the intersecting interests of students and faculty members. Pedagogical approaches vary, but tutorials typically feature significant reading plus integrative writing, speaking or performance assignments, problem solving, and discussion. Regular conferences (typically once or twice a week) with the supervising faculty member or members focus on presentation and critique of student work. Tutorials are numbered 390, 590, or 690.

A tutorial may be undertaken to satisfy personal academic interest, to prepare for advanced or graduate study, or to lay the groundwork for an independent study, Senior Experience, or honors project.

To illustrate the variety and scope of tutorials, many academic departments have listed recent tutorial topics at the end of their course listings under Areas of Study. Because tutorials develop out of student interest, these lists should not be construed as offerings but as samples of the topics students have recently elected to pursue.

Independent study

Independent study carries the student beyond the established curriculum into largely student-directed work that in most disciplines is expected to result in the generation of new scholarship or the creation of a new work or performance. Scholarship may take the form of generating new information through research or a new conceptual formulation based on existing knowledge. Creative activity may result in a new composition or other work of art or a new performance of an existing work. The nature of the faculty-student interaction, methodology, and final work or performance may vary according to the goal of the project and the needs and preparation of the student. Through independent study, the student refines and applies abilities acquired in previous coursework while producing new work typical of the discipline. Independent studies are numbered 399, 599 or 699.

At the outset of independent study, the student and supervising faculty member should define and agree upon clear goals, plans for communicating and assessing progress, and criteria for evaluating the student’s work. For independent study lasting more than one term, the student and faculty member should discuss and assess progress at the end of each term. If either party concludes that it would not be beneficial for the student to continue, the student may be assigned a grade for completed or additionally assigned work and not be required to enroll for the next term. Students who continue into the next term may be assigned a temporary grade of In Progress (IP), which will be replaced by the final grade assigned at the end of the independent study period.

Where appropriate, two students may engage in collaborative independent study, and an interdisciplinary independent study may involve more than one faculty mentor. Independent study may be undertaken to pursue a project of personal academic interest, to prepare for graduate study, to meet the requirements for a Senior Experience, or to complete work for an honors project.

Academic internships

Lawrence recognizes that a student’s education can be enhanced by the combination of academic and experience-based learning. Academic internships provide students an opportunity to apply what they have learned in the classroom and to bring back to the classroom an enriched perspective on their learning.

Where academic departments find that the interaction of academic pursuits and work experience is both appropriate to their relevant disciplines and feasible in terms of available work experiences, they normally offer academic internships. These internship courses are listed in this catalog under departmental offerings, and they are offered at differing levels of the curriculum under the course numbers 395, 595, or 695. Where no departmental internship exists, a student may apply for a student-designed internship to the Instruction Committee. Applications must be submitted to the Instruction Committee by the end of the fifth week of the term before the start of the internship.

Students may take a maximum of 12 units of academic internship in fulfillment of their major, minor, or graduation requirements. Academic internships require prior approval by the relevant academic department (in cases where a departmental internship is available) or by a faculty supervisor/academic department and the Instruction Committee (in cases where a departmental internship is not available). Academic internships may be paid or unpaid.

Students enrolled in academic internships engage in work or service experiences with intentional learning objectives that promote reflection throughout the experience and that relate to their academic interests. Site and faculty supervisors work closely with the students and provide evaluations of the students’ activities at the end of the internship.

The academic component of the internship includes readings related to the substance of the internship, discussions with the faculty supervisor and a written report appropriate to the discipline. Course grades are based on this academic work.

Application forms for student-designed academic internships may be obtained from the Registrar’s Office, the Center for Academic Success, Career Services, and the Main Hall, Briggs Hall, Conservatory, and Wriston Art Center offices.

Directed study

Directed study follows a syllabus set primarily by the instructor to meet the needs or interests of an individual student or small group of students. The main goal of directed study is knowledge or skill acquisition, not research or creative work. Students may meet frequently with the faculty supervisor or work more independently, completing assignments according to a schedule agreed upon in advance. Typically several assignments and/or exams are used to evaluate student learning. Directed Study courses may be numbered 191, 391, 591 or 691.

Directed study may be used to deliver content from an existing course (whether because there are too few students enrolled or because the course is not currently being offered), to develop a possible new course offering, or to direct a student in a defined course of study not in the existing curriculum.

Writing for credit

Students may write for credit (with permission of the instructor) in any course in the curriculum other than tutorials, independent study, academic internships, directed study, or Freshman Studies. The student should consult the instructor for permission to write for credit; the instructor will then specify a program and schedule of reading, examinations, and papers.

To register, a student must supply the registrar with a memorandum containing the name of the course and the signatures of the student’s advisor and the instructor of the course. The work must be completed in one year. Courses do not become part of a student’s record until the instructor reports that the required work has been satisfactorily completed. The letter grade will be recorded for the term in which the grade is reported.

Students who have opted for billing by the course under the incremental fee plan will be charged for the credit earned by writing for credit and reported that term.

Music lessons

Private instruction for non-music majors is available by permission of the instructor based on audition or interview and faculty schedules. Additional fees apply for lessons and the use of practice facilities. Group piano lessons are also available. Information is available in the Conservatory of Music office.

Student-designed majors

Student-designed majors provide an opportunity for students to develop areas of concentration outside established programs for interdisciplinary or departmental majors. Like all majors, those that are student-designed should meet the following objectives: greater knowledge of the field under study, increased methodological sophistication, and integration of disparate yet related areas that fall within the proposed major. Student-designed majors must align with the liberal arts mission of the university and be based on areas of faculty expertise and regularly offered courses. Student-designed majors should not be proposed in areas better served by existing majors and minors and should not rely heavily on tutorials, independent studies, or a single faculty member. A reduced version of an existing major will not be approved.

The procedure for establishing a student-designed major is relatively simple:

  1. The student elects a topic area and identifies a member of the faculty who is willing to act as advisor.
  2. With help from the advisor, the student prepares an application identifying a title for the major, listing required courses and electives, and proposing a Senior Experience. The student also prepares a statement on how the proposed major forms a coherent field of study, how it addresses the student's educational goals, and why these goals cannot be accomplished with existing majors, minors, or interdisciplinary areas. Proposed coursework should include 10 to 12 courses plus a Senior Experience, and courses should be reasonably distributed across the introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels. The student should confirm with department chairs that proposed courses will be offered in the terms indicated in the student's tentative plan.
  3. The advisor and the student invite two other members of the faculty who support the proposed major to serve as the advisory panel for the major. The panel oversees the program and approves minor changes in course selections or topics for the Senior Experience. One member of the panel should be designated as an alternate advisor in case the principal advisor goes on leave or is abroad. If the Senior Experience will be done as an independent study, the student also needs the commitment of a faculty member for that independent study.
  4. The student submits the application for a student-designed major, endorsed by the faculty advisor and panel, with a transcript to the Instruction Committee (for the Bachelor of Arts degree) or the Conservatory Committee on Administration (for the Bachelor of Music degree) before the end of Term I of the student’s junior year. Students seeking an extension to this deadline should contact the chair of the relevant committee. Faculty members who endorse the statement accept responsibility for supervising the major if it receives committee approval.
  5. The Instruction Committee or Conservatory Committee on Administration takes action on the proposed major and communicates its action to the registrar, the student, the faculty advisor, and members of the panel.

Honors

Honors Projects

Honors projects are coherent programs of independent work carried out by students, usually in their senior year, on subjects or problems of more than ordinary difficulty in areas they have studied in considerable depth, usually in their majors or closely related areas. An honors project may also be a work of creative, visual or performing art. Senior Experience projects may be submitted as honors projects if they fulfill all of the requirements for cum laude honors. It is up to each individual department to decide whether an honors project will be accepted as satisfying the Senior Experience requirement for the major.

Successful honors projects receive Honors in Independent Study at graduation in three grades: cum laude (with distinction), magna cum laude (with great distinction) and summa cum laude (with highest distinction). These levels are awarded by vote of the faculty acting on the recommendation of the university Honors Committee. Honors are indicated in the Commencement program and on official transcripts.

Planning for an honors project

Since honors projects frequently complement students’ work in their majors, students should discuss the opportunities for independent study with faculty members in their fields of concentration as early as possible in order to begin laying appropriate foundations in courses, tutorial work, and summer reading. In some fields, tutorials or courses in research methods can lead to the formulation of suitable thesis topics and methods of attack, while in other fields topics may stem from unanswered problems in regular courses, from students’ own interests, or from teachers’ suggestions. Whatever the field, students ought to keep in mind the possibility of doing an honors project as they plan their programs, especially in the junior year, or earlier if they will be off campus at that time. If it is agreeable to both the student and advisor, an honors project may be undertaken while a student or advisor is off campus. Students do not have to take an independent study course in order to submit an honors project.

Projects undertaken jointly may be submitted for Honors in Independent Study. The work involved in such cases, however, must be equitably shared and demonstrate benefits clearly resulting from the merger of the authors’ different skills and knowledge. Students considering joint projects must obtain the consent of their faculty advisor(s) and the Honors Committee well in advance of such endeavors.

The faculty advisor

Students’ project advisors are responsible for providing guidance in regard to format and the conventions of scholarly documentation pertinent to their disciplines. Advisors are also expected to periodically review the progress of their students’ research or creative activity.

All voting members of Lawrence University’s faculty may serve as advisors of honors projects. If the honors project advisor is a non-voting member of the faculty, he or she must enlist a voting member of the faculty to serve as a co-sponsor of the proposed project and periodically consult with the co-sponsor as the project develops. A voting member of the faculty is a full-time faculty member with academic rank (instructor, assistant professor, professor, etc.) or a part-time tenured faculty member. Emeriti professors are considered voting members of the faculty during those terms in which they are teaching. Fellows may act as honors project advisors. Visiting faculty may act as honors project advisors at the discretion of the Honors Committee.

Statement of intent

To apply for Honors in Independent Study, a student must send to the Honors Committee a Statement of Intent to submit a thesis in candidacy for honors. This statement includes the student’s contact information, title of the project, department and both the student’s and faculty advisor’s signatures. The final date for receipt of such Statements of Intent is announced at the beginning of each term to all juniors and seniors and is posted on the honors projects website and the honors projects Moodle site. Statements do not obligate students to submit projects, but no project will be considered for honors unless the committee has received a Statement of Intent.

The honors thesis

The thesis need not be of any special form or length, provided that its form and length are appropriate to the discipline. Nevertheless, since physical copies of all accepted theses are permanently retained in the Lawrence University Archives and digital copies are housed in Lux, Lawrence University’s institutional repository, the form of honors projects is subject to a few standardized regulations suggested by the librarians and endorsed by the Honors Committee. The chair of the committee may be consulted about these regulations.

Upon completion of the project, sufficient copies of the thesis, one for each member of the examining committee and the Honors Committee representative, are to be submitted to the chair of the Honors Committee at a place and by a date and hour designated each term. Students who find themselves unable to meet this deadline may petition the Honors Committee for an extension, but they must do so well in advance of the deadline. The committee usually approves such petitions only when circumstances beyond the candidate’s control have arisen.

Even though the Honors Committee permits candidates to correct minor typographical errors or to make such other minor corrections as their examiners may require, it emphasizes that theses must be in final form when they are submitted prior to the oral examination. Candidates must assume responsibility for accurate proofreading and checking of all quotations and references. Frequent misspellings, faulty punctuation or syntax, omitted references, or stylistic incoherence will disqualify projects despite the intrinsic merit they may otherwise exhibit. Candidates are therefore encouraged to work with their advisors and/or tutors from the Center for Academic Success to ensure the quality of their work: clear, well-organized writing; consistent bibliographic citations appropriate to the discipline and the absence of grammatical or typographical flaws.

Projects involving testing of hypotheses

One important purpose of honors projects is to provide opportunities to evaluate students’ knowledge of an area, their skill in employing that knowledge in experimentation, and their care and cleverness in approaching the task of testing their hypotheses. Thus, if a project allows these evaluations to be made, it should be considered for honors despite the vicissitudes of fortune that may attend the project. In particular, the failure to obtain significant positive results when testing a hypothesis or a network of hypotheses ought not to disqualify a candidate from achieving honors, provided that those professionally competent in the area agree that this failure was not due to a lack of care, to a lack of skill or knowledge in the field, or to a lack of competence in techniques or experimental design. Mere diligence, on the other hand, is not a sufficient ground for the awarding of honors.

Students whose projects have not achieved their expected results should give the best accounts they can of the ways in which they probed for additional operative variables that were uncontrolled in their previous experiments, of the reasons why the failures could not have been anticipated by skillful experimenters in the crucial beginning stages, and of their careful attempts to locate the difficulties.

Projects in the arts

Students interested in submitting an exhibition, performance, or work of art, music, theatre, or imaginative literature as an honors project must follow the normal procedures for honors work and must be willing to engage in a discussion of their work. A brief essay—as preface, foreword, introduction, afterword, postscript, or critical review—must accompany any such creative work. The essay should clarify and illuminate the work in a manner appropriate to genre, form, or medium and may include the aims of the project, its formal and stylistic precedents, its techniques, and the limitations and potential of the project. The artistic work and the accompanying written portion will be evaluated equally by the examining committee according to the criteria for honors. Here is a list of supplementary guidelines for honors projects in the arts:

  • A project in the arts may be undertaken in any discipline (e.g., biology, physics, history, etc.), keeping in mind that Honors in Independent Study are university awards.
  • If a project in the arts consists of a performance, audio-visual documentation in both digital and hard copy (DVD, CD, photographs, etc.) must be included with the final project for archiving, along with a performance program. If the project is an art exhibition, visual documentation and an exhibition catalog in digital and hard copies must also be included. If the project is web based, arrangements must be made to create an archival copy. Materials will be archived in physical form as well as in Lux, the Lawrence University digital repository.
  • The supplementary essay should be six to 10 or more pages in length. A bibliography and appropriate documentation may or may not be necessary, depending on the content of the paper.
  • The project will be evaluated on its artistic merits, for which the accompanying essay provides context, and on the subsequent oral examination. The essay must fulfill the Criteria for Honors in Independent Study and be clearly organized, well written, and free of error, and its content must display a high quality of thought and presentation and be accurate, meaningful, and appropriate to the project.

The examining committee

The examining committee evaluates the results of each project, conducts an oral examination of the honors candidate, and considers what constitutes the appropriate level of honors in view of the strengths and weaknesses of the work and oral defense in relation to the criteria for Honors in Independent Study.

The project advisor, in consultation with the student and with the assent of the Honors Committee, appoints an examining committee consisting of at least three voting faculty members, one of whom must be from outside the project’s department. Faculty within the conservatory may serve as outside members for examination of honors projects in other conservatory departments (for example, a faculty member in the voice department may serve as an outside member on an exam in jazz and improvisation). The project advisor, if a voting member of the faculty, acts as one of the three voting members of the committee. If the advisor is a non-voting member of the faculty, the co-sponsor acts as one of the three examining committee members, and the non-voting advisor attends the oral examination and participates in all aspects of the committee’s discussion of the project except voting on whether to award honors and the level of honors to be awarded. Fellows may not act as voting members of examining committees. At the discretion of the advisor, after consultation with the student, an additional Lawrence faculty member or an outside expert who is uniquely qualified to shed insight into the quality of the project may also attend the examination. These individuals may not take part in the decision-making process.

The Honors Committee assigns its own representative to act as the non-voting moderator during the oral examination. Sitting members of the Honors Committee and other members of the Lawrence University community may be asked to serve as Honors Committee representatives. The Honors Committee representative reports the results of the examination to the Honors Committee prior to its last meeting. The Honors Committee reviews the recommendations of each examining committee and submits its recommendations for Honors in Independent Study to the faculty for final approval.

The examining committee recommends honors on the basis of the criteria below, not on the criteria a professional journal would use to determine whether to publish a thesis in a given area of research based on the review of professionals in that field. In other words, Honors in Independent Study is not limited to students whose work would compete successfully with that of their professors for publication in professional journals.

Criteria for honors in independent study

The following criteria are used in evaluating all Honors in Independent Study projects:

Cum Laude—honors with distinction

To achieve honors, the project must fulfill all of the following criteria:

  1. Theoretical understanding: The work demonstrates a substantial knowledge of, and facility with, previous work, underlying principles, and central concepts or theories in areas relevant to the project.
  2. Originality: The work clearly shows that the student has established an original thesis or hypothesis, an original interpretation or analysis, a substantial and original synthesis or innovative pedagogical exposition of a sophisticated body of established work, or has created a new work of art. In other words, the student must demonstrate that the project does not merely replicate, review, paraphrase, or compile previous work by others.
  3. Quality: The work itself is of very high quality and is clear, well-organized, and stylistically sound. The paper appropriately frames the original material in the project within the context of established work or relevant traditions in the discipline.
  4. Format: The work provides documentation (e.g., bibliographic citations, tables and figures, illustrations) appropriate to the discipline and contains few and relatively minor grammatical or typographical flaws.
  5. Research/Creative Process: The project has been carried out competently, diligently, independently, and in a manner that fulfills the basic standards of the discipline.
  6. Oral Exam: The oral examination reaffirms the student’s facility with relevant principles, concepts, and background material; the originality of the contribution; and the high quality of the work.

Magna Cum Laude—honors with great distinction

In addition to fulfilling the criteria described above, the project must fulfill all of the following criteria:

  1. Theoretical Understanding: The work demonstrates a level of mastery of, and facility with, relevant previous work, underlying principles, and central concepts or theories of which few undergraduates are capable, as well as a solid grasp of related but peripheral material.
  2. Originality: The thesis, interpretation, analysis, synthesis, pedagogical exposition, or creative endeavor encompassed by the project demonstrates unusual and substantial creativity, conceptual innovation, or theoretical sophistication (i.e., an unusual degree of independence of thought) on the part of the student.
  3. Quality: The work itself is of outstanding quality and is particularly well-written, lucid, and compelling. The framing of the original material in the project within the context of established work or relevant traditions is remarkably sophisticated, revealing a sensitive and advanced understanding of the relationship between the student’s contribution and established traditions or theories.
  4. Format: The paper contains almost no grammatical or typographical flaws.
  5. Research/Creative Process: The project has been carried out with a degree of technical competence, diligence, and independence of which few undergraduates are capable.
  6. Oral Exam: The oral examination reaffirms the outstanding quality of the work. The student is able to give complete, clear, well-organized, and satisfying responses to the examiners’ questions without the need for much guidance or prompting from the examiners.

Summa Cum Laude—honors with highest distinction

This level of honors is rarely achieved and is reserved for those instances in which all components of the project demonstrate a superlative level of excellence. In addition to fulfilling the criteria described above, the project must fulfill all of the following criteria:

  1. Theoretical Understanding: The work not only demonstrates an exceptional level of mastery of, and facility with, relevant previous work, underlying principles, and central concepts or theories but also a sophisticated and original critical perspective on this material (i.e., the student possesses informed opinions about the strengths and weaknesses of previous work, theories, and traditions in the area). The student not only intimately understands relevant background material but also has the ability to view this material critically in a wider intellectual context.
  2. Originality: The thesis, interpretation, analysis, synthesis, pedagogical exposition, or creative endeavor encompassed by the project demonstrates a superlative level of creativity, conceptual innovation, or theoretical sophistication on the part of the student.
  3. Quality: The work itself exceeds all expectations and is exceedingly well-written, compelling, and engaging. The framing of the original material in the project within the context of established work or relevant traditions is elegant and subtle, revealing a rare and exceedingly advanced understanding of how the student’s project represents a significant contribution to established traditions or theories.
  4. Format: The paper is technically flawless.
  5. Research/Creative Process: The project has been carried out with a superlative level of technical competence, sophistication, diligence, and independence.
  6. Oral Exam: The oral examination reaffirms that the work is a rare achievement that makes an original and sophisticated contribution. The student is able to give extraordinarily complete and persuasive responses to the examiners’ questions without the need for guidance or prompting from the examiners.

Projects in the Arts

The above criteria are used in evaluating all Honors in Independent Study projects, including the brief essay written for a project in the arts. The paper for a project in the arts must fulfill all of the Criteria for Honors in Independent study and be clearly organized and well-written, contain appropriate documentation when needed, and display a high quality of thought and presentation. The criteria listed above will be used to evaluate the project itself, the accompanying essay, and the oral examination.

Academic Procedures and Regulations

Academic responsibilities

Opportunities, Obligations, and Responsibilities

Academic procedures and regulations, together with degree, program, and course requirements and the code of student responsibility, form the basis for the equitable and orderly conduct of student academic life at Lawrence University. These rules accord students opportunities, such as the ability to develop a personalized course of study or change a course selection after the first class meeting. They also impose obligations and responsibilities, such as planning a course of study to complete program requirements and maintaining satisfactory academic progress. Students are expected to be thoroughly familiar with the contents of the course catalog, the online Student Handbook, and other contracts and official notices of the university.

Confidentiality of Student Records

Lawrence requires students to give consent in writing before any personally identifiable information from their education records can be released, except to the extent allowed by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). It is each student’s responsibility to communicate information about grades, academic progress or disciplinary actions to parents, guardians or other family members.

For further information about student rights with respect to education records, FERPA, and release of education records, see the Online Student Handbook.

Catalog of Record

Students may choose to complete degree requirements using the course catalog in effect at the time they matriculate as degree-seeking students or the current catalog at the time they plan to complete their degree. If requirements for a major, minor, or interdisciplinary area change, students should consult the department or program chair and their major advisor regarding the applicability of current course offerings to the major requirements they intend to complete. Academic regulations and procedures are effective as of the date they are approved by the university unless otherwise noted.

Academic expectations

Academic Success

Most Lawrence students do fine most of the time. Nevertheless, on occasion some students find themselves out of sync not only with the expectations of their instructors but also with their own expectations of themselves. Attendance may trail off, coursework may be avoided, and assignments may be turned in late or not at all. Despite students’ best efforts, pressures and anxieties build, course performance suffers, and it becomes hard to see a pathway to academic success. At these times, it is essential that students recognize what is expected of them and how to take the steps needed to put themselves back on track.

Through institutional resources and the efforts of its faculty, Lawrence strives to assist students who find themselves in academic difficulty. Mudd Library, the Center for Academic Success, and Health and Counseling Services are among the most prominent resources that Lawrence offers to help students succeed. Likewise, faculty members seek to foster academic success among their students not only in the classroom but also during office hours, at study or review sessions, and through online tools and resources.

When a misunderstanding or discrepancy emerges between what faculty members and students expect from each other, this gap can adversely affect the learning that takes place in the classroom, laboratory, or studio. The notes that follow seek to reduce this sort of gap by making expectations clear.

Recognizing Expectations as a Key to Success

Communication. Regular communication with faculty, administrators, and staff may be the single most important element in student success at Lawrence. Students are urged to communicate with instructors right away if they are experiencing academic difficulty and to seek help from the many resources made available by the university.

Engagement and respect. Students should see it as their responsibility to engage fully in all class activities and to demonstrate respect for fellow students, instructors, and course materials. Respect is demonstrated by encouraging and supporting others and never demeaning or degrading fellow Lawrentians; by adhering to the honor code and university rules and regulations; and by caring for our facilities, grounds, and equipment. Students can expect instructors, administrators, and staff to treat them with respect at all times, especially with regard to issues of race or ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, and disability. Furthermore, they can expect their instructors to hold them to clear and consistent academic standards and to assess their work in a fair and timely manner with an indication of how it might be improved.

Attendance. Although different instructors spell out attendance requirements for their courses in different ways, students should consider it their responsibility to attend all class sessions and lessons and to be on time and well prepared. Missing class or arriving late can result in unexcused absences or a lowered grade for class participation. If students must miss class or arrive late, they should make every effort to inform their instructors beforehand. Faculty can be very understanding of student difficulties, and unforeseen conflicts, unexpected crises, and even the rare case of forgetfulness may be excused in light of normally good attendance and class preparation.

Deadlines. Students should consider it their responsibility to turn in all assigned work by the specified deadlines and to abide by the policies for assignments established by each individual instructor. When it is impossible for students to meet their deadlines, prompt and direct communication with the instructor, or with a staff member or administrator when communication with the instructor is not possible, is crucially important. Likewise, students can expect that instructors will clearly announce all deadlines and policies for assignments, including penalties for late or missing work.

Academic, extracurricular, and professional conflicts. Students should request permission in advance to miss class for academic, extracurricular, or professional activities that conflict with regular classes or lessons. While they may be sympathetic to such conflicts, instructors are under no obligation to grant permission and may do so at their own discretion. Instructors who schedule curricular activities (such as field trips, rehearsals, conferences, or competitions) outside of regular class time should remind students to request permission to miss any regularly scheduled classes or lessons that might conflict with those activities.

Illness or Injury. Students who miss class for illness or injury should contact their instructors for guidance in making up missed work. If they miss more than two consecutive class sessions or a major assignment or examination, they should see a nurse, doctor, or counselor for a medical excuse (with permission, Health and Counseling Services can e-mail notice to the instructors). If a student misses the equivalent of two weeks of classes or a similar number of assignments, then the student and the instructor should meet with the Dean of Academic Success to discuss whether the student will be able to complete the course or, especially late in the term, needs to withdraw or arrange for an incomplete.

Students with known health conditions that could affect their course work should meet with their instructors at the start of term to plan how to deal with problems that might arise. They should notify instructors in advance if they will be absent for medical testing or treatment and should alert instructors right away if they are too ill to come to class or to complete an assignment. If students are unable to meet their course requirements, they should contact the Dean of Academic Success to arrange a withdrawal or incomplete.

Personal crisis. Personal crises, such as accidents, trauma, or family emergencies, are handled with empathy by staff and faculty. Adjustments to course requirements or deadlines are granted at the discretion of instructors in consultation with appropriate staff or administrators. Communication on the part of students is paramount. Unless they alert their instructors, or a staff member from Health and Counseling Services, Student Affairs, or the Center for Academic Success, students can expect no adjustments in requirements. Faculty and staff are committed to serving students in moments of crisis, but they can act only on the basis of what they know.

If difficulties arise. Faculty expect students to be fully engaged in the classes for which they are registered: to attend regularly, to be well prepared, to participate in discussion, to complete assignments, and to communicate with instructors as outlined above. Students who are not meeting these expectations will be referred to the Center for Academic Success for help.

In those rare cases where a student who has not been attending classes also does not respond to requests from the Center for Academic Success, the student may be withdrawn from the term and placed on administrative leave. The university reserves the right to determine when an administrative withdrawal is appropriate and what conditions must be met before the student is allowed to return. Academic implications (credit and grades) and financial implications (tuition, fees, and financial aid) will vary depending on the circumstances.

In general, students are strongly urged to seek help from the Center as soon as difficulties arise so they can stay on track for academic success. That is why the Center exists, and it is in the interest of everyone to put these resources to their best use.

Academic advising

Philosophy of Advising

The philosophy that underlies academic advising at Lawrence reflects the university’s emphasis on student responsibility and independence. Students have the responsibility for planning and pursuing their own academic programs. All students are assigned a faculty advisor to help with understanding strengths and weaknesses, setting goals and utilizing resources at Lawrence.

Advisors are not expected to make decisions for advisees except in the case of an underload or overload request, nor are they expected to engage in a personal counseling relationship. Advisors are required to sign petitions and forms only if they have had the opportunity to provide their best advice on the decision.

Advisors have the responsibility to advise the student. Students have the responsibility of making the decision.

The Advising Process

Lawrence has a faculty-based advising system. All full-time members of the teaching faculty serve as academic advisors to students. New students are assigned to faculty advisors on the basis of academic interests and availability of faculty for advising. Junior and senior students are required to have advisors in their majors. Any student, however, may change an advisor by completing the Academic Advisor Form available in the registrar’s office and obtaining the signature of the new advisor on that form.

Students are encouraged to consult with other faculty members, department chairs, or the Center for Academic Success for further advice.

Honor system

Honor Code

To maintain the atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence among students and faculty and to ensure that students are judged according to their own merits, the Lawrence University community has established the following honor code:

No Lawrence student will unfairly advance their own academic performance or in any way limit or impede the academic pursuits of other students of the Lawrence community.

The Lawrence community firmly believes in the value of the academic atmosphere that this Honor Code is intended to ensure. An academic honor system secures freedoms, conveniences, and privileges that otherwise would not be available to students, creating an atmosphere in which they can learn without constant surveillance.

Students are responsible for understanding the Honor Code, particularly as the Honor Council provides extensive information to all students. The council does not consider ignorance or negligence as an excuse when determining whether or not an Honor Code violation has occurred.

Pledge and Reaffirmation

As members of the Lawrence University community, students are required to sign the following Honor Pledge; by doing so, they affirm their belief in the value of the stipulations of the system:

I hereby affirm that I understand and accept the responsibilities and stipulations of the Lawrence University Honor System.

Furthermore, students must reaffirm the Honor Code by writing “I hereby reaffirm the Lawrence University Honor Code” followed by their signatures on all submitted work or by providing an equivalent indication on work submitted electronically.

Honor Council

The Honor system is administered by the Honor Council, which consists of ten students. The Council is responsible for educating the Lawrence community about the Honor Code and for acting as a judicial body when suspected violations occur. Every member of the Lawrence community is responsible for upholding the Honor System.

If a member of the community suspects a violation, the member has two options:

  • contact the faculty member involved, the administrative advisor to the Honor Council (appointed by the Provost), or a member of the Honor Council
  • discuss the concern directly with the student involved. The reporting of a suspected violation does not commit the student to pursuing additional action.

For more information, please refer to the Honor System Charter and related information on the Honor System webpage.

Accommodations for students with disabilities

Nondiscrimination on the basis of disability

The commitment of Lawrence University to provide a quality liberal education carries with it a commitment to a learning environment that provides all students with an equal opportunity for academic success.

No otherwise qualified handicapped individual shall, solely by reason of his handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
— Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

In compliance with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (amended in 2008), Lawrence recognizes that qualified students who have diagnosed disabilities, including specific learning disabilities, are entitled to an equal opportunity to benefit from the educational program of the university and that reasonable academic accommodations may be necessary to provide that opportunity.

Requesting academic accommodations

Students who have a disability covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act are entitled to academic accommodations. In keeping with the university’s educational philosophy emphasizing student independence and responsibility, requests for accommodations must be initiated by the student. No notification of instructors occurs without a student request, and no student is required to tell instructors about a disability or to request accommodations. If a student does choose to request accommodations, the request should be made as early as possible and no later than the start of the term in which the course is offered.

To request academic accommodations, a student should meet with the accessibility services coordinator in the Center for Academic Success. The student will be asked to provide appropriate documentation of the disability, including its impact on the student and recommended accommodations to ameliorate that impact. Once the disability is documented, the student may request accommodations for specific courses through the accessibility services coordinator. Accommodations are not retroactive, so they should be arranged during the first week of the term to ensure they are in place when needed. Any testing accommodations must be requested at least one week prior to the test or examination. More information can be found on the Center for Academic Success website.

Term system and course loads

Three-Term System and Course Loads

Lawrence University has a three-term schedule. Each term consists of ten weeks of classes followed by three days of examinations, which are considered an integral part of the term. The term ends with the completion of final exams. A standard course load is three courses per term (6 units each) or the equivalent, with additional credit (1 unit each) for music ensembles.

Standard Class Periods

The normal class periods are three 70-minute sessions per week on Monday, Wednesday and Friday (MWF) or two 110-minute sessions per week on Tuesday and Thursday (TR) as follows:

  • 8:30–9:40 a.m. MWF
  • 9:50–11:00 a.m. MWF
  • 11:10 a.m.–12:20 p.m. MWF
  • 12:30–1:40 p.m. MWF
  • 1:50–3:00 p.m. MWF
  • 3:10–4:20 p.m. MWF
  • 9:00–10:50 a.m. TR
  • 12:30–2:20 p.m. TR
  • 2:30–4:20 p.m. TR

Courses are recorded using a term-course system. A standard course is six units. For purposes of transcript evaluation, six units may be considered the equivalent of three and one-third (3-1/3) semester hours or five (5) quarter hours. A six-unit course that includes extra class or laboratory sessions is the equivalent in content to courses that carry five semester hours or eight quarter hours at some other institutions.

Students who arrange their programs in the normal pattern take three courses (18 units) each term. A course load of 15 units per term is required for certification as a full-time student; a course load of 21 units is required for full-time status in the student-teaching semester and semester-length off-campus programs.

Overloads/Underloads

Music ensembles (1 unit each) are not included in course load limits and overload fees.  Excluding ensembles, students may take up to 22 units in any term without additional fees. A per-unit fee is assessed for 23 or more units in a single term, and the maximum load is 27 units. Every student who qualifies to overload may take one term at 23-24 units during their time at Lawrence with no additional charge; the per-unit fee is still charged for 25 units or more. Overload fees are not refunded if a student withdraws from a course after the class change period; the course counts as attempted units and remains on the transcript with a W.

To qualify to overload, a student must be in good academic standing, have a "B" average for the preceding three terms, and have permission from their academic advisor. Registration for overloads occurs at the start of the term during the class change period. To register for an overload, a student submits a Request to Overload form with the advisor's signature to the Registrar's Office, and once the approval has been entered into the system, the student adds the extra course(s) in Voyager. A petition is required to register for an overload after the class change period, and no petitions to overload with late registration will be accepted after the course withdrawal deadline, which is the second Friday after midterm reading period.

Fewer than 15 units in a term (including music ensembles) is considered an underload. At times a student might find it educationally advantageous to reduce their course load for one or more terms. A student considering a reduced load should consult with their academic advisor and carefully investigate the consequences of dropping below full-time status. Less-than-full-time status can affect time to completion of the degree, financial aid, additional tuition charges, insurance, loan deferments, immigration status, and eligibility for participation in athletics. A student with less than a full course load may be charged tuition on the incremental fee plan (see "Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance").

December Term

December term (D-term) is an optional two-week session of academic enrichment during the break between fall and winter terms.

In the first two weeks of December, Lawrence offers brief, intensive courses that can be taken for 3 units of credit toward a Lawrence degree. These courses are not accelerated versions of courses normally offered during the academic year and are not required of any student. On-campus courses include workshops, fieldwork, or travel to sites or activities within a day’s drive of Lawrence. Travel courses take students to locations around the world for hands-on learning in an immersive setting. All offer focused, experiential learning in a small class of interested students led by a Lawrence faculty member.

D-term enrichment courses have separate tuition and fees for room and board (See Tuition, Fees, and Financial Aid). On-campus courses may charge additional fees for travel or supplies. Travel courses charge a program fee for lodging, meals, museums/tours, and insurance, and students are responsible for their own airfare to the course location. Tuition is significantly discounted to make the courses affordable, so no additional financial aid is available.

D-term courses are listed in the course schedule with a DECM prefix, and registration is through the Voyager system in the late spring or early fall. Students may register for one D-term course. Any course that does not have five students will be canceled, and students will be given the opportunity to enroll in another course. Registration for D-term courses closes at fall midterm reading period.

Academic performance in December Term will not change a student’s academic standing, though the December Term course grade will be included in a student’s grade point average, which could affect academic standing in subsequent terms.

December term does not count as a term of residency in meeting degree requirements.

Registration

Registration System

Registration for all students is conducted through the Voyager Information System, which is accessible both on and off campus via the Internet. Announcements and other information about registration and course offerings will be sent to students at their Lawrence e-mail addresses. Instructions for registration can be found at http://www.lawrence.edu/s/registrar/registration.

Students may view their registration status and assigned times in Voyager. In order to register or make schedule changes during each assigned period, students must meet with their faculty advisors, obtain any required course approvals from instructors, and clear all registration holds (Financial Services, Health Center, Registrar’s Office and deans). Students with registration holds on their records should contact the appropriate office directly.

The schedule of classes for current and future terms is published at http://www.lawrence.edu/s/registrar/catalog.

Advance Registration

Advance registration for the next academic year begins in the Spring Term. All continuing, degree-seeking students will be eligible to register at this time. Students are expected to consult with their academic advisors about their academic progress and proposed program for the following year before the registration period opens. Continuing students must advance-register in order to participate in the housing selection process.

Advance registration for new freshmen, transfer students, visiting-exchange students and Waseda Program students begins over the summer. Preliminary registration materials and program-planning information will be sent to new students by the dean of academic success. During Welcome Week in the fall, new students will meet with their academic advisors and make any necessary changes to their course registrations using the Voyager Information System. Students entering Lawrence in the middle of the academic year will register at the beginning of the term in which they first enroll.

Term Registration

All students are expected to be properly registered for the current term by the end of the first week of classes. A class may be added during the second week only with instructor approval, which is rare. After the second week of the term, a class may be added or dropped only by petition to the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration, and late fees apply (see "fees for late registration" below). Students may make class changes for future terms during the first and second week and fifth to tenth week of classes each term. Students may also add their names to class waitlists for the upcoming term during these periods.

Students should check their registration-status page in Voyager for assigned registration days and times. After the term begins, students wishing to register for a limited-enrollment class must obtain the approval of the instructor (see the section on limited enrollment classes below). Beginning the sixth day of classes of the term (start of the second week), students must obtain the approval of the instructor to register for any class. In order to make class changes, all registration holds (academic advising, Financial Services, deans, Health Center, and Registrar’s Office) must be cleared. The deadline for submission of special registration forms (for tutorials, independent study, internships, directed study, or supervised accompanying, and the S/U option form) is also the end of the tenth day of classes (end of the second week) for the term.

It is the student’s responsibility to maintain an accurate registration record. Failure to do so can result in (1) receiving no credit for a completed course; (2) receiving a failing grade in a course not taken; (3) failing to be certified as a full-time student for insurance, financial aid, immigration or other purposes; and (4) being assessed a late registration fee to correct registration errors. Students who need to correct class registrations after the tenth day of classes must petition the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration (see "petitions for exceptions to academic regulations" below). The deadline for submitting these petitions is the last day of classes of the academic term immediately following the term for which a registration change is being requested.

Registration for Non-Degree Students

Individuals attending classes as non-degree students are required to register at the beginning of each term and may not advance-register for future terms. Such students include members of the local community taking courses for personal growth, college graduates seeking teacher certification and high school students in the Lawrence Academy Program. Non-degree students must obtain the approval of each instructor and meet with their academic advisor before they will be able to register through the Voyager system. Priority will be given to degree-seeking students when classes are over-subscribed.

Fees for Late Registration

$25 per late class cancellation or addition approved from the third week of the term through the last day of classes, up to a maximum of $200 for the term.

$50 per late class cancellation or addition approved after the last day of classes for the term, no maximum.

The Faculty Subcommittee on Administration may waive the late registration fee when a class change was delayed due to exceptional circumstances such as illness, family emergency, a curricular decision that could not be made by registration deadlines, etc. The student is responsible for documenting such an exceptional circumstance as part of the petition.

Courses

Limited-enrollment Classes

When a limited-enrollment class is filled, students may request to be added to the waiting list. Waiting list requests can be made through the Voyager registration system during the term just prior to the one in which the class is offered (for example, in winter a student may waitlist for spring). Students may remove themselves from waiting lists using the "add/drop classes" option in the Voyager registration system.

At the beginning of the term, all students registered for a limited-enrollment class and any students on the waiting list who still wish to enroll must attend the first class meeting. At that time, the instructor may choose to cancel the registration of students not in attendance and admit students to the class from the waiting list. Students admitted to the class by the instructor must use the Voyager registration system to add the class after the instructor has entered approval to register.

Prerequisite Checking

Prerequisites provide important information to students constructing their academic program plans. A course prerequisite may be composed of a list of specific courses to be completed, a description of skill level previously achieved or a combination of both. Prerequisites are listed in the class schedule and the course catalog. This information is provided by instructors and academic departments to help students understand what prior preparation will be expected and will contribute to a successful experience in the course. It is the responsibility of the student to review prerequisites before registering for a class.

It is assumed that all students will have completed the prerequisites for every course for which they are registered prior to the first day of classes. Students who do not meet the prerequisites but are interested in taking the course must contact the instructor for permission. Students who believe transfer credit or credit from advanced-placement examinations should be applied to the prerequisites also must contact the instructor for permission to take the class.

During the first week of classes, instructors may cancel the registration of students who have not met prerequisites. Students may be asked to document that the prerequisites for a course are complete.

Withdrawing From a Course

Students are permitted to withdraw from a course after the class change period through the second Friday after midterm reading period, about two weeks before the last day of classes. The course instructor must confirm the student’s last date of attendance, and the student's faculty advisor must sign the withdrawal form, which is available from the registrar's office. A grade of W is recorded on the student’s record and has no effect on grade-point averages. Withdrawing from a course reduces a student's course load for the term. International students and students receiving VA benefits should consult International Student Services or the Financial Aid Office as appropriate before attempting to withdraw from a course.

A student must petition the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration to withdraw if any of the following apply:

  • the student is withdrawing from more than one class in the term, or
  • the student has already withdrawn from three classes during their career at Lawrence, or
  • the student is on probation, or
  • the student is unable to complete the class after the withdraw deadline.

Class Attendance

Instructors may, at their own discretion, require attendance and/or take attendance into account in determining grades. Students should check class-attendance expectations with instructors at the beginning of each term. Whatever the attendance expectations may be for a class, students are responsible for all class obligations.

Students who wish to cancel or withdraw from a class after the term begins should notify the instructor of their intention promptly, as the instructor will be asked to verify the date the student last attended.

Final Examinations

All final examinations are given and taken during the examination period. An examination schedule is published by the registrar before the fifth week of the term. Individual students who wish to change the time of a scheduled examination must petition the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration no later than Wednesday of the tenth week of classes.

Petitions to change final exams for travel purposes will not be approved. An exam time for the whole class may be changed only with the unanimous consent of the class members and with the permission of the provost and dean of the faculty. During the last week of classes, no examinations or tests may be given in class or as take-home exercises.

Individual students who wish to change the examination time for single courses must petition the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration. Students who have three examinations on the same day may request a change of the time of one of them by such a petition. The Faculty Subcommittee on Administration also entertains petitions for change of examination times for reasons of health, family considerations, summer academic programs, etc.

It is a faculty member’s prerogative to establish the conditions for his or her particular exam. If no specifications are given, however, the exam will be taken in class without books, notes, or discussion among the students, and without the aid of technology.

Grading system

Grading Scale and Grade Symbols

Grade Description Computation of grade points
A Excellent 4 x value of the course
A– 3.75 x value of the course
B+ 3.25 x value of the course
B Good 3 x value of the course
B– 2.75 x value of the course
C+ 2.25 x value of the course
C Satisfactory 2 x value of the course
C– 1.75 x value of the course
D+ 1.25 x value of the course
D Passing, but Unsatisfactory 1 x value of the course
D– 0.75 x value of the course
F Failing 0 x value of the course
W Withdrew No course credit. Grade does not affect grade-point averages.
S Satisfactory Equivalent to a C– or better, but does not affect grade-point averages
U Unsatisfactory Equivalent to D+ or below, but does not affect grade-point averages; no course credit
I Incomplete May be reported only for students who did not complete the coursework because of circumstances beyond their control, such as illness. Students must submit a request for an incomplete to the dean of academic success before the end of the last day of classes. The dean will consult with the instructor in making the decision. An incomplete must be removed by the date set by the dean, subject to approved extensions; failure to complete the work can result in the recording of an F (U if the course was carried on an S/U basis).
IP In Progress May be used to designate the first term of tutorial work or independent study for which students will be registered for additional credit for two or three terms; replaced by the final grade when that grade is reported.
AU Audit This option may not be used by degree-seeking students and confers no credit.
NR Not Reported No valid grade reported. Grade will lapse to F (U if the course was carried on an S/U basis) if a valid grade is not reported shortly after the end of the term.
* Withdrawal From Term No course credit. Grade does not affect grade-point averages.
R or # Repeated Course Credit is not applied to degree and grade is not used in computation of degree GPA

All grades, except approved incompletes or IP grades, are final when they are recorded with the registrar. Grades are due, according to faculty legislation, 72 hours after the end of the examination in the class or, if there is no examination, no later then 72 hours after the published examination period. The Faculty Subcommittee on Administration reviews student records for academic progress shortly after grades have been submitted.

Satisfactory / Unsatisfactory Option

The S/U option is provided to encourage students to explore new academic disciplines. The decision to exercise this option must be made by the end of the second week of classes. It is not intended to be used as a means of grade protection after students have assessed their ability to complete required coursework satisfactorily. The S/U option may not be used in some courses. Please refer to the course description for more information.

Students who have completed 54 units may elect to take one class per term outside their major/minor and major/minor department on a Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory basis. See additional guidelines for language and art majors and minors below:

  • Students with a minor in Latin may take a course in Greek on an S/U basis.
  • Students with a minor in Greek may take a course in Latin on an S/U basis.
  • Students with a minor in studio art may take a course in art history on an S/U basis.
  • Students with a minor in art history may take a course in studio art on an S/U basis.
  • Students with a minor in Chinese may take a course in Japanese on an S/U basis.
  • Students with a minor in Japanese may take a course in Chinese on an S/U basis.

Additionally, students who take 24 or more units in a term may also exercise the S/U option for the overload class. No more than four grades of S or U resulting from the option may appear on a student’s transcript at any one time.

Students may at any time (e.g., during the term in which a course is taken S/U or after the course has been completed) change the basis of grading in a course from S/U to a letter grade; they may not change from a letter grade to S/U. Instructors submit letter grades (A-F) for all courses not offered strictly on an S/U basis. The registrar then converts the letter grades to S or U for those students who have elected the S/U option. Grades of C- or above become Satisfactory; grades of D+ or below become Unsatisfactory. A satisfactory performance ensures credit toward graduation but does not affect grade-point averages. An unsatisfactory performance does not confer credit, nor does it affect the grade-point average.

Repeating Courses

Students are permitted to repeat courses in which a grade of F is received. The new grade will be recorded on the permanent record and the original F will be replaced with R. Only the second grade will count in the degree GPA. If the course is in the student’s major or minor department, only the second grade will count in the major or minor GPA. Both the original F and the repeat grade will count in the composite GPA (see “Grade Point Averages”).

Students who have withdrawn from a class (W) have not completed the course and are free to take it again. Only the grade for the completed course will count in the degree, major, and composite GPAs.

Students must submit a Repeated Course form to the Registrar’s Office to initiate the procedure for repeating a course and to have the new grade replace the F in the degree GPA.

Grade Reporting and Transcripts

Grades become visible to students, academic advisors and administrative personnel in the Voyager Information System once all end-of-term processing has been completed, approximately 7-10 days after the last day of final examinations. Grades will not be given to students on an individual basis until grade processing is complete, nor will they be given to students over the phone. Students may obtain unofficial transcripts of their academic history and a degree summary report through the Voyager Information System.

Students are responsible for keeping parents, guardians, scholarship foundations, insurance companies and any others as needed informed about their academic progress. A grade report will be sent to parents only upon the written request of the student. A form for this purpose can be obtained in the registrar’s office.

To obtain an official transcript, a student must make a request in writing, giving permission to release the transcript to a third party. A charge of $5 (which includes tax) will be assessed for each official transcript requested. Additional fees will also be assessed for special shipping arrangements such as overnight delivery or fax. Students should be aware that transcripts will not be sent after the last day of classes until grades for the term have been posted and the academic-progress review is complete. Transcript requests are usually fulfilled within 3-5 days.

Official transcripts are issued only for students whose accounts with Financial Services are clear.

Grade Changes

A grade submitted to the registrar can be changed only with approval of the university faculty at the request of the instructor. The instructor must submit a request for a change of grade in writing to the faculty secretary. The change will take effect upon approval of the faculty minutes in which the request is recorded.

A change of grade is permitted for reassessment of work previously evaluated or for the correction of an error in the calculation or reporting of a grade. The instructor states which reason applies. Grade changes are not permitted for work submitted after the class has concluded.

Grade Point Average

Lawrence uses four grade-point averages: major, minor, degree and composite. The averages are used to determine academic progress, fulfillment of degree requirements and honors in course at graduation.

The major GPA includes all courses in the student’s major department and those courses outside the department required for the major. Courses taken on the Lawrence campus, as well as courses completed at approved Lawrence off-campus programs (see Off-Campus Programs) are included in the major GPA. Courses accepted for transfer credit from other institutions are not included. A student must earn a major GPA of 2.000 or above to graduate.

The minor GPA includes all courses in the student’s minor department and those courses outside the department required for the minor. Courses taken on the Lawrence campus as well as courses completed at approved Lawrence off-campus programs are included in the minor GPA. Students must earn a minor GPA of 2.000 in order to complete the minor and have it recorded on their academic record.

The degree GPA includes all courses taken on the Lawrence campus or at approved Lawrence off-campus programs. It is used to determine academic actions and, in conjunction with the composite GPA, honors in course at graduation. A student must earn a degree GPA of 2.000 or above to graduate.

The composite GPA includes all courses included in the degree GPA plus any courses taken at other colleges and universities. The composite GPA is used, in conjunction with the degree GPA, to determine honors in course at graduation and selection for awards and membership in honorary societies.

Declaration of a major, minor, or interdisciplinary area

Declaration of Major

Students are strongly urged to declare a major by winter term of the sophomore year and to find an academic advisor in the major department who can help the student plan a program of studies for the junior and senior years. Advising and registration for the upcoming year take place in spring term.

Students are required to declare a major by the beginning of their junior year but may do so at any time by completing a Declaration of Major, Minor, or Interdisciplinary Area form available in the registrar's office. Students must also have an academic advisor in their major department no later than the beginning of their junior year. The declaration of a major and change of advisors does not preclude students from seeking additional counsel about their academic programs from any member of the faculty.

Declaration of Minor or Interdisciplinary Area

In addition to completing degree and major requirements, students may choose to complete the requirements for a minor or an interdisciplinary area. Students may declare their intent to pursue such programs by completing a Declaration of Major, Minor, or Interdisciplinary Area form available in the registrar's office. An academic advisor is not required for a minor or interdisciplinary area. Students are strongly encouraged to consult with the appropriate department chair, program director, or other department or program faculty member about their course selections.

Credit for AP, IB, and transfer courses

Credit for Advanced Placement Examinations

The Advanced Placement program of the College Board offers high school students the opportunity to study prescribed courses in many subject areas and to take nationally administered examinations on these courses. Lawrence will give 6 units in the appropriate discipline for a score of 4 or 5 on an advanced placement examination, except for multiple examinations with substantial shared material, for which the credit granted may be limited to 6 units. Individual departments may decide to award additional credit.

Credit awarded for advanced-placement examinations may be used to fulfill the competency and diversity General Education Requirements as appropriate. Such credit may not be applied to distribution requirements. Individual departments will determine whether advanced-placement credit fulfills major or minor requirements and the placement of students who wish to undertake further work in that discipline.

Credit for International Baccalaureate Program

Credit may be awarded for International Baccalaureate (IB) examinations in subject areas applicable to the liberal arts curriculum at Lawrence University where a student has earned a score of 5, 6 or 7. Students who have earned an IB diploma may receive 6 units of credit for each IB higher-level examination and 3 units of credit for each subsidiary-level examination. Students who have not earned an IB diploma but have completed individual IB examinations may receive 6 units of credit for each higher-level examination. A maximum of 48 units of credit may be awarded.

Current subject areas acceptable for credit include: language A1, second language, economics, history, Islamic history, philosophy, psychology, social and cultural anthropology, biology, chemistry, physics, environmental systems, mathematics, computer science, film studies, music, theatre arts and visual arts. Placement in Lawrence courses based on IB examination credit will be determined by the appropriate academic department or program.

Credit awarded for IB examinations will be applied to competency and diversity General Education Requirements as appropriate. Such credit may not be applied to distribution requirements. Individual departments will determine whether advanced-placement credit fulfills major or minor requirements and the placement of students who wish to undertake further work in that discipline.

Transfer Credit

Academic work completed at other institutions of higher education will be evaluated to determine the courses and credit to be transferred and applied to a Lawrence degree. Evaluations are based on official transcripts received directly from U.S. accredited colleges and universities, or a report from Educational Credential Evaluators, Inc., in the case of foreign institutions. Only courses applicable to the programs and degrees offered by Lawrence and graded at a C- or better will be transferred. Students may be asked to provide course descriptions, syllabi or other information if a determination cannot be made from the transcript information alone. Credit is normally granted on the basis of 6 Lawrence units for three-and-one-third semester hours or five quarter hours.

Coursework from other institutions may not be used to fulfill the writing or speaking General Education Requirements. Individual academic departments and programs will determine if transfer credit fulfills major, minor, or interdisciplinary-area requirements. Students should review the requirements for their degree for important information on residence requirements and limits on the total transfer credit that may be applied to a Lawrence degree. Transfer credit and transfer grade points are used only in the computation of the composite GPA.

Evaluation of Credit for Transfer Students

Transfer students must have official transcripts sent to Lawrence from their former institutions as part of the application process. Once a student is admitted, the registrar will evaluate the work for transfer. The registrar’s evaluation will include: a list of courses accepted toward a Lawrence degree; the Lawrence unit value awarded to each accepted course; the total units accepted; a statement of the value of the grades earned at the former institution in the student’s cumulative composite grade-point average; a notation of courses that may be transferred pending completion of work, review of descriptions and syllabi, or review by a Lawrence department; a notation of courses denied for unsatisfactory grades or because the content is not applicable to a Lawrence Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Music degree; a statement of the work required for graduation; and a statement of the students academic class standing on entry. Depending on work transferred and major selected at Lawrence, transfer students may need to complete additional credit beyond the minimum required for their Lawrence degree program in order to fulfill all degree requirements.

College Work Completed in High School

Students who have taken college-level courses while in high school may be granted up to 42 Lawrence units for such work.

Transfer of Credit for Continuing Students

Students who wish to attend summer school or undertake a period of study at another institution must petition the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration for approval of their proposed course of study. Petitions must include titles and descriptions of courses; length of session or term and, in the case of summer work, number of hours of participation (class, laboratory, field or studio); and statements of support from the student’s advisor and from the chairs of the departments that would offer the courses were they part of the Lawrence curriculum. In some cases syllabi may be requested in order to make a determination. Normally no more than 12 Lawrence units may be earned in a summer session. The transfer credit will be applied to degree requirements as appropriate based on the subject of the course. If the student wishes the work to fulfill a particular general education diversity or competency requirement, that desire should be clearly stated in the petition (usually a syllabus will be needed to make this determination). It is expected that the student and academic advisor have reviewed the implications of transfer credit with respect to degree requirements such as the residence requirements. Transfer credit is used only in computing the student’s composite GPA. It will not change the student’s degree GPA.

The Faculty Subcommittee on Administration will notify the student of courses approved for transfer and grades required. The student will also be notified if an examination at Lawrence will be required before credit is awarded. The student will be expected to arrange for the appropriate documentation to be sent to Lawrence upon the completion of the work (see the general rules for transfer credit above). Grade reports or transcripts submitted by the student will not be accepted.

Completion of the language competency requirement

Students fulfill the language requirement by demonstrating proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing at the level of 200 or above (B.A. or B.A./B.Mus.) or 102 or above (B.Mus.) or the equivalent. For classical languages (Latin or Ancient Greek), students must demonstrate proficiency only in reading and writing. Students with previous language study or experience, including native speakers of languages other than English, may demonstrate proficiency in any of the ways described below.

Coursework or Examinations in Languages Taught at Lawrence

  • Students may begin or continue language study at Lawrence and fulfill the requirement by completing a course at the level of 200 or above (B.A. or B.A./B.Mus.) or 102 or above (B.Mus.).
  • Students may participate in certain affiliated off-campus programs with language components and fulfill the requirement by completing a course at the appropriate level. A list of programs with qualifying courses is available through the off-campus programs office.
  • Students may fulfill the requirement by passing the Lawrence University proficiency examination in a language other than English at the appropriate level. The language department will determine placement and whether the language competency general education requirement is satisfied. Degree credit is not awarded for these examinations.
  • Students may fulfill the requirement by obtaining a score of 4 or 5 on the College Board Advanced Placement Examination or a score of 6 or above on an International Baccalaureate Examination in a language other than English at the high level. This option carries credit equivalent to one six-unit course.
  • For Spanish only, students may fulfill the requirement by obtaining a score of 630 or higher on the SAT II Spanish or Spanish with Listening exam or by presenting documentation for CLEP credits in Spanish: four CLEP semesters (B.A. or B.A./B.Mus.) or two CLEP semesters (B.Mus.). This option carries no academic credit.

Coursework or Examinations in Languages Not Taught at Lawrence

Students who have studied a language other than those taught at Lawrence, including students who have participated in an affiliated off-campus program with a language component, may use this language to fulfill the requirement by demonstrating proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing at the level of 200 or above (B.A.) or 102 or above (B.Mus.). For non-written languages, students must demonstrate proficiency only in listening and speaking. Proficiency may be demonstrated in any of the following ways:

  • By completing equivalent coursework at the appropriate level. Courses may be taken at another institution and transferred to Lawrence. Students should check with the registrar to make sure that a course will transfer for credit and with the chair of the language coalition to make sure that it will satisfy the general education requirement.
  • By taking and passing a proficiency examination in the language. This process may be facilitated locally by the chair of the language coalition. Where proficiency examinations are not available locally, students may petition to use another form of evaluation administered and certified by an outside authority who will (a) identify that authority’s expertise in the language, (b) describe the methods by which the authority assessed the proficiency of the student, and (c) provide a diagnostic report on the level of proficiency the student has obtained in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Students should contact the chair of the language coalition for help preparing the petition and confirming the acceptability of the outside authority.

Additional Options for Native Speakers of Languages Other than English

Students who are native speakers of a language other than English have additional options for fulfilling the language requirement. For written languages, students must demonstrate proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. For non-written languages, students must demonstrate proficiency only in listening and speaking. To satisfy the university’s language requirement, the language must be a natural language that is natively spoken (or signed) by one or more linguistic communities. Students should submit the necessary documentation by the end of the freshman year (or the first year for transfer students).

Review of documentation, arrangement for testing, approval of outside courses, and certification of satisfying the language competency requirement are under the purview of the language coalition, a coalition of the language departments at Lawrence. Contact the chair of the language coalition for assistance (see below).

  • The language requirement will be waived for international students whose high school program was conducted in a language other than English. The student must provide documentation (such as a high school diploma) to verify that this was the case.
  • If the student’s high school program was conducted primarily in English, the student must demonstrate proficiency in the native language in another way. For languages in which proficiency cannot be assessed by a Lawrence faculty member, students must provide a letter from a person in authority (such as a headmaster or teacher) along with relevant documentation attesting to the student’s language proficiency. The letter or documentation may not be from a family member or relative of the student. Students should contact the chair of the language coalition for help providing suitable documentation to meet the requirement.

Review of documentation, arrangement for testing, approval of outside courses, and certification of satisfying the language competency requirement are under the purview of the language coalition, a coalition of the language departments at Lawrence. Contact the chair of the language coalition for assistance.

2017-18 chair of the language coalition: Dominica Chang, Department of French & Francophone Studies

Academic progress

Expectations for Academic Progress

Lawrence University normally expects students to complete their work toward graduation in four years (or five years in the case of students in the B.A./B.Mus. double-degree program). At the time of matriculation, the university determines the class standing of each student on the basis of transfer and advanced placement credits, if any, accepted by Lawrence. Thereafter, the number of credits earned at Lawrence and the degree grade-point average determine a student’s academic progress.

Generally, full-time students are expected to progress toward graduation according to the following guidelines. At the end of the freshman year, or three terms, a student should have completed at least 48 units and have a minimum degree GPA of 1.833. At the end of the sophomore year, or six terms, a student should have completed at least 102 units and have a minimum degree GPA of 2.000. Students who do not meet these guidelines or who receive failing grades or other indications of unsatisfactory progress may be warned, placed on academic probation or strict probation, suspended, or required to withdraw from the university. Academic performance in December Term will not change a student's academic standing, though the December Term course grade will be included in a student's grade point average, which could affect academic standing in subsequent terms.

Students must be in good academic standing to participate in off-campus programs sponsored by Lawrence, the Associated Colleges of the Midwest or other organizations with which Lawrence has consortial agreements. Students placed on strict probation are not eligible to participate in either extracurricular performances or sports (varsity, junior-varsity or club), nor may they hold a position of responsibility, elected or volunteer, in any Lawrence University Community Council-sanctioned activity or Greek organization. The spirit of this eligibility restriction is to limit any significant extracurricular activity but not necessarily to eliminate nominal participation, such as attendance at a meeting.

Additional information on policies governing academic progress and standing is contained in “Guidelines for Academic Action,” which may be obtained from the Center for Academic Success.

Leaves of Absence and Withdrawal

A student who wishes to leave the university for any reason should request a leave of absence or withdrawal by completing the request form available from the Center for Academic Success. The dean of academic success, using faculty legislation, will review the request and, upon its approval, will notify all appropriate university offices. A student who has not been attending classes and has not responded to communications from university offices may be placed on leave by the university.

A student granted a leave is expected to return at the end of the leave (and may return earlier) or to request an extension before the leave expires. Any student who does not do so is withdrawn from the university. Any student who, without a leave of absence, terminates enrollment at Lawrence or in a Lawrence-sponsored program is withdrawn from the university. A student who has been withdrawn must petition to be readmitted. A student placed on leave by the university will be expected to address the problems that led to the leave before returning to continue a course of study.

Petitions for readmission are reviewed by the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration. The petition should include a clear and detailed explanation of why the student terminated enrollment or overstayed a leave of absence, what academic or other worthwhile activities occupied the student while withdrawn from the university, and why the student wants to be readmitted.

A student who does not follow these procedures for a leave or a withdrawal or who fails to meet refund deadlines may forfeit the continuing-enrollment deposit.

Transfer Between Degree Programs

Students who find that their interests have changed may apply to transfer to a different degree program within the university. An application for transfer is made as a petition for admission to the intended program. B.Mus. students who wish to transfer to the B.A. degree program should direct their petitions to the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration. B.A. students who wish to transfer to the B.Mus. degree program should direct their petitions to the Conservatory Committee on Administration.

Students in the five-year B.A./B.Mus. degree program may drop one of their degrees and move to a single-degree program (either the B.A. or the B.Mus.) by notifying the registrar’s office.

Any student considering transferring to a different degree program should, at a minimum, consult with his or her advisor, the dean of the conservatory, and the dean of academic success in order to assess the consequences of such a move. A petition for transfer should not only speak to the reasons for the change but also present a plan for completing the requirements of the new degree program. In the case of transfer to the B.Mus. degree program, an audition or other qualifying examination may be required. Students who transfer to a different program after their second year of study usually will need to extend the time required for completion of their degrees.

Conferring of Degrees and Graduation

Lawrence confers degrees at the end of the Fall and Spring Terms each year but holds its Commencement only once, in June. Degrees are not conferred automatically. Students must apply for graduation by completing an application distributed by the registrar’s office. Receipt of a completed graduation application initiates a review of the student’s academic record for completion of degree requirements. All grades, official transcripts, and other certifying documents, such as the major-completion form, must be filed at the registrar’s office before a degree can be awarded. Students enrolled in the five-year B.A./B.Mus. program must complete all program requirements before receiving either degree.

Once a degree is conferred, a student may not apply additional credit to that degree.

Participation in Commencement is a privilege earned by students who complete degree requirements. Students who expect to finish and receive their degrees by the end of the calendar year may petition to participate in Commencement the June before their degree is conferred. Petitions to participate in Commencement must be submitted to the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration no later than April 15.

When a degree is conferred, a citation is posted to the student's record noting the date and nature of the degree awarded. This information will be included in all transcripts requested after the degree date. Diplomas are printed once each year and distributed at Commencement in June. Official transcripts, diplomas, and letters certifying completion of all requirements will be released only for students whose accounts with Financial Services are clear.

Honors

Dean's List

The Dean’s List is an annual honor roll of students demonstrating exemplary academic performance. The list is compiled at the end of June after Term III grades have been posted. To be included on the Dean’s List a student’s record must meet the following qualifications:

  • The student must have earned a 3.400 GPA for the year in all A-F graded courses.
  • The student must have earned at least 36 units in A-F graded courses during the year.
  • The student must have no unsatisfactory grades (U, D+,?D,?D-, or F) in courses taken during the year.
  • The student must have no grades of I or NR, except where the NR is due to a faculty member’s not turning in grades for the course.

Honors at Graduation

The faculty of Lawrence University grants honors at graduation both to encourage students to do superior academic work and to recognize superior performance. Honors in Course and Honors in Independent Study recognize two distinctive kinds of academic achievement; some students each year receive both types of honors. Students who have distinguished themselves in fulfilling the requirements for the bachelor’s degree are awarded Honors in Course, primarily on the basis of their cumulative grade-point averages, while those who have completed significant independent projects may submit their work for evaluation for Honors in Independent Study. Both types of honors are indicated in the Commencement program and on official transcripts, and both are granted in three grades—cum laude, magna cum laude and summa cum laude—by vote of the faculty acting on the recommendation of the university Committee on Honors.

Honors in Course

Performance in courses taken at Lawrence or as part of Lawrence-approved off-campus programs (degree GPA), as well as a student’s entire academic record (composite GPA), determines a student’s eligibility to receive honors. The committee uses as guidelines the following grade-point averages:

  • 3.40 to 3.69 for cum laude
  • 3.70 to 3.89 for magna cum laude
  • 3.90 to 4.00 for summa cum laude

Honors in Course are not awarded automatically, however. The committee examines all students’ records individually and recognizes that in certain situations cumulative averages are not accurate measures of a student’s achievements in course. If, for example, a student has taken an unusually large number of courses on a S/U basis, has completed an unusual student-designed major or has performed with distinction on a departmental examination, the committee may consider departmental or committee evaluations and other relevant data.

Students who transfer from other colleges or universities, as well as students who undertake virtually all of their coursework at Lawrence, qualify for Honors in Course on the same basis. Students normally must achieve the stated guidelines in both the degree GPA and the composite GPA to qualify for a given level of honors.

Honors in Independent Study

Students may also earn honors at graduation through the successful completion of an honors project (see "Honors Projects" in Student-Initiated Courses.)

Petitions for exceptions to academic regulations

University regulations govern the academic progress of students, the welfare of the community, and the equitable and orderly conduct of university affairs. On occasion, however, individual circumstances may warrant exceptions to established regulations, and students may petition the appropriate officer of the university or university committee for such exceptions.

  • Petitions for exceptions to social regulations should be directed to the dean of students.
  • Petitions for exceptions to academic regulations should be directed to the Faculty Subcommittee on Administration via the registrar or dean of academic success.
  • Petitions for exceptions to conservatory requirements should be directed to the dean of the conservatory.
  • Petitions concerning business affairs should be directed to the vice president for finance and administration.

Petitions will be reviewed by the appropriate entity and decisions communicated to the petitioning students. In the specific case of corrections to class registration (dropping or adding a class), petitions must be submitted by the end of the academic term immediately following the term for which a class registration correction is being requested. Petitions to add a class as an overload will not be accepted after the course withdrawal deadline, which is the Friday of the eighth week of the term in which the course was taken.

Petitions should contain a clear and detailed statement of the exception requested and the reasons for the request, including extenuating circumstances (accident, illness, family emergency, etc.). Students should review petitions with faculty advisors and others who may be involved, such as instructors, department chairs or deans, and seek their approval. Petitions for exceptions to academic regulations must contain the signature of the student’s advisor(s) and, depending on the exception requested, the instructor’s or department chair’s signature may also be required.

Any appeals of academic decisions should be directed to the provost, who is the chief academic officer of the university.

Grievance Procedure

The grievance procedure is a way to address concerns that are not covered by other university processes (academic petitions, honor council or judicial board hearings, or complaints of sexual misconduct or employee discrimination). If you have a concern about the actions or lack of action of another member of the Lawrence community, you should follow the procedure below.

  1. Discussion

    Where possible, discuss the concern with the other person to seek a mutually acceptable resolution. If you feel uncomfortable or unsafe doing so, proceed to #2 or 3.

  2. Consultation/mediation

    Seek counsel from a supervisor, advisor, residence hall director or residence life advisor, counselor, dean, colleague, etc., who may suggest possible solutions, refer you to a university procedure for addressing this type of concern, or act as an informal mediator to help resolve the dispute.

  3. Formal review

    If the matter remains unresolved, request a formal review by the appropriate university authority:

    • vice president for student affairs for a concern about a student’s actions;
    • provost and dean of the faculty for a concern about a faculty member’s actions; or
    • vice president for finance and administration for a concern about a staff member’s actions.

    To call for a formal review, send the university authority a written statement of the concern and any action taken to resolve it. The preferred way to receive a grievance is by email with “grievance” in the subject line.

    The authority will acknowledge receipt of the grievance within two weeks and will work to resolve the matter as quickly as possible. The authority may guide the party to an applicable university procedure or investigate the matter by:

    1. sharing the statement with the other party and asking for a written response;
    2. seeking additional information from one or both parties or from others who have knowledge of the dispute; and
    3. consulting sources on university procedures and regulations or seeking advice from appropriate counsel.

    On the basis of this information, the authority will determine whether either party acted inappropriately and what corrective action needs to be taken. If the authority determines that the situation is not a matter for university governance, the authority may recommend actions, but neither party is bound to act on those recommendations. The authority’s written decision and directives or recommendations will be sent to both parties, preferably by email.

  4. Appeal

    If the authority’s decision does not resolve the matter, you or the other party may request that a panel hear the grievance. To call for a panel, send the authority a written statement of your reason for the appeal and your willingness to abide by the panel’s decision. The preferred way to receive an appeal is by email with “appeal” in the subject line.

    The authority will acknowledge receipt of the appeal within two weeks and will compose a panel to hear the grievance. The university authority will ask you and the other party each to submit the names of three faculty or staff members. The authority will select one person from each list and name a third person to the panel. If either party to the grievance is a student, the third person will be a student member of the judicial board who has no involvement with the dispute; otherwise, the third person will be a member of the faculty or staff. The authority will designate one panel member as chair.

    The panel will be given all written statements related to the grievance, including the university authority’s decision and directives or recommendations. The panel may interview any or all parties and others with knowledge related to the dispute. On the basis of this information, the panel will render its decision, preferably by consensus but otherwise by majority vote. The panel’s written decision will be sent to both parties and the university authority, preferably by email. All parties are expected to abide by that decision.

    While the grievance procedure is meant to resolve disagreements that affect members of the Lawrence community, it may not be possible to solve a problem to everyone’s satisfaction. The university expressly forbids any retaliation or threat of retaliation for filing a grievance, and any party that fails to follow the directives of the university authority or grievance panel will be subject to disciplinary action. This ensures that the process can lead to a genuine resolution.

Admission

Admission to the university

Lawrence admits students whose talents and aspirations match well with what the university has to offer and who will contribute to our academic and residential community. Strong candidates for admission have taken at least 16 academic units from the areas of English, mathematics, history, social studies, natural sciences, and foreign languages. We are interested in students who have challenged themselves in high school, who have performed well in their academic work, who express themselves well both verbally and in writing, who understand the value of a liberal arts education, and who are imaginative, energetic, and willing to become active members of a learning community.

Lawrence considers the strength of each applicant’s course of study, grades, recommendations and extracurricular activities, roughly in that order. Lawrence will consider, but does not require, SAT or ACT scores for admission.

Note: International students whose primary language is not English must submit the results of the ACT, SAT, IELTS (International English Language Testing System), or the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language).

Candidates for the Bachelor of Music degree and for the five-year double-degree program are evaluated additionally on musicianship, musical background, performance potential, and music teachers’ recommendations. Along with the regular application forms, music degree applicants must submit a music resume and a recommendation from a private music teacher, and must audition on their primary instrument.

We welcome applications from transfer students who wish to complete their degree at Lawrence. Transfer candidates are required to submit college transcripts and a college faculty recommendation along with the application, secondary school report, and final high school transcript. Lawrence accepts, but does not require, SAT or ACT scores for transfer admission. Transfer candidates for the music degree must also submit a music resume and a recommendation from a music teacher, and must audition on their primary instrument. Generally, coursework in the arts and sciences completed satisfactorily at accredited institutions is accepted toward a Lawrence degree.

For information on residence requirements for each degree program please see Residence Requirements.

On occasion, Lawrence accepts qualified applicants for early admission who are prepared to begin college at the end of the junior year of high school.

Application deadlines

There are four application deadlines for first-year students planning to enroll in September.

Early Decision: October 31 (notification December 1)
Early Action I: November 1 (notification December 15)
Early Action II: December 1 (notification January 25)
Regular Decision: January 15 (notification April 1)

Students admitted through Early Decision are expected to enroll at Lawrence and to submit their enrollment deposit by December 15. All other admitted students have until the May 1 National Candidates Reply Date to choose to accept or decline Lawrence’s offer of admission.

Transfer admission is competitive and offered on a space-available basis. We consider transfer students for admission to any of our three terms, though we generally discourage midyear transfers from students who are currently enrolled in their first term at another college.

Fall Term: Rolling admission with a July 1 priority deadline
Winter Term: November 1 (notification November 15)
Spring Term: February 1 (notification February 15)

Tuition, Fees and Financial Assistance

Overload fees

Effective for new admits and transfers admitted for Fall 2012 or any term thereafter.

Students who are degree-seeking and are registered for more than 22 units (excluding music ensembles) in an academic term will be charged additional tuition. $1,273 per unit is the fee charged for academic year 2017–18. The per-unit fee is waived for 23-24 units for the first overload only (the fee is still charged for 25 units or more) so that every eligible student may overload once up to 24 units at no additional cost.

Students who are non-degree seeking and are registered for more than 22 units in an academic term will be charged additional tuition. $1,273 per unit is the fee charged for academic year 2017–18. Music ensembles will not be excluded from the unit calculation as they are for degree-seeking students. Non-degree-seeking students are not eligible for a fee waiver for any overload.

Tuition is charged for courses in which the student is officially registered, regardless of attendance or final grade. Overload fees will be charged based on a student’s official registration for the term (attempted units). Failure to successfully complete and earn credit for all registered courses will not cancel or modify any overload fees that have been assessed.

For information on eligibility to overload, see "overloads/underloads" under Academic Procedures and Regulations.

Housing deposit

Continuing students are required to pay a non-refundable $200 housing deposit to secure their housing contract for any/all term(s) in the next academic year. The housing deposit is due at the start of the third week of Spring Term of each year and will be applied to the student’s account for the first term they are on campus in the next academic year. The deposit must be made in order for students to participate in housing selection for the upcoming year.

The deposit is refundable only under the following circumstances:

  1. A student is not progressing academically and is required to withdraw by the university
  2. A student is required to withdraw by the action of the Dean of Students or designee, Judicial Board or Honor Council

Other fees and costs

  • 13th-term student teaching fee: $1,204 for Lawrence undergraduates who have met all other graduation requirements (see Education)
  • Music lesson fee for non-music majors: $300 per term for a half-hour of instruction per week
  • Textbook cost: Approximately $300 per term

A 12% annual-percentage-rate late charge will be assessed on all accounts 30 days past due. A $20 non-refundable charge will be incurred if charges billed directly to students by a department are not paid to that department by their deadline; such charges are then added to a student’s account along with the non-refundable fee (this includes overdue library items and computer mini-hubs).

Note: Medical insurance is not provided for students by the university. A student insurance plan offering accident and sickness coverage is available through a local agent. Details may be obtained from the Dean of Students office.

December Term

December Term courses have separate tuition and fees for room and board. For December 2017, tuition is $1,525, and room and board for on-campus courses is $560. On-campus courses may charge additional fees for travel or supplies. Travel courses charge a program fee for lodging, meals, museums/tours and insurance, and students are responsible for their own airfare to the course location. Tuition is significantly discounted to make the courses affordable, so no additional financial aid is available. 

Room and board

Lawrence University is a residential college, and all students are expected to live on campus throughout their entire enrollment. Exemptions are granted to students who have been Lawrence students for four academic years, students beginning their fifth year or later after high school, married students, students in documented domestic partnerships, or students with dependent children. Students meeting any of these criteria should submit a written request for a housing exemption to the vice president for student affairs and dean of students. Housing charges will be canceled only after reasons are verified. Students must keep the registrar’s office informed of any address or telephone number changes.

Room charges are: double occupancy, $4,989 per three-term year, single occupancy, $5,652 per three-term year. Changes of occupancy will be reflected on the student account as they occur. Residence hall rooms are provided with essential furniture; students must provide their own linens.

All residential students are required to have a board plan. Board plans do not vary in price, only in the balance between meals per term and declining balance monies on the meal card. Students choose the plan that best meets their individual needs and schedules.

Residence halls open for new students on the first day of Welcome Week. Rooms for returning students will be available on the Saturday prior to registration. The first board meal is served on Sunday evening.

The obligations of the university to resident students for room and board cease after breakfast on the day following the last examination at the end of each term or after the last class before each vacation period within a term. In the third term, a 24-hour period after the individual student’s last examination is allowed for packing.

The room and board charge does not include the winter break, or any other period when dining halls or residences are closed. Residence halls will remain available during spring break but the regular board options will not be available. Retail dining options are available in the Warch Campus Center on a reduced operating schedule during breaks.

Bills and payments

Bills are available electronically via CASHNet. Students will be able to access their statements through Voyager. Students are able to grant others access to their student account. These other authorized users will receive login information once they are set up by their student. Monthly statements are generated on or around the 15th of each month. No paper bills will be sent. CASHNet also offers a “dynamic billing” function, which allows students and any authorized user to see live student account balance information and activity. The bill reflects appropriate adjustments for merit awards and financial aid awards based upon receipt of signed Lawrence financial aid awards that have been accepted by a student. Students are responsible for accessing their billing information in CASHNet. Email notifications are sent as a courtesy when billing statements are generated. Not receiving an email notification does not excuse late payments.

At the 7th week of each term, students who have not paid their term fees in full, have no paid term fees as agreed under payment plan, or have not made other payment arrangements will be put on administrative leave for the next term, and all future registration will be removed. They will not be allowed to return until all outstanding fees are paid in full, along with the payment for the upcoming term. Failure to make payment for subsequent terms by the due dates, after being reinstated as a student, will result in an indefinite leave.

Additional charges incurred for course-related items, extracurricular activities, or miscellaneous purchases are due as incurred. Students are expected to pay these obligations when due.

Official transcripts, diplomas, and letters certifying completion of requirements or receipt of a degree will not be released and verbal confirmation of a degree will not be given until all accumulated fees and charges have been paid.

Payment due dates

Fall Term: August 15
Winter Term: December 15
Spring Term: March 15

Refunds

In 1999 Lawrence adopted a refund policy in accordance with the U.S. Department of Education’s 1998 Reauthorization of The Higher Education Amendments (Section 668.22).

Leave of absence or withdrawal before the first day of classes

Full room, board, tuition, activity fee and environmental fee will be refunded upon proper notification of withdrawal or leave of absence prior to the first day of classes for any term. Written notification of leave of absence or withdrawal must be directed to the Associate Dean of Faculty for Student Academic Services. A student who remains on campus after the approved leave of absence or withdrawal date will be charged pro rata for room and board through the date on which they depart, as determined by the dean of students.

Students who fail to notify the university of their decision not to enroll for classes by the date fees for the term are due (see Bills and Payments), will forfeit their housing deposit.

Leave of absence or withdrawal on or after the first day of classes

Students who take a leave of absence or withdraw from the university after classes are in session may qualify for a reduction in certain charges that are due to the university.

A student must request a change in status, including a leave of absence or withdrawal from the Associate Dean of Faculty for Student Academic Services. Students who wish to request this change, or discuss such an option, should make an appointment with the Associate Dean of Faculty for Student Academic Services before completing the required form. If granted permission for a change of status, a student may qualify for a reduction in charges that are due the university.

If a student takes a leave of absence or withdraws prior to or at the 60-percent point of the term, the refund for tuition, room, and board charges will be pro-rated based on the number of calendar days the student was in attendance. A student who remains on campus after the approved leave of absence or withdrawal date will be charged pro rata for room and board through the date on which they depart, as determined by the Vice President for Student Affairs and Dean of Students.

If a student takes a leave of absence or withdraws after the 60-percent point of the term, there will be no refund of tuition, room or board.

Computation of the 60-percent point will be based on the total number of calendar days in the term beginning with the first day of classes and ending with the last day of final examinations. For the 2017–18 academic year, the 60-percent dates are on or after:

Term I: October 23, 2017
Term II: February 12, 2018
Term III: May 7, 2018

A non-refundable $200 withdrawal fee will be assessed each time a student withdraws or takes a leave of absence from the university, unless the leave of absence or withdrawal is before the first day of classes of each term.

Federal, state, institutional, and private financial aid funds (except for earned federal work study funds) awarded to the student will be reduced based on the number of calendar days the student was in attendance up to the 60-percent point of the term. After 60 percent of the term has been completed, financial aid awards will not be adjusted. Further details and examples can be obtained at the Financial Aid Office.

Refunds for students who have withdrawn or taken a leave of absence will not be processed until two weeks after either the last date of attendance or the student’s departure date, whichever is later.

Credit balances

A credit balance on your student account is created when you have funds remaining (either financial aid or personal) after all eligible charges to your student account are paid in full. All credit balances remain on a student’s account and will be applied to future terms within the same academic year unless a student specifically requests a refund. Refund requests should be made to Student Accounts. Students who have requested refund of credit balances can expect to receive their refund approximately three weeks after the start of the term.

We encourage students to enroll online in CASHNet for electronic refunds (eRefund). Refunds will be processed and will be automatically deposited into a checking or savings account. If a student does not enroll in eRefund and thereby chooses to receive their refund via check, a $20 processing fee will be charged to the student’s account. This $20 fee does NOT apply to refunds of parent PLUS loans.

Returning students with a credit balance of more than $200 at the end of the academic year may submit a request in writing to Student Accounts to have their credit balance carried forward to the next academic year. For all other returning students, credit balances of more than $200 that exist at the end of the academic year will be refunded approximately three weeks after the last day of final exams. If the student is enrolled in eRefund, the entire credit will be refunded. If a student chooses to receive their refund via check, only credits greater than $200 will be refunded, minus a $20 check processing fee. Credit balances of less than $200 will be carried forward and applied to the next academic year.

Refunds of credit balances to graduating students will be processed approximately three weeks after graduation.

Academic Calendar

Current Academic Year

Fall Term (Term I) - 2017

September 5 Tuesday

Welcome Week commences
Residence halls open for new students (8 a.m.)

September 8 Friday First class meeting of Freshman Studies
September 8 Friday Final advance registration for new students
September 9 Saturday Residence halls open for returning students
September 11 Monday First day of fall term classes
September 11-22   Registration & class change period
September 22 Friday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for fall term classes
October 19-22 Thursday-Sunday Mid-term reading period
November 3 Friday Last day to withdraw from a fall term class
November 16 Thursday Last day of fall term classes
November 17-18 Friday-Saturday Reading period
November 19-21 Sunday-Tuesday Final examinations
November 22 Wednesday Residence halls close (noon)

December Term (D-Term) - 2017

November 26 Sunday Residence halls open (9 a.m.)
November 27 Monday First day of D-Term classes
November 28 Tuesday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for D-Term classes
December 6 Wednesday Last day to withdraw from a D-Term class
December 8 Friday Last day of D-Term classes and final examinations
December 9-10 Saturday-Sunday Closing event, if one is scheduled for the class
December 10 Sunday Residence halls close (6 p.m.)

Winter Term (Term II) - 2018

January 2 Tuesday Residence halls open (9 a.m.)
January 3 Wednesday First day of winter term classes
January 3-17   Registration & class change period
January 15 Monday Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (no classes)
January 17 Wednesday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for winter term classes
February 8-11 Thursday-Sunday Mid-term reading period
February 23 Friday Last day to withdraw from a winter term class
March 9 Friday Last day of winter term classes
March 10-11 Saturday-Sunday Reading period
March 12-14 Monday-Wednesday Final examinations
March 15 Thursday Residence halls close (noon)

Spring Term (Term III) - 2018

March 25 Sunday Residence halls open (9 a.m.)
March 26 Monday First day of spring term classes
March 26-April 6   Registration & class change period
April 6 Friday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for spring term classes
May 3-6 Thursday-Sunday Mid-term reading period
May 18 Friday Last day to withdraw from a spring term class
May 28 Monday Memorial Day (no classes)
June 1 Friday Last day of spring term classes
June 2-3 Saturday-Sunday Reading period
June 4-6 Monday-Wednesday Final examinations
June 7 Thursday Residence halls close for underclassmen (noon)
June 10 Sunday Commencement
June 10 Sunday Residence halls close for seniors (6 p.m.)

Next Academic Year

Fall Term (Term I) - 2018

September 4 Tuesday

Welcome Week commences
Residence halls open for new students (8 a.m.)

September 7 Friday First class meeting of Freshman Studies
September 7 Friday Final advance registration for new students
September 8 Saturday Residence halls open for returning students
September 11 Tuesday First day of fall term classes
September 11-17   Registration & class change period
September 17 Monday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for fall term classes
October 18-21 Thursday-Sunday Mid-term reading period
November 2 Friday Last day to withdraw from a fall term class
November 15 Thursday Last day of fall term classes
November 16-17 Friday-Saturday Reading period
November 18-20 Sunday-Tuesday Final examinations
November 21 Wednesday Residence halls close (noon)

December Term (D-Term) - 2018

November 25 Sunday Residence halls open (9 a.m.)
November 26 Monday First day of D-Term classes
November 26 Monday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for D-Term classes
December 5 Wednesday Last day to withdraw from a D-Term class
December 7 Friday Last day of D-Term classes and final examinations
December 8-9 Saturday-Sunday Closing event, if one is scheduled for the class
December 9 Sunday Residence halls close (6 p.m.)

Winter Term (Term II) - 2019

January 2 Wednesday Residence halls open (9 a.m.)
January 3 Thursday First day of winter term classes
January 3-9   Registration & class change period
January 9 Thursday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for winter term classes
January 21 Monday Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (no classes)
February 7-10 Thursday-Sunday Mid-term reading period
February 22 Friday Last day to withdraw from a winter term class
March 8 Friday Last day of winter term classes
March 9-10 Saturday-Sunday Reading period
March 11-13 Monday-Wednesday Final examinations
March 14 Thursday Residence halls close (noon)

Spring Term (Term III) - 2019

March 24 Sunday Residence halls open (9 a.m.)
March 25 Monday First day of spring term classes
March 25-29   Registration & class change period
March 29 Friday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for spring term classes
May 2-5 Thursday-Sunday Mid-term reading period
May 17 Friday Last day to withdraw from a spring term class
May 27 Monday Memorial Day (no classes)
May 31 Friday Last day of spring term classes
June 1-2 Saturday-Sunday Reading period
June 3-5 Monday-Wednesday Final examinations
June 6 Thursday Residence halls close for underclassmen (noon)
June 9 Sunday Commencement
June 9 Sunday Residence halls close for seniors (6 p.m.)

Errata

Catalog Errata

Academic Calendar - Current Year

  • Fall Term
    • Edited for clarity: Last day to withdraw from fall term classes → Last day to withdraw from a fall term class
  • D-Term
    • Edited for clarity: Last day to withdraw from D-Term classes → Last day to withdraw from a D-Term class
  • Winter Term
    • Edited for clarity: Last day to withdraw from winter term classes → Last day to withdraw from a winter term class
  • Spring Term
    • Edited for clarity: Last day to withdraw from spring term classes → Last day to withdraw from a spring term class

Academic Calendar - Next Year

  • Fall Term
    • Date changed: September 11-24 Registration & class change period → September 11-17 Registration & class change period
    • Date changed: September 24 Monday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for fall term classes → September 17 Monday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for fall term classes
    • Edited for clarity: Last day to withdraw from fall term classes → Last day to withdraw from a fall term class
  • D-Term
    • Date changed: November 27 Tuesday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for D-Term classes → November 26 Monday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for D-Term classes
    • Edited for clarity: Last day to withdraw from D-Term classes → Last day to withdraw from a D-Term class
  • Winter Term
    • Date changed: January 3-17 Registration & class change period → January 3-9 Registration & class change period
    • Corrected date: January 14 Monday Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (no classes) → January 21 Monday Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (no classes)
    • Date changed: January 17 Thursday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for winter term classes → January 9 Thursday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for winter term classes
    • Edited for clarity: Last day to withdraw from winter term classes → Last day to withdraw from a winter term class
  • Spring Term
    • Date changed: March 25-April 5 Registration & class change period → March 25-29 Registration & class change period
    • Date changed: April 5 Friday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for spring term classes → March 29 Friday Last day to make class changes or select the S/U option for spring term classes
    • Edited for clarity: Last day to withdraw from spring term classes → Last day to withdraw from a spring term class

CLAS - Classics

  • Teacher Certification in Latin
    • Corrected typo: Teacher Ceritifcation in Latin (K-12) → Teacher Certification in Latin (K-12)

COSC - Cognitive Science

  • Requirements for the minor in cognitive science
    • Corrected course number: PHIL 310 → PHIL 330

ENG - English

  • Required for the English major
    • One course focusing on the nineteenth century
      • Added ENG 478.
    • One course focusing on the twentieth or twenty-first centuries
      • Added ENG 506.
    • Clarified required cultural traditions categories for requirements 2-6.
  • Cultural traditions categories for the major
    • American
      • Added ENG 478 and ENG 506.
    • African American
      • Added ENG 478 and ENG 506.

ENST - Environmental Studies

  • Teacher Certification in Environmental Science or Broad-Field Science
    • Corrected typo: Teacher Ceritifcation in Environmental Science or Broad-Field Science → Teacher Certification in Environmental Science or Broad-Field Science

GOVT - Government

  • Off-campus study
    • Corrected link to Washington Semester off-campus study program.

Off-Campus Programs

  • Application evaluation and eligibility criteria
    • Added line: In exceptional circumstances, final determination of eligibility will be made by the Committee on Off-Campus Programs.

Academic Procedures and Regulations

  • Academic responsibilities
    • Confidentiality of Student Records
      • Corrected typo: Confidentiality of Students Records → Confidentiality of Student Records
  • Term system and course loads
    • Overloads/Underloads
      • Edited for clarity.
  • Courses
    • Withdrawing From a Course
      • Updated to incorporate new class change period time frames.
  • Honors
    • Honors in Course
      • Duplicate GPA/honor definition list removed.

 

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